crushing plant startup sequence & procedure

crushing plant startup sequence & procedure

All the Crushing Plant equipment is interlocked, except for the sump pump, and therefore, the plant must be started from the fine ore bin back. The dust collector and scrubber bottoms pump are interlocked together, and must be started prior to other equipment. The sump pump should be placed in AUTO. The drives should be started in this order:

Normal Crushing Plant Operation After the crushing plant has been brought up to normal operating conditions the operator should attempt to even out the feed to the jaw crusher to the design tonnage of 60 mtph. This is achieved by ensuring that the feed to the crusher maintains an essentially full chamber without ore spilling out. Adjust the speed of the apron feeder with to increase or decrease the feed rate to the jaw crusher and ultimately to the crushing circuit.

The product from both crushers should be visually checked to ensure that each crusher is producing the desired product. If the jaw crusher product increases in size, the cone crusher may become overloaded. Similarly, if the cone crusher product increases in size, the circulating load around the cone crusher will increase, consequently, increasing the load on the cone crusher and decreasing throughput.

The Crushing Plant operator must monitor the cone crusher power draw displayed on the cone crusher ammeter. The ammeter should show no major fluctuations and should read approximately 100 amps. An excessively high power draw on the cone crusher indicates the cone is being overloaded, which may be due to a high feed rate or a blinded screen.

The operator must pay close attention to the cone crusher lube system. A low pressure alarm will sound if there is an abnormally low oil pressure. If this alarm sounds, the crusher will shut down after a timed delay. If the crusher is allowed to operate longer than 2 minutes after the loss of oil pressure, serious damage to the crusher may result. If the pressure gauge indicates pressure above the normal operating pressure, shut down the cone crusher and investigate the problem. Likewise, a high temperature alarm will sound if there is an abnormally high oil temperature in the oil return line. Shutdown the crusher and investigate if the temperature of the oil pipes seems excessive. Low oil pressure or high oil temperature may be caused by several conditions;insufficient oil supply in the lubrication system, a broken oil feed line, oil pump failure or excessive bearing wear in the crusher. Either condition must be thoroughly investigated as to the cause of the alarm.

Although there is no variable control of the beltconveyors in the Crushing Plant, the operator should regularly check conveyor discharge chutes to ensure there is no undue buildup of material. This is especially important if the feedmaterial is clay-like or excessively wet.

The Crushing Plant operator must ensure that the dust scrubber has an adequate supply of reclaim water and monitor flow-meter to ensure that the proper amount of water isbeing recirculated through the scrubber. Under normal conditions, the dust scrubber requires a minimum recirculation of 8 to 10 cubic meters per hour. A lower flowrate will ultimately cause excessive wear on the scrubber and a higher flowrate is a waste of reclaim water and may hinder operation of the grinding circuit.

portable jaw crushers | portable jaw plants | lippmann-milwaukee

portable jaw crushers | portable jaw plants | lippmann-milwaukee

Lippmanns wheel-mounted portable jaw plants provide a durable, high-production jaw crusher on a stout, easy-to-move truck frame. These plants also feature the rugged Lippmann feeder, capable of handling side or rear loading from various types of equipment. Lippmann also offers multiple discharge conveyor configurations, including a front discharge configuration, an extended front discharge configuration, and a side discharge configuration. Combining standard configurations for various applications with a willingness to develop custom solutions for every plant gives each customer the kind of flexibility that translates into success in the field.

conveyor teknocrusher

conveyor teknocrusher

TeknoCrushers Stationary Conveyors are found everywhere from a large stone operation to a small stationary wash plant. These units are custom designed and built to fit seamlessly into your plant. TeknoCrushers range of belt conveyors is designed and manufactured to fully take into account todays production and safety requirements.

All component parts of our conveyors range are manufactured to the highest standards of quality and reliability. Full assembly and adjustment of the head and base elements is carried out in the factory to ensure perfect operation from the start-up.Components the device shown in the pictures:

ekno Crusher company started its activities since 1997 in the field of crushers and other equipment used in crushing and grading lines mining began. Tekno Crusher company having skilled, specialized in the fields of design and engineering, production, quality control and able to meet the needs of large commercial mines in Iran and around the world is crushing and grading.

conveyor parts | screen parts | crusher parts | kemper

conveyor parts | screen parts | crusher parts | kemper

When production matters, count on Kemper Equipment for the parts you need when you need them most! We stock parts to minimize replacement time and provide budgeting flexibility. Kemper carries screen parts, crusher parts, conveyor parts plus wash equipment components for most makes and models of material handling equipment.

difference between standard and short head cone crusher | quarrying & aggregates

difference between standard and short head cone crusher | quarrying & aggregates

Cone crusher can crush hard, medium hard and many types of materials, mainly used for medium and fine crushing of materials. Therefore, the product particle size is more uniform. The crushing cavity of the cone crusher has different design types, each of which is most suitable for a specific application range and material. It can be divided into standard head components and short head components. This article shares the difference between standard head and end cone crusher.

The short-head cone crusher is a modification of the standard-head cone crusher. A special split cone and concave ring are designed. The angle between the head and the concave is smaller and the crushing cavity is more parallel. The more compact chamber makes the short head cone crusher more suitable for crushing smaller size materials. The maximum feed size is 120mm.

The standard cone crusher has a large head angle, coarser discharge and higher output. It is generally placed behind the rough crusher (jaw crusher or gyratory crusher) for medium crushing. The head angle and the size of the discharge port of the short-head cone crusher are relatively small, and a finer product size can be obtained. Generally, the short-head cone crusher is used as a fine crusher and placed after the middle crusher.

small crushing plant operating guide

small crushing plant operating guide

This EXAMPLE SmallCrushing Plant is designed to crush 500 tonnes per day, operating 12 hours per day with an availability of 70%. The Plant will crush run-of-mine material (-16) to 100%, passing 5/8 at a rate of 60 tonnes per hour. Start-stop stations are provided for all equipment in this Plant at the crusher control panel, to facilitate remote control. A jog/stop station is provided locally for maintenance and checking as well as equipment shutdown.This guideis intended to be read in conjunction with the Flowsheet, Piping and Instrument Diagram.

Run-of-mine ore is delivered to the Crushing Plant via mine rail cars or underground mine haulage trucks, and is dumped through a 16xl6 grizzly into a 350 tonnes coarse ore bin. Oversize material on the coarse ore bin grizzly must be manually removed and broken. The broken material can then be fed into the coarse ore bin. The underside of the coarse ore bin opens onto a 42 variable speed apron feeder, on which there must be a continuous pile of ore to prevent fresh ore from falling directly onto the apron feeder. A nuclear level switch is mounted at the coarse ore bin discharge chute to alarm at the crusher control panel and shutdown the apron feeder should the level drop below a predetermined point. The speed of this feeder is controlled by a hand dial located on the door of this drive in the MCC. Once a speed has been set, and conforms to the feed rate of subsequent equipment and incoming material, the speed can be left constant.

Ore from the apron feeder flows over a 3 stationary grizzly, the +3 ore being fed to a 100 HP 24x36 jaw crusher, and the -3 allowed to flow directly to a 24 conveyor. An interlock is provided whereby the apron feeder will stop if the jaw crusher stops, or if the first conveyor stops. This first conveyor (#1) also has other interlocks, as will be described in the following paragraph.

Secondary crushed material from a 150 HP 4 standard cone crusher is also discharged onto conveyor #1. An electronic soft start unit in the crusher MCC section for this drive ramps the voltage to the motor on a start. A warning horn will sound when the conveyor #1 start buttonpushed and the conveyor will start 30 seconds later. A speed switch is located at the tail pulley of conveyor #1. Six pullcord switches, two located at each pulley and two in the centre of the conveyor, immediately shut the drive down should one be pulled in emergency. A plugged chute detector (tilt switch) will stop the motor should the material build up at the discharge. A tramp iron magnet,suspended above the discharge of conveyor #1, is designed to pick up drill steel and other tramp iron, in order to prevent this material from entering the cone crusher. The magnet is locally controlled only, but will alarm at the crusher control panel should its power fail. The magnet is to be swung away from the conveyor prior to shutting it off to prevent the tramp metal from falling back onto the conveyor.

Conveyor #1 discharges onto a second 24 conveyor (#2), which has the speed, plugged chute, and pullcord switches as described for conveyor #1, except that this conveyor has only 4 pullcord switches. In addition to these switches, a metal detector is positioned above the belt to stop the motor and alarm at the crusher control panel upon metal detection. The size of metal pieces to initiate the alarm is adjustable on the detector.

Conveyor #2 discharges onto a 6 X 10 double deck vibrating screen. Oversize material from both screen decks is fed to the cone crusher and recycled back to conveyor #1. Undersize material from the bottom screen, -5/8, is discharged onto a 3rd conveyor, the 24 #3, and conveyed to the 500 tonne live capacity fine ore bin. If either conveyor #3 or the cone crusher shut down, the screen will stop. On shutdown of the screen; subsequent interlocks shut down the plant.

The cone crusher is equipped with its own lubrication system, including two lube pumps one of which must be running prior to the cone crusher drive start. The cone crusher drive will stop if the both lube pumps are stopped. A low pressure switch in the oil feed line will stop the lube pumps on a low oil pressure condition and hence stop the cone crusher after a 1 minute delay. An oil temperature switch and alarm in the oil return line will alarm on a excessively high oil temperature. On shutdown of conveyor #1, the screen will stop; however, the cone crusher will continue to run. A conditional interlock is provided to allow the screen to start without conveyor #1 running, provided the apron feeder and the jaw crusher are stopped. This conditional interlock is to allow for a general start-up of the Crushing Circuit.

A flowsheet wouldgraphically illustrate the interlocks between all the equipment in the Crushing Circuit. Conveyor #3 is similar to conveyor #2 with respect to speed, pull-cord, and plugged chute switches. On a high fine ore bin level the apron feeder is shut down immediately, and after 5-10 minutes (software adjustable) conveyor #3 shuts down, followed by the entire Crushing Circuit, through the respective equipment interlocks. This time lapse should allow for material to empty from all the equipment in the Crushing Plant.

The Crushing Plant is equipped with a 12000 CFM wet dust scrubber and a 10 HP scrubber bottoms pump which run together in automatic mode, and will shut conveyor #3 down after a delay of 5 minutes if this system is stopped (subsequent interlocks will shut down the entire circuit except for the jaw and cone crushers) . Pick up points for the dust collection system are: discharge of the apron feeder, grizzly discharge chute at conveyor #1, jaw crusher discharge chute at conveyor #1, cone crusher discharge chute at conveyor #1, transfer point between conveyors #1 and #2, screen feed chute, cone crusher feed chute, and the screen undersize discharge chute at conveyor #3. The collector empties its contents in to the 10 HP 2 vertical scrubber bottoms pump, where reclaim water is added. Level is maintained in the pumpbox by a float and link control valve. A portion of the pump discharge recirculates back to the dust collector, the remainder is pumped to the cyclone feed pumpbox.

The Crushing Plant is also equipped with a 5 tonneoverhead crane and a 15 HP 2 vertical sump pump and sump. The sump pump operates automatically on ahigh/low float level control, or manually. The sump pump also discharges to the cyclone feed pump-box or to the grinding area sump.Should a fire occur in the crushing plant, for safety, a flowswitch in the fire water pipe will stop conveyor #3, hence theentire Crushing Plant.

tyalta | crushers

tyalta | crushers

The McCloskey V80 (VSI) has been designed to be one of the most efficient vertical shaft Impactors on the market for producing high specification sealing aggregates, a high proportion of fines required for main roads/road-base, or manufactured sand. This heavy duty track-mounted Vertical Shaft Impactor has been designed with a host of user-friendly features and several rotor/rockbox/anvil options that are suited to all applications.

The J40 Jaw Crusher continues McCloskeys focus on quality, durability, and productivity. With a fuel-efficient 225hp CAT C6.6 engine, 40 wide jaw and user-friendly control panel with excellent machine diagnostics, the J40 provides contractors with a highly portable option while meeting all production expectations. At 2.5 meters wide, its ideal for applications that require a high degree of mobility.

A powerful and robust member of McCloskeys full line of crushers, the J50 Jaw Crusher is continuing McCloskeys focus on quality, durability, and productivity. With a CAT C9 engine, 50 wide Telsmith Jaw (the widest Jaw in its class), and user-friendly control panel with excellent machine diagnostics, the J50 places McCloskey International at the fore of portable crushing machinery.

With its class leading throughput and capacity, the largest stockpile height in its category, and an extended side conveyor as standard, the J50 crusher continues to push the boundaries of industry performance.

The McCloskey J44 Jaw Crusher offers high capacity crushing capabilities in an easily transported package. At 2.5 meters wide, its ideal for contractors or operators that require frequent mobility between job sites.

The J44 retains the core values expected in a full size McCloskey jaw crusher while making them more attainable for balanced production demands. The automatically regulated vibrating feeder with the load sensing 44 jaw keep product moving along with the 42 wide main conveyor and its high stockpiling capabilities. Combine this with McCloskeys reputation for durable, user-friendly machines and the J44 is a good fit for a wide range of crushing applications.

The J45 and J45R high capacity jaw crushers feature a true 45 x 27 jaw, with both level and load sensors to ensure the most efficient material handling across applications. Measuring 14.85 x 7.75 the J45 hopper boasts close to 9 cubic yards (6.8m3) capacity.

The 5x10 Screenbox features McCloskey High Energy technology, and the feeder is available with an independent pre-screen option. A powerhouse of productivity, the J45R combines a robust single toggle jaw and high-energy screenbox with a recirculating conveyor system to create a full crushing and screening system, for maximum productivity and unmatched portability.

Both J45 jaw crushers have a large gap between the crusher discharge and the main conveyor feed boot to eliminate bottlenecks and bridging. Easy to move from site to site, the J45 crushers can be on-site and operational in a matter of minutes with folding hoppers and conveyers.

Continuing with McCloskeys focus on quality components, durability and reliability, the C44 Cone Crusher adds to McCloskeys reputation for proven performance with its 44 cone and CAT C13 430hp power unit. Offering high material capacity and throughput, large stockpile capacity, and customer focused features, the C44 Cone Crusher puts McCloskey to the fore of mobile crushing plants and pushes the boundaries of industry performance.

The C38 McCloskey Cone Crusher is the ideal portable secondary crushing solution for the operator requiring production rates up to 300TPH. It is designed to function in crushing spreads with machines such as our J40 Jaw Crusher and S130 Screening Plant to produce cubical chip from 3/8 to 5 in size.

Our C38 distinguishes itself as an entry level cone with full level features, such as: An anti spin system, load and material level monitoring, fully hydraulic push button CSS adjust and full hydraulic relief system.

The C38R McCloskey re-circulating cone crusher combines the productivity of our 36 Telsmith 38SBS cone, with the versatility of a full screening and re-circulating system, allowing operators to produce a crushed and screened final product with one machine.

Designed to be the most productive horizontal impact crusher in the sub 50 ton class, the McCloskey I-54 Impactor is built around a 47 (1200mm) x 53 (1350mm) four bar Impactor chamber with a 37 x 53.5 feed opening.

The 9 cubic yard hopper with 53.3 (1354mm) wide vibrating pan feeder feeds the crusher over an independently vibrating 4-6 x 5-9 double deck pre-screen. This removes the majority of the fines in advance of the crushing chamber, greatly increasing capacity while reducing wear and controlling product size. The fines can be diverted to the main belt, or to the side conveyor.

Crushed material is discharged from the chamber to a 45 (1354mm) x 152 (4615mm) pan feeder. This unit is both larger and operates at a steeper incline than any other similar system, ensuring that the material is cleared quickly in high TPH applications, all while protecting the conveyor belt from damage.

The McCloskey I44 Impactor is the perfect showcase of a portable contractor crushing system. The 4 blow bar, 43 wide impact chamber is compact enough to allow for a high degree of portability while providing the level of production required to complete the project rapidly.

The I44R McCloskey Recirculating Impactor combines the productivity of our 43 Impactor with the versatility of a full screening and recirculating system, allowing operators to produce a crushed and screened final product with one machine.

McCloskey International has introduced a new highly efficient version of its I54 mobile impact crusher. Following worldwide field site visits, the feedback from the customers has resulted in significant changes to the I54 crusher, including direct drive, an enhanced material flow path, larger pre-screen, and a more open chassis.

Efficiency is boosted with the new crusher design, particularly in the material flow path. Each sectional component is wider than the last to allow an unrestricted flow without funneling or narrowing, eliminating material bridging. The straight sided chutes manage the material as it passes through each section that is wider than the last feeder, to prescreen, and chamber to a wider optional underpan. Both main and side conveyors are now wider to accommodate the larger amount of pre-screen material, and to allow for better discharge from the crushing chamber.

The direct drive crusher rotor is also a new feature on the I54v3, bringing more power, along with lower fuel costs. The redesigned open chassis allows for better access, and a hydraulic adjustable magnet contributes to easier operation of the crusher. The I54v3s new larger 8 double deck pre-screen brings more efficient fines removal to production, maximizes the crushers productivity, and delivers screened product via a straight chute to a new, wider 32 side conveyor. The I54v3s versatility and upgraded design makes it ideal for some of the toughest applications worldwide, including asphalt recycling, concrete recycling, rock crushing, construction and demolition.

2 types of concrete crushers | hxjq

2 types of concrete crushers | hxjq

The rapid development of urbanization has resulted in the accumulation of a large amount of waste concrete, which not only occupies land resources but also pollutes the air and the environment. Therefore, the recycling of waste concrete has become an important issue that the government needs to solve.

Abandoned concrete blocks are high-quality concrete aggregates which have many advantages. For example, after the buildings are dismantled, the high-quality concrete blocks and silt after crushing and screening can be used as recycled coarse and fine aggregates for concrete. The fine powder can be directly used as the raw material of cement. The concrete prepared from recycled cement and recycled aggregate can enter the next cycle, which realizes zero waste discharge throughout the whole cycle.

Concrete, cement and other wastes in construction waste can be used as building aggregates and recycled brick raw materials after being reasonably crushed, screened and crushed. And the main equipment used for crushing concrete can be divided into two types: traditional fixed crusher and mobile concrete crusher, among which small crushing equipment is favored by users.

Although the compressive strength and hardness of concrete are not high, due to the porosity and the formation type, the concrete has good toughness and can buffer the crushing force, which causes low crushing efficiency. So, what kind of crusher should be selected for concrete crushing? In the process of crushing waste concrete, according to the working principle of more crushing and less grinding, it is necessary to carefully configure the concrete crusher equipment.

Jaw Crusher, also known as concrete crusher, is usually used as the primary equipment for concrete crushing. It is also suitable for metallurgy, mining, construction, chemical, water conservancy and railway sectors, and used as a device for fine and medium crushing of ores and rocks with compressive strength below 250 Mpa.

In recent years, the small jaw crusher has been favored by foreign users because of its small size, easy transportation and installation, low price, and fast profit. The models like PE-150250, PE-200350 and PE-400600 have become the best choice for customers to crush concrete.

After the rough breaking, steel and iron equipment are added to remove the steel bars and iron blocks in the waste concrete, which will eliminate the damage of steel bars and iron blocks to the equipment without affecting the production. Generally, the impact crusher, the fine crushing jaw crusher or the cone crusher is used as the secondary crushing to crush the material to less than 2 cm, and the selected granularity can be basically achieved.

For smaller discharge sizes, a three-stage crusher can be used, for example, the fine crushing crusher or the roller crusher is used to further crush the ore to less than 10 mm. In the actual production, the suitable crusher can be selected according to the size of the concrete block. It can be combined in single or multi-machine operations, both of which have the characteristics of simple operation, strong controllability and high production efficiency.

In the international environment of the crusher industry, besides the traditional jaw crusher, high-efficiency and environmentally-friendly construction concrete crusher will be the trend of future development.

In view of the characteristics of concrete waste, Henan HXJQ Machinery designed a concrete crushing equipment-mobile concrete crusher. The waste concrete after crushing can be used for reinforcing the foundation, producing bricks, cement, etc, not only achieving its values but also solving the issue of land and environment problems, which can be described as two-fold.

The mobile concrete processing station produced by HXJQ Machinery adopts multi-stage combination mode, which includes jaw crusher, impact crusher, cone crusher and vibrating screening equipment, conveyor belt, etc. Generally, the concrete crushing station is composed of a concrete crusher (sand making machine), a screening machine, a feeder, a conveyor belt, a steel frame, a drive system, an electric control system, a motor unit and the like.

The concrete material is sent into the crusher by the feeding equipment, and the crushing machine converts the large concrete into gravel. The finished product which meets the standard is transported by the conveyor belt to the stacking place, and the products which don't meet the standard will be transported by the other conveying belt to the crusher again until it is qualified.

The integrated vibrating screen, feeder and the under-belt conveyor, the vibrating screen and the crusher integrated into the vehicle can reach any position on the working site under any terrain conditions. Thus the mobile concrete crusher has many advantages like reasonable material matching, smooth flow, reliable operation, convenient operation, high efficiency and energy saving.

1. According to the driving way, it is divided into tire type and crawler type: the tire type concrete crushing and sorting machine needs semi-trailer traction to run, while the crawler type can be remotely operated with buttons. Relatively speaking, the latter is more intelligent and the price is more expensive.

2. According to the function, it is divided into crushing type and sand making type: the concrete crushing and screening machine includes a combination of crushing equipment such as jaw crusher, cone crusher and impact crusher. The sand making type is mainly equipped with sand making machine and hammer sanding machine.

The mobile crushing station can prevent and control environmental pollution, improve the ecological environment, and protect natural resources. The size and model can be designed according to the different production needs of users. According to the statistics of the HXJQ machinery, the small mobile crusher is chosen by more foreign users because of its reasonable price, high quality, convenient transition, operation and maintenance.

A project introduction of construction concrete treatment: in October 2018, a customer found HXJQ, and hoped that we could provide him with the complete equipment for breaking construction waste. Our technical manager quickly contacted him and learned that the customer had a large amount of construction waste to be disposed of.

From the perspective of economic foundation and practical operation, the technical manager recommended the fixed crushing station to him and designed a complete set of equipment suitable for his actual needs. In the end, the customer introduced the PE-400600 jaw crusher and PF-1010 impact crusher produced by our company to break the concrete waste. The finished sandstone is used for brick making, roadbed materials, etc., and the separated steel is recycled.

The pretreated concrete with reinforcing steel is sent to the jaw crusher for initial breakage by the conveyor belt, then effectively separated by the iron remover, and sent to the impact crusher for fine crushing. The crushed material is sieved by the vibrating screen. The finished material is output by the conveyor. If the material does not meet the specifications, it will continue to return to the impact crusher and break again.

The development and utilization of waste concrete as a recycled material solves the problems of a large amount of waste concrete treatment and the resulting deterioration of the ecological environment; on the other hand, it can reduce the consumption of natural aggregates in the construction industry, thereby reducing exploitation of the natural sand and gravel, which has fundamentally solved the problem of the depletion of natural aggregates and the destruction of the ecological environment because of the lack of sandstones.

Under this circumstance, the crusher plays an irreplaceable role in the recycling of materials. Whether it is the traditional fixed crusher or the latest mobile crusher, both of them have their own advantages. As long as the size of the stone produced by the equipment can meet the standard, it is a good crusher.

symons cone crusher

symons cone crusher

For finer crushing or reduction a Symonscone crusher the norm. Symons are commonly used for secondary, tertiary or quaternary crushing. They do this by a different chamber design which is flatter and by operating at about twice the rotational speed of a primary type gyratory crusher.

One of the first cone crushers had a direct drive vertical motor mounted above the spider with the drive shaft passing through the hollow bored main shaft. With relatively high speeds of 480 to 580 rpm and small eccentric throw, the machine produced a uniform produce with minimum fines.There are numerous Symonscone crusher manufacturers of modern crushers each promoting some unique aspect.

The Allis Chalmers Hydrocone selling point is its adjustability and tramp protection through a hydraulic support system for the headcentre. By merely adjusting the oil reservoir below the head centre the crusher setting can be changed while in full operation. Tramp metal causes a surge of pressure in this hydraulic system which is absorbed through relief valves and gas-bladder-filled accumulator bottles which allow the headcentre to momentarily drop and return to its normal operating position when the tramp has fallen through.

The Symons or Rexnord spring cone crusher is adjusted by spinning the bowl up or down manually or through hydraulic rams. A series of powerful springs give the necessary tramp protection. Several other manufacturers produce similar types and sizes of crushers but all follow the basic types described.

When the Symons brothers Invented the cone crusher, they employed the principle wherein the length of the crushing stroke was related to the free fall of material by gravity. This permitted the material being crushed to fall vertically in the crushing chamber; and in effect, caused the particles to be crushed in a series of steps or stages as the particles got smaller due to the crushing action. This also helps to reduce the rate of wear of the liners since the sliding motion of the particles is minimized.

Recognizing that the Symons principle of crushing is the most efficient means of ore and aggregate reduction in hard rock applications, the engineers used this same principle in the design on the hydrocone.

Versatility in the form of having the ability to perform in a wide range of applications without the need for a change in major assemblies was another objective in the design. Ease of maintenance and remote setting capability also were part of the design parameters the market requires.

There is no startling revelation to the fact that the mining industry as a whole is generally moving toward the use of larger equipment to process ores in quantities far greater than what was even considered a decade ago. Trucks and shovels have led the way in extra large machines and many other manufacturers have followed suit in the development of so-called supers in their line of equipment.

In order to keep pace with the industry, crusher manufacturers have also enlarged the size of their equipment. There is now on the market, a Gyratory crusher capable of accepting a 72 diameter piece of ore. Primary jaw crushers have also increased in size. It is inevitable, therefore, that larger secondary cone crushers would also be required to complement the other equipment used to process these large quantities of ore. This super-size secondary cone crusher is the SYMONS 10 Ft. Cone Crusher.

Until 1973, the largest cone crusher built was the 7 Ft. Extra Heavy Duty crusher, which is currently used in the majority of the mining operations throughout the world. The 10 Ft. crusher, when compared to the 7 Ft. Extra Heavy Duty Crusher, is approximately 1 times larger in physical dimensions; three times heavier; will accept a maximum feed size which is approximately twice as large; and will crush at approximately 2 times the rate of the 7 Ft. machine at identical closed side settings. It will be the largest cone crusher built in the world.

The conclusions of this investigation were all positive the crusher could be built and at a cost that would be in line with its size and capacity and also with other size crushers. After that preliminary study, the project became dormant for several years.

The project was reactivated and this time general assembly drawings were made which incorporated many improvements in the crusher such as pneumatic cylinders in place of the conventional, springs for tramp iron release, a two-piece main frame a dynamically balanced design of the internal moving parts of the crusher, and an automatic clearing and adjusting mechanism for the crusher. At this stage of development we felt we were ready to build a 10 Ft. crusher for any mine that was willing to try one. Unfortunately, the conservative posture of the mining industry did not exactly coincide with our sales plans. This, added to the popularity of the autogenous mill concept at the time, led to another lull in the 10 Ft. development program.

The project was reactivated again in 1970, this time primarily at the request of one of the large Minnesota Iron Range mining companies. We then undertook a comprehensive market research study to determine if there was a need for this size crusher by the mining industry in general, rather than just the iron ore industry. We talked not only to the iron ore people but to the copper people and persons connected with the other metallic ores as well. The acceptability of this large crusher was also discussed with the aggregate industry. After interviews with many of the major mining companies, the decision was made to complete the entire engineering phase of the development program and to actively solicit a customer for this new crusher. We spent approximately $85,000 on engineering work and tests on the gamble that we could find a customer. I speak of a gamble because during our market research study we continually were told my company would be very interested in buying a 10 Ft. crusher, but only after we have seen one in operation.

The actual building and test of the first prototype unit without a firm commitment for a sale was an economic impossibility. We were now at the point where we needed to sell at least one unit in order to prove not only the mechanical reliability of the machine, but the economic justification for its purchase as well. Needless to say, when the order for two SYMONS 10 Ft. cone crushers was received, we felt we were now on the way toward completion of the development program.

Perhaps at this point it might be apropos to examine the crusher itself. It will stand 15-6 above its foundation, the overall height will be 19-4-. At its greatest diameter, in the area of the adjustment ring, it will be approximately 17-6. It will weigh approximately 550,000 lbs. Under normal crushing conditions, the crusher will be connected to a 700 HP motor. A 50 ton. overhead crane is required to perform routine maintenance on this crusher.

The main shaft assembly will weigh approximately 92,000 lbs. and the bowl assembly approximately 95,000 lbs. The mantle and bowl liner, cast from manganese steel, will weigh approximately 13,000 lbs. and 25,000 lbs. respectively.

The throughput capacity of the Standard will be approximately 1300 TPH at a 1 closed side setting and 3000 TPH at a 2- closed side setting. The throughput capacity of the SHORT HEAD will be approximately 800 TPH at closed side setting and 1450 TPH at a 9/16 closed side setting.

Persons familiar with the design of a conventional 7 Ft. SYMONS cone crusher will recognize that the design of the 10 Ft. is quite similar to it. As a matter of fact, we like to say that the design of the 10 Ft. is evolutionary rather than revolutionary, because all the reliable features of the SYMONS cone crusher were retained and the only changes that were made were those that added to the convenience of the operator, such as automatic clearing and automatic adjustment. From a mechanical point of view the stresses generated due to crushing loads are less in the 10 Ft. crusher than in the existing 7 Ft. Extra Heavy Duty cone.

One of our senior engineers who has long since retired told me that he had the occasion many years ago to make a presentation of a newly designed crusher to a prospective customer. He carefully prepared a rather detailed description of the crusher which included all the features that his new machine had when compared to the customers existing machine. The presentation itself took about one hour and after that period the customer leaned back in his chair and said, Thats all well and good, but will it crush rock? In effect, the customer was; saying that all the features in the world were of no use to him if the crusher did not perform its basic function to crush rock and ultimately make profits for the owner. Using todays financial terminology he was asking the engineer to economically cost justify the purchase of the crusher.

The working day of the contemporary manager or project engineer evolves around making decisions to economically justify a piece of equipment or a new operation. In our development program of the 10 Ft. cone crusher, we felt that the economic justification, from the customers point of view, was just as important to develop as the engineering aspects of the program. So we developed a three-part program to examine the economics of installing a 10 Ft. crusher. First we talked in wide generalities concerning the use of a 10 Ft. crusher. Secondly, we discussed the ramifications of using a 10 Ft. crusher versus 7 Ft. crushers in a completely new plant being considered for the future. Thirdly, we examined how a 10 Ft. crusher could be used to its best advantage in a plant that is being expanded.

The first consideration was the economic generalities of installing the crusher, or more specifically, what questions regarding the installation are pertinent to every crushing plant. Usually, the initial comparison which is made between a 7 Ft. crusher and a 10 Ft. crusher is that of price versus capacity. Theoretically, the capacity of a 10 Ft. crusher is 2 times that of a 7 Ft. while the selling price is approximately 3 times that of the 7 Ft. On that basis alone, it would appear that the 10 Ft. could not be justified. However, this is an incomplete picture. Recent cost estimates show that considerable savings are realized when the entire physical plant structure is considered. Because fewer machines are required to crush an equivalent amount of ore, the size of the buildings can be reduced, thereby decreasing the capital investment of buildings and allied equipment used as auxiliaries for the crusher.

Total manpower requirements to operate and maintain the plant is another of the generalities which were considered. Fewer crushers normally require less personnel to operate and perform maintenance, Manpower requirements obviously play a large part in the profitability of a plant. Therefore, it follows that using a 10 Ft. in place of multiple 7 Ft. units should be more profitable from the standpoint of manpower. We should, however, clarify one point regarding normal maintenance of the 10 Ft. crusher which is commonly misunderstood; namely, the periodic changeout of manganese liners in the crusher. The normal time period between manganese changes would not be significantly different between the 7 Ft. and a 10 Ft. because the wear rate, that is, the pounds of liner worn away per ton of ore crushed, will remain the same. Consequently, if a set of liners in a 7 Ft. crusher, lasted six weeks, a 10 Ft. crusher in the same operation would also last approximately six weeks. However, since the total amount of ore crushed will be greater, the maintenance costs per liner changeout will be less on the 10 Ft. crusher.

Another point for consideration is that the 10 Ft., cone crusher is a secondary crusher and normally would be fed with the product of a gyratory crusher. Since the 10 Ft. can accept a larger feed than a 7 Ft. crusher, it is possible to increase the open side setting of a gyratory crusher, thereby, allowing a greater volume of feed to pass through the crusher. Because of this, it is conceivable that a smaller primary crusher could be used in order to obtain a given quantity of ore.

A good salesman could expound on a multitude of ideas for using 10 Ft. crushers in place of 7 Ft. crushers in a new plant, but in the final analysis, the deciding factor as to whether or not the 10 Ft. crushers should be used will be the anticipated over-all plant capacity. Several studies have indicated that as a general rule of thumb the break even point for using 10 Ft. crushers in place of 7 Ft. crushers is a plant which will have an overall ore treatment capacity of approximately 40,000 TPD or approximately 8,000,000 TPY. Anything less than that figure should indicate the use of conventional 7 Ft. crushers. Obviously a small four stage crushing plant in which the third stage crusher was a 7 Ft. Standard and the fourth stage consisted of two 7 Ft. SHORT HEAD cone crushers, would not improve economically by the use of one 10 Ft. Standard cone crusher and one 10 Ft. SHORT HEAD cone crusher in place of the 7 Ft. crushers.

A study was made which considered a plant to be built using three different approaches of a conventional crushing-grinding operation. The plant which was being considered would be crushing taconite similar to that found in the Iron Range. The end product of the crushing was 5/8 rod mill feed and in this example the plant capacity was to be approximately 13.5 million TPY of ore processed to eventually produce approximately 4 million TPY of iron ore pellets. The study arbitrarily chose a four-year period of operation so that operating costs would be included and also because a four-year period is the usual comparison basis for calculating return on investment. In this example the primary crusher as well as the fine crushing plant would be operated fourteen shifts per week.

In our economic analysis of the 10 Ft. crusher development program, we also studied how this crusher could be used to best advantage when planning expansion of an existing plant. Before delving into the actual dollars and cents of several variations of expansion plans, several preliminary questions must be answered in the affirmative:

Since each plant is unique, the relative merits of the 10 Ft. crusher must be examined on an individual plant basis. Again, as a general rule of thumb, it has been found that the most benefit can be achieved in those plants which presently contain a four-stage crushing plant in which the first two stages of crushing are gyratory crushers. Studies have shown that converting the second stage gyratory crusher to a 10 Ft. Standard crusher shows most potential because the major auxiliaries required for the crusher, such as crane, conveyors, etc., are already large enough to accommodate the increased capacity of the 10 Ft.

As one possible solution, we suggested that the two 30 x 70 secondary gyratory crushers be replaced by two 10 Ft. Standard cones. These crushers could then send approximately 3600 TPH of minus 3 material to the fine crushing plant. The two existing 7 Ft. Standard crushers could be converted easily to SHORT HEAD crushers and two new 7 Ft. SHORT HEAD crushers added to the existing vacant foundations.

In Summary, we feel that the Symons cone crusher has a very definite place in the future of the mining industry and we intend to move steadily ahead with its progress. However, we have learned a few lessons along the way.

Initially, the development of these super size machines is an extremely expensive proposition. We know that if our company alone, attempted to completely design, manufacture, erect, and test a machine in this size range, it would severely tax our financial resources.

We found that super size equipment also presents some problems for our manufacturing facilities. The manufacture of one of these units puts a large dent into the production schedule of many of the smaller conventional units. In our enthusiasm to build a bigger newer machine, we continually remind ourselves that the smaller conventional units are still our bread and butter units.

On the positive side, we found that our reputation as a crusher manufacturer was enhanced because of what our customers refer to as progressive thinking. We listened to the suggestions of the mining industry in attempting to give them what they wanted.

Perhaps you will allow me to close with a bit of philosophizing from a manufacturers point of view. The 10 Ft. crusher is here ready to go into operation. Where do we go from here? A 15 Ft. cone crusher? A 20 Ft. cone crusher? Who knows? We do know that we have reached the financial limit of a development program on a machine of this size. We also know that as the size of a machine grows larger, the developmental and manufacturing risks grow larger along with it and any allowable margin for error must be minimized. We, like you, are in business to make a profit. Since larger crushers usually mean a fewer number of crushers, we must examine the profit picture from aspects of the sale. I think I speak for other manufacturers as well when I say that bigness in machines reflects bigness in development costs as well. If the mining industry wants still larger equipment in the future, the industry should prepare itself to contribute to the development program of those machines.

A multi-cylinderHydraulic Cone Crusher, theHydrocone Cone Crushercan be used in either the second or third stage of crushing by merely changing liners and adaptors.It can produce the full product range that the combination of a comparable sized Standard and Short Head can produce. It makes the machine much more versatile. It allows for much more standardization. The value of this feature is one where spare parts investment in the form of major assemblies is minimized.

All operator controls are conveniently mounted on a remote control console to eliminate the need for an operator to approach the crusher during operation.Over a period of years we have developed a unique engineering knowledge about the effects of cone crusher design parameters such as speed, throw and cavity design on crusher productivity.

Each Hydrocone Cone Crusher features dual function hydraulic cylinders that provide overload protection and a safe and fast way to clear a jammed cavity. Should the crusher become plugged, the operator merely pushes levers on the remote control console to clear the cavity.

It can produce the full product range that the combination of a comparable sized Standard and Short Head can produce. It makes the machine much more versatile. It allows for much more standardization. The value of this feature is one where spare parts investment in the form of major assemblies is minimized.

All operator controls are conveniently mounted on a remote control console to eliminate the need for an operator to approach the crusher during operation.Over a period of years we have developed a unique engineering knowledge about the effects of cone crusher design parameters such as speed, throw and cavity design on crusher productivity.

Each Hydrocone Cone Crusher features dual function hydraulic cylinders that provide overload protection and a safe and fast way to clear a jammed cavity. Should the crusher become plugged, the operator merely pushes levers on the remote control console to clear the cavity.

TheHydraulic Cone Crusheruses hydraulic tramp release cylinders and accumulators to hold the adjustment ring against the main frame seat. There is only one angular surface between the main frame and the adjustment ring which also has a radial contact point in the lowermost area. When a piece of tramp goes through the crusher, the oil is forced into the accumulators allowing the adjustment ring to raise and pass the tramp.

The tramp release cylinders are secured to the adjustment ring and the lower portion of the main frame through clevises. This allows the crushing forces to be transferred directly from the frame arm locations to the adjustment ring. This relieves the main frame shell and upper flange from carrying heavy loads.

The Hydraulic Cone Crusher is equipped with hydraulic clearing. The tramp release cylinders which hold the adjustment ring in place are double acting cylinders. These cylinders can be pressurized in the opposite direction, after the clamping pressure has been released, to raise the adjustment ring and bowl assembly for clearing; only the weight of the adjustment ring, clamp ring, and bowl assembly, plus any residual material in the bowl hopper raises.

conveyor belting - crusher wear parts

conveyor belting - crusher wear parts

CWP provides belting in most standard widths and plies. We stock Grade I belts in 3 ply and above, as well as our single ply straight warp products. We stock Grade II belts for our 2 ply products. We can supply many combinations of cover and fabric types per request. Belting is available cut to order, by the roll or in container quantities.

This is a K-Flex belt working in a heavy and abusive application. This customer was getting 30 days out of a standard belt. This 440 single ply top cover belting has been running for 3 months with 24 material dropping on it!

There is often confusion in comparing belting products from various suppliers. The most common terms noted when selecting belt in the US is RMA Grade I or Grade II. These terms are from the Rubber Manufacturers Association (RMA). They only apply to belt covers and not fabric. They also specify only two requirements. Grade I belt must have a minimum cover elongation at break of 400% and minimum tensile strength at break of 2,500 psi. Grade II belt must have a minimum cover elongation at break of 400% and minimum tensile strength at break of 2,000 psi. CWP belt grades cover additional specifications that are important when evaluating conveyor belt. An overview of these specifications follows:

The piw units used in the US are based on working strength. A typical fabric used is 110 piw. The safety factor determines breaking strength. CWP belt fabric is a 10 to 1 safety factor. Therefore the breaking strength on a 110 piw working strength fabric would be 1,100 lbs. Some manufacturers and suppliers use a lower safety factor so a less expensive fabric can be used but still be called a 110 piw fabric. RMA specifications do not cover fabric.

For the aggregate industry it is desirable that the fabric in the length direction (warp) have minimal elongation or stretch. If the belt stretches beyond the amount of take-up designed for a given conveyor the belt will need to be re-spliced. There are two elongation specifications we consider. Elongation at 10% of breaking strength (typical working strength), and elongation at break (100% of breaking strength). Elongation at 10% of breaking strength is an indication of how much the belt will stretch under normal use. A full 10 to 1 safety factor fabric will stretch less than a lower safety factor fabric. All CWP belt uses 10 to 1 safety factor fabric. Nylon fibers have good strength characteristics but stretch considerably more than Polyester fibers stretch so we require a polyester fabric in the warp. The weft fibers do not see much of a load so we accept weft fibers made from both polyester and nylon. Again RMA specifications do not cover fabric.

The more the rubber cover will stretch before it breaks the better the cover will perform. The RMA grade 1 and 2 specifications are a minimum of 400% elongation before breaking. A higher elongation at break rubber will take more abuse and be able to wrap around pulleys and conform to troughers over a longer time period. CWP meets or exceeds the RMA 400% specification requirement.

The higher the cover tensile strength the stronger the cover will be. A stronger cover will better resist cutting and gouging better and will hold up better under impact. CWP belt grades meet or exceed RMA specifications.

A cover with higher abrasion resistance will wear longer. The standard abrasion resistance test used for measuring the abrasion resistance of rubber is from a German specification. The test utilizes an abrasive wheel turning at a specified speed and imparting a specified force for a specified time. The volume of material removed is then measured in mm. The lower the amount of material removed the more abrasion resistant the cover is. Cover abrasion resistance is included in the German specifications but is not covered by RMA. I have heard that a new organization called the Association for Rubber Products Manufactures (ARPM) will be replacing RMA for conveyor belt specifications. They may include abrasion resistance in future specifications but RMA does not. We specify a minimum 150 mm abrasion resistance for our Grade I belt and 200 mm for our Grade II belt.

This specification is a measurement of the force it takes to pull the fabric away from the covers and the skim coats between the plies in N/mm. A force of 5 N/mm for the top cover, bottom cover, and the skim coats between the plies are typical. Test measurements are typically much higher than the spec. Our CWP specifications require a minimum adhesion of 5 N/mm.

Many suppliers state that their belt meets RMA grade specifications. RMA only defines the tensile strength and elongation at break of the belt cover. It does not define the abrasion resistance of the cover nor the strength or material of the fabric. CWP belts not only meet or exceed RMA grade specifications, they meet the additional specifications described above to insure you know what you are buying.

Our standard stocked product is made from a full 10 to 1 safely factor, polyester warp fabric in both Grade I and Grade II. We stock Grade I belt in 3 ply and above as well as our single ply straight warp products. We stock Grade II belt for our 2 ply products. We can supply many combinations of cover and fabric types per request.

27

27" imperial excen crusher - united conveyor corporation

The UCC 27 EXCEN-CRUSHER is specifically designed for both wet and dry abrasive material size reduction applications, offering superior performance and high-level reliability. With decades of proven experience, UCC EXCEN-CRUSHERS effectively reduce material size, providing higher efficiency in pneumatic, hydraulic and mechanical systems.

With thousands of units in service, UCC EXCEN-CRUSHERS are the industry standard for utility and industrial power plants across the world. Through continuous design improvement, the UCC EXCEN-CRUSHER offers efficient operation, superior sealing and longer service life.

United Conveyor Corporation (UCC) is a global leader in ash handling solutions for the power generation industry and a preferred supplier for dry sorbent injection, activated carbon injection and reagent handling.

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