gyratory crusher cara kerja - indonesia penghancur

gyratory crusher cara kerja - indonesia penghancur

Ini adalah daftar solusi tentang gyratory crusher cara kerja, dan ada tombol obrolan yang Anda dapat menghubungi yang sesuai solusi expert.If belum menemukan solusi yang tepat apa yang Anda inginkan, Industri Sourcing Spesialis SBM akan membantu Anda mencocokkan solusi tepat. cara kerja gyratory crusher in korea

cara kerja gyratory crusher in korea

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perawatan gyratory crusher | jual kawat las merk edzona | jawa tengah

perawatan gyratory crusher | jual kawat las merk edzona | jawa tengah

Crusher yang berfingsi sebagai alat pemecah benda keras dengan menghasilkan ukuran yang lebih kecil dengan spesifikasi yang telah diinginkan. Crusher juga memiliki saringan atau screen untuk memisahkan jenis pecahan. Jenis-jenis crusher memiliki beberapa bagian, yaitu crusher primer, crusher sekunder, dan crusher tersier. Setelah benda di hancurkan dalam crusher, dimasukan kedalam crusher primer. Hasil dari crusher primer dimasukan kedalam sekunder untuk mendapatkan hasil yang diinginkan. Bila hasil crusher sekunder belum memenuhi spesifikasi yang ditetapkan maka batuan diolah kembali di crusher tersier dan seterusnya. Peralatan penghancur zat padat dibagi atas mesin pemecah (crusher)mesin giling (grinder), mesin giling ultrahalus (ultrafine grinder) dan mesin potong (cutting machine) . Mesin pemecah bertugas melakukan kerja berat memecah bongkah bongkah besar menjadi kepingan-kepingan kecil. Mesin pemecah primer digunakan untuk mengerjakan bahan mentah hasil tambang dan dapat menampung segala macam yang keluar dari muka tambang dan memecahkannya menjadi kepingan kepingan antara 6-10inchi. Mesin pemecah sekunder bertugas untuk memecahkan lagi kepingan-kepingan menjadi partikel yang ukurannya, barangkali 0.25 inchi .Untuk pemecah secara komersil dalam ukuran of masses of solids 1 ft atau lebih, berdiameter sampai dengan 200-mesh, setidaknya akan melalui 3 tahapan berdasarkan tipe mesinnya.

Gyratory Crusher diguankan bila diperlukan untuk alay yang mampu menghasilkan produk berkapasitas besar. Operasi atau mekanisme peremukan oleh Gyratory Crusher merupakan full time crushing, dengan arti alat tersebut meremuk bijih selama siklus putarannya. Maka. alat tersebut jauh lebih efisien dibandingkan dengan jaw crsuher. Namun dengan begitu, Gyratory Crusher memiliki biaya modal untuk pemeliharaan yang besar.

Gyratory crusher memliki sumbu tegak, main shaft, tempat terpasangnya peremuk yang disebut mantle atau head, yang dugantung pada spider. Sumbu tegak diputar secara eccentric dari bagian bawah, eccentric sleeve, mengakibatkan suatu gerakan berputar mantle selalu mendekat ke arah shell. Mantle berada dalam shell yang berbentuk kerucut membesar ke atas, sehingga membentuk rongga remuk, crushing chamber anatara concave atau shell dengan mantle.

Mantle bersama sumbu etgak bergerak secara gyratory dan memberi gaya kompresi ke arah shell. Gaya kompresi ini akan meremuk bijih dalam rongga remuk. Permukaan bijih hanya terjadi ketika bijih dikenai gaya kompresi. Oleh karena itu peremukan ini disebut arrested crushing. setelah remuk bijih turun secara gravity. Gyratory crusher melakukan peremukan selama ciklus putarannya. Jadi setiap saat, mantle bergerak ke arah shell, setiap saat mantle memberikan gaya kompresi terhadap biji yang berada dalam rongga remuk. Mekanisme peremukan ini disebut sebagi full time crushing.

Gyratory crusher tidak memerlukan feeder sebagai pengumpan bijih yang akan masuk. Bijih dapat ditaruh dengan cara ditumpuk di atasnnya. Hal ini berbeda dengan jaw crusher yang sangat tergantung pada feegder untuk pengatur laju bijih yang akan masuk ke dalam crusher.

Untuk mendapatkan perawatan yang baik untuk mesin gyratory crusher Anda, kami memiliki berbagai type kawat las yang cocok untuk mesin Gyrarory Crusher Anda. Untuk mengetahui produk kami cek pada https://kawatlas.jayamanunggal.com/kawat-las-hardfacing/ | Pemesanan melalui email kami : [email protected] | Telp. (024) 674 7333 | Konsultasi ??? GRATIS

gyratory crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

gyratory crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Gyratory crushers were invented by Charles Brown in 1877 and developed by Gates around 1881 and were referred to as a Gates crusher [1]. The smaller form is described as a cone crusher. The larger crushers are normally known as primary crushers as they are designed to receive run-on-mine (ROM) rocks directly from the mines. The gyratory crushers crush to reduce the size by a maximum of about one-tenth its size. Usually, metallurgical operations require greater size reduction; hence, the products from the primary crushers are conveyed to secondary or cone crushers where further reduction in size takes place. Here, the maximum reduction ratio is about 8:1. In some cases, installation of a tertiary crusher is required where the maximum reduction is about 10:1. The secondary crushers are also designed on the principle of gyratory crushing, but the construction details vary.

Similar to jaw crushers, the mechanism of size reduction in gyratory crushers is primarily by the compressive action of two pieces of steel against the rock. As the distance between the two plates decreases continuous size reduction takes place. Gyratory crushers tolerate a variety of shapes of feed particles, including slabby rock, which are not readily accepted in jaw crushers because of the shape of the feed opening.

The gyratory crusher shown in Figure 2.6 employs a crushing head, in the form of a truncated cone, mounted on a shaft, the upper end of which is held in a flexible bearing, whilst the lower end is driven eccentrically so as to describe a circle. The crushing action takes place round the whole of the cone and, since the maximum movement is at the bottom, the characteristics of the machine are similar to those of the Stag crusher. As the crusher is continuous in action, the fluctuations in the stresses are smaller than in jaw crushers and the power consumption is lower. This unit has a large capacity per unit area of grinding surface, particularly if it is used to produce a small size reduction. It does not, however, take such a large size of feed as a jaw crusher, although it gives a rather finer and more uniform product. Because the capital cost is high, the crusher is suitable only where large quantities of material are to be handled.

However, the gyratory crusher is sensitive to jamming if it is fed with a sticky or moist product loaded with fines. This inconvenience is less sensitive with a single-effect jaw crusher because mutual sliding of grinding surfaces promotes the release of a product that adheres to surfaces.

The profile of active surfaces could be curved and studied as a function of the product in a way to allow for work performed at a constant volume and, as a result, a higher reduction ratio that could reach 20. Inversely, at a given reduction ratio, effective streamlining could increase the capacity by 30%.

Maintenance of the wear components in both gyratory and cone crushers is one of the major operating costs. Wear monitoring is possible using a Faro Arm (Figure 6.10), which is a portable coordinate measurement machine. Ultrasonic profiling is also used. A more advanced system using a laser scanner tool to profile the mantle and concave produces a 3D image of the crushing chamber (Erikson, 2014). Some of the benefits of the liner profiling systems include: improved prediction of mantle and concave liner replacement; identifying asymmetric and high wear areas; measurement of open and closed side settings; and quantifying wear life with competing liner alloys.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100mm. They are classified as jaw, gyratory, and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear, and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake. A Fritsch jaw crusher with maximal feed size 95mm, final fineness (depends on gap setting) 0.315mm, and maximal continuous throughput 250Kg/h is shown in Fig. 2.8.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes. Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor. Crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough to pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of the product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure, forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions. A design for a hammer crusher (Fig. 2.9) essentially allows a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, the circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A and B zones is established and the high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100 mm in size. They are classified as jaw, gyratory and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing of hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes.

Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor and crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around of the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions.

A design for a hammer crusher (Figure 2.6) allows essentially a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A- and B-zones is established and high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Jaw crushers are mainly used as primary crushers to produce material that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stages. The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw. The moving jaw dies are mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion. The jaw dies must be replaced regularly due to wear. Figure 8.1 shows two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is installed on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action of the moving jaw. A double toggle crusher has, basically, two shafts and two toggle plates. The first shaft is a pivoting shaft on the top of the crusher, while the other is an eccentric shaft that drives both toggle plates. The moving jaw has a pure reciprocating motion toward the fixed jaw. The crushing force is doubled compared to single toggle crushers and it can crush very hard ores. The jaw crusher is reliable and robust and therefore quite popular in primary crushing plants. The capacity of jaw crushers is limited, so they are typically used for small or medium projects up to approximately 1600t/h. Vibrating screens are often placed ahead of the jaw crushers to remove undersize material, or scalp the feed, and thereby increase the capacity of the primary crushing operation.

Both cone and gyratory crushers, as shown in Figure 8.2, have an oscillating shaft. The material is crushed in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly. An eccentric shaft rotated by a gear and pinion produces the oscillating movement of the main shaft. The eccentricity causes the cone head to oscillate between the open side setting (o.s.s.) and closed side setting (c.s.s.). In addition to c.s.s., eccentricity is one of the major factors that determine the capacity of gyratory and cone crushers. The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the mantle and bowl liners. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners. This is also called interparticle crushing. The gyratory crushers are equipped with a hydraulic setting adjustment system, which adjusts c.s.s. and thus affects product size distribution. Depending on cone type, the c.s.s. setting can be adjusted in two ways. The first way is by rotating the bowl against the threads so that the vertical position of the outer wear part (concave) is changed. One advantage of this adjustment type is that the liners wear more evenly. Another principle of setting adjustment is by lifting/lowering the main shaft. An advantage of this is that adjustment can be done continuously under load. To optimize operating costs and improve the product shape, as a rule of thumb, it is recommended that cones always be choke-fed, meaning that the cavity should be as full of rock material as possible. This can be easily achieved by using a stockpile or a silo to regulate the inevitable fluctuation of feed material flow. Level monitoring devices that detect the maximum and minimum levels of the material are used to start and stop the feed of material to the crusher as needed.

Primary gyratory crushers are used in the primary crushing stage. Compared to the cone type crusher, a gyratory crusher has a crushing chamber designed to accept feed material of a relatively large size in relation to the mantle diameter. The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has capacities starting from 1200 to above 5000t/h. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Therefore, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.

The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher. The essential difference is that the shorter spindle of the cone crusher is not suspended, as in the gyratory, but is supported in a curved, universal bearing below the gyratory head or cone (Figure 8.2). Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft to a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric assembly has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation. Cone crushers are used for intermediate and fine crushing after primary crushing. The key factor for the performance of a cone type secondary crusher is the profile of the crushing chamber or cavity. Therefore, there is normally a range of standard cavities available for each crusher, to allow selection of the appropriate cavity for the feed material in question.

Depending on the size of the debris, it may either be ready to enter the recycling process or need to be broken down to obtain a product with workable particle sizes, in which case hydraulic breakers mounted on tracked or wheeled excavators are used. In either case, manual sorting of large pieces of steel, wood, plastics and paper may be required, to minimise the degree of contamination of the final product.

The three types of crushers most commonly used for crushing CDW materials are the jaw crusher, the impact crusher and the gyratory crusher (Figure 4.4). A jaw crusher consists of two plates, with one oscillating back and forth against the other at a fixed angle (Figure 4.4(a)) and it is the most widely used in primary crushing stages (Behera etal., 2014). The jaw crusher can withstand large and hard-to-break pieces of reinforced concrete, which would probably cause the other crushing machines to break down. Therefore, the material is initially reduced in jaw crushers before going through any other crushing operation. The particle size reduction depends on the maximum and minimum size of the gap at the plates (Hansen, 2004).

An impact crusher breaks the CDW materials by striking them with a high-speed rotating impact, which imparts a shearing force on the debris (Figure 4.4(b)). Upon reaching the rotor, the debris is caught by steel teeth or hard blades attached to the rotor. These hurl the materials against the breaker plate, smashing them into smaller particle sizes. Impact crushers provide better grain-size distribution of RA for road construction purposes, and they are less sensitive to material that cannot be crushed, such as steel reinforcement.

Generally, jaw and impact crushers exhibit a large reduction factor, defined as the ratio of the particle size of the input to that of the output material. A jaw crusher crushes only a small proportion of the original aggregate particles but an impact crusher crushes mortar and aggregate particles alike and thus generates a higher amount of fine material (OMahony, 1990).

Gyratory crushers work on the same principle as cone crushers (Figure 4.4(c)). These have a gyratory motion driven by an eccentric wheel. These machines will not accept materials with a large particle size and therefore only jaw or impact crushers should be considered as primary crushers. Gyratory and cone crushers are likely to become jammed by fragments that are too large or too heavy. It is recommended that wood and steel be removed as much as possible before dumping CDW into these crushers. Gyratory and cone crushers have advantages such as relatively low energy consumption, a reasonable amount of control over the particle size of the material and production of low amounts of fine particles (Hansen, 2004).

For better control of the aggregate particle size distribution, it is recommended that the CDW should be processed in at least two crushing stages. First, the demolition methodologies used on-site should be able to reduce individual pieces of debris to a size that the primary crusher in the recycling plant can take. This size depends on the opening feed of the primary crusher, which is normally bigger for large stationary plants than for mobile plants. Therefore, the recycling of CDW materials requires careful planning and communication between all parties involved.

A large proportion of the product from the primary crusher can result in small granules with a particle size distribution that may not satisfy the requirements laid down by the customer after having gone through the other crushing stages. Therefore, it should be possible to adjust the opening feed size of the primary crusher, implying that the secondary crusher should have a relatively large capacity. This will allow maximisation of coarse RA production (e.g., the feed size of the primary crusher should be set to reduce material to the largest size that will fit the secondary crusher).

The choice of using multiple crushing stages mainly depends on the desired quality of the final product and the ratio of the amounts of coarse and fine fractions (Yanagi etal., 1998; Nagataki and Iida, 2001; Nagataki etal., 2004; Dosho etal., 1998; Gokce etal., 2011). When recycling concrete, a greater number of crushing processes produces a more spherical material with lower adhered mortar content (Pedro etal., 2015), thus providing a superior quality of material to work with (Lotfi etal., 2017). However, the use of several crushing stages has some negative consequences as well; in addition to costing more, the final product may contain a greater proportion of finer fractions, which may not always be a suitable material.

The first step of physical beneficiation is crushing and grinding the iron ore to its liberation size, the maximum size where individual particles of gangue are separated from the iron minerals. A flow sheet of a typical iron ore crushing and grinding circuit is shown in Figure 1.2.2 (based on Ref. [4]). This type of flow sheet is usually followed when the crude ore contains below 30% iron. The number of steps involved in crushing and grinding depends on various factors such as the hardness of the ore and the level of impurities present [5].

Jaw and gyratory crushers are used for initial size reduction to convert big rocks into small stones. This is generally followed by a cone crusher. A combination of rod mill and ball mills are then used if the ore must be ground below 325 mesh (45m). Instead of grinding the ore dry, slurry is used as feed for rod or ball mills, to avoid dusting. Oversize and undersize materials are separated using a screen; oversize material goes back for further grinding.

Typically, silica is the main gangue mineral that needs to be separated. Iron ore with high-silica content (more than about 2%) is not considered an acceptable feed for most DR processes. This is due to limitations not in the DR process itself, but the usual customer, an EAF steelmaking shop. EAFs are not designed to handle the large amounts of slag that result from using low-grade iron ores, which makes the BF a better choice in this situation. Besides silica, phosphorus, sulfur, and manganese are other impurities that are not desirable in the product and are removed from the crude ore, if economically and technically feasible.

Beneficiation of copper ores is done almost exclusively by selective froth flotation. Flotation entails first attaching fine copper mineral particles to bubbles rising through an orewater pulp and, second, collecting the copper minerals at the top of the pulp as a briefly stable mineralwaterair froth. Noncopper minerals do not attach to the rising bubbles; they are discarded as tailings. The selectivity of the process is controlled by chemical reagents added to the pulp. The process is continuous and it is done on a large scale103 to 105 tonnes of ore feed per day.

Beneficiation is begun with crushing and wet-grinding the ore to typically 10100m. This ensures that the copper mineral grains are for the most part liberated from the worthless minerals. This comminution is carried out with gyratory crushers and rotary grinding mills. The grinding is usually done with hard ore pieces or hard steel balls, sometimes both. The product of crushing and grinding is a waterparticle pulp, comprising 35% solids.

Flotation is done immediately after grindingin fact, some flotation reagents are added to the grinding mills to ensure good mixing and a lengthy conditioning period. The flotation is done in large (10100m3) cells whose principal functions are to provide: clouds of air bubbles to which the copper minerals of the pulp attach; a means of overflowing the resulting bubblecopper mineral froth; and a means of underflowing the unfloated material into the next cell or to the waste tailings area.

Selective attachment of the copper minerals to the rising air bubbles is obtained by coating the particles with a monolayer of collector molecules. These molecules usually have a sulfur atom at one end and a hydrophobic hydrocarbon tail at the other (e.g., potassium amyl xanthate). Other important reagents are: (i) frothers (usually long-chain alcohols) which give a strong but temporary froth; and (ii) depressants (e.g., CaO, NaCN), which prevent noncopper minerals from floating.

gyratory crusher upgrades - metso outotec

gyratory crusher upgrades - metso outotec

Primary gyratory crushers are the initial driving force for the entire mineral processing circuit. Adding extra production capacity here can have significant effects downstream. Over the years, Metso Outotec has introduced many advancements that bring increased speeds, higher installed power and mechanical improvements all designed to provide you with next level production.These features are all available in the Superior MKIII but you can also achieve those same benefits with your previous generation crusher through integrating one or all of our three production upgrade options. View them below.

The Arched Spider geometry changes the available feed opening for better flow of material into the crushing chamber, reducing bridging and increasing productivity. The Super Spider builds further on these improvements by increasing the feed opening.

Increasing the speed and horsepower of the drive motor facilitates higher throughput ability of the crusher. To provide a complete package for long term production, this solution typically involves upgrades to lubrication and cooling systems, along with internal operating parts.

The mainshaft positioning sensor (MPS) probe enables operators to monitor and adjust mainshaft position to compensate for wear parts quickly and efficiently. Data of mainshaft position can be used to determine wear rates along with providing feedback if mainshaft position is dangerously high or low in its operating range.

If your first stage of crushing is not performing, it will have effects throughout all mineral processing stages. This makes reliability a key concern. Metso Outotec has developed five upgrade options that not only minimize wear but also help to ensure a long and productive life for your crusher and its key components. View them below.

The shimmed spider bushing comes standard with more robust metallurgy to stave off wear that can be detrimental to components throughout the crusher. A key feature to the bushing is its shimable design that compensates for wear to the spider bushing bore. This allows for long term operation and planning for future repairs once all shims are removed.

The re-designed pinion bearings are capable of higher load handling as well as increased operating speed. This upgrade brings benefit alone, however it becomes more critical if you are considering a speed or production upgrade in the future.

Through design changes, the crusher mainshaft has undergone numerous updates in geometry and manufacturing methods. This combination of changes have increased the strength of the mainshaft by up to 70%. Increased strength improves long term reliability of your machine for current operation and future production increases.

Over the life of a mine, changes to operation or ore characteristics can lead to the need for increased balance cylinder capacity. Proper balance cylinder capacity keeps internal crusher components in proper alignment during tough crushing events. This allows your machine to continue operating at peak efficiency for reliable long term operation.

As equipment ages, production efficiency and reliability can decline. Proper maintenance is key to reduce the signs of aging to ensure that your production goals are met. Maintenance can be a costly and labor-intensive job, which is why Metso Outotec has engineered six upgrades to simplify and speed up these tasks. View them below.

This solution saves time as you do not need to install concaves during shutdown. Fewer components are being lifted during the outage period, allowing for maintenance to be done in a more controlled and safe environment. During the shutdown, the shells are separated (optionally with hydraulic shell separators), lifted, and replaced with the relined shells. Learn more about Rotable Top Shell >

These easy to install kits allow for faster and safer separation of spider and top shells minimizing needed maintenance manpower during component removal. Hydraulic jacking components are used at each shell separation reducing the downtime for their removal.

Improvements to spider lubrication systems have provided a more maintenance friendly alternative to previous generations. New systems have integrated lubrication level sensing into the spider cavity providing feedback to automatically replenish oil to the spider cavity as needed. Built-in alarms to the system will alert maintenance personnel to potential issues.

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