copper ore crushing, grinding & flotation

copper ore crushing, grinding & flotation

You will note that the Oracle Ridge project has utilized a two-stage crushing circuit with a double acting jaw crusher and cone crusher. In order to utilize this system, the jaw crusher is oversized to produce all -5 material for the cone mill with a screen in closed circuit. Normally a three-stage crushing circuit would have been more conventional, but with the type of rock processed, its crushing characteristics and its . high bulk density, this two-stage system should work out well.

Conventional crushing and grinding plants are safe and conservative. The ore can be tested by proven techniques and crushers and mills selected with assurance that they will meet performance requirements. Operation of crushing plants, rod mills and ball mills is understood by many, and most operators are comfortable with the use of this type of equipment which has been around for over 70 years.

Autogenous and semi-autogenous grinding is still quite new and mysterious to many, although there have been over 276,000 connected horsepower sold into the copper industry. There are few who understand completely the application of these mills or their operation. Indications are that these type mills are not often selected due to this lack of understanding and concern about misapplication. Yet when properly applied, these mills can offer economics which might mean the difference between profitable or unprofitable operation.

The attraction of semi-autogenous grinding in copper operations is that they can accommodate ores that are hard or soft, wet or dry, sticky or otherwise. The SAG mill can handle everything that is presented to it, regardless of coarseness or fineness, or hardness or moisture content, and from it prepare satisfactory feed for subsequent secondary grinding by conventional means to the required flotation product sizing. A parallel point not to be forgotten is that the SAG mill circuit completely eliminates fine crushing, screening and binning of sometimes wet and sticky ores, generally regarded as the most disruptive and awkward operations in a conventional concentrator.

The only published data giving valid economic comparisons between conventional and SAG milling is Pimas 1973 paper. They had the unique opportunity of processing the same ore both conventionally and in a semi-autogenous circuit and were able to compare capital and operating costs. The capital cost analysis at the time of the expansion showed 53,000.00 per ton for the conventional plant and $2,000.00 per ton for the SAG plant. Their operating cost comparison shows a ratio of 100 versus 88.9 for conventional versus SAG. We understand that prior to the plant shutdown in 1977, that the comparison was 100 versus 80.

Hundreds of pilot tests have been run on a wide variety of ores. Although new applications on new ores ideally should be studied by a pilot plant test of a 50-ton sample, if the ore resembles ore previously tested, it is possible to make confident mill selections on very small ore samples. No one has developed an autogenous mill selection method comparable to the Work Index Method for selection of rod mills and ball mills. We do not anticipate a simple index type system applying to these type mills because it is not that simple to describe ore characteristics.

Fine ore at minus 19mm () sizing is fed at a controlled rate into the open-circuit 2600mm x 3960mm (8-6 x 13-0) Hardinge rod mill at an average feed rate of 2,106 STPD or 87.75 STRH. Rod mill discharge at a nominal size of minus 16 mesh and a pulp density of 75 percent solids combines with ball mill discharge and is pumped to a bank of three Wemco hydrocyclones, two operating and one standby. Cyclone underflow at 74% solids gravitates to the 3500mm x 4600mm (11-6 x 15-0) Hardinge ball mill and overflow goes into the flotation circuit. A Denver two-stage sampler is installed in cyclone overflow launder.

Process water is added under ratio control to the rod mill feed and additional water is added to the primary cyclone feed, while provisions also exist for water addition to the feed end of the ball mill. A second source of water to the grinding section is derived from fresh water to the crushing and ore storage dust collection systems when operating.

Flotation consists of one stage of rougher flotation of three cells, three stages of rougher scavenger flotation and one stage each of cleaner (3 cells), recleaner (2 cells) and cleaner scavenger flotation (3 cells).

The regrind section comprises a 2130mm x 3660mm (7 -0 x 12-0) Hardinge regrind ball mill in closed circuit with a pump and cyclone. Feed to the regrind section has a nominal sizing of 55 percent minus 325 mesh while the regrind cyclone overflow product, which is returned to the cleaner flotation section, has been reduced in size to 90 percent minus 325 mesh. The 80 percent passing sizes for feed and product are 74 microns and 32 microns respectively.

copper ore crushing plant | mining, crushing, grinding, beneficiation

copper ore crushing plant | mining, crushing, grinding, beneficiation

Copper ore crushers are used to crush and screen copper ore to different size for next processing, the common seen crusher are jaw crusher, cone crusher,mobile crusheretc. There also have machine to process copper ore to copper ore powder and copper benficiation, kefid can provide you with full support.

Copper mine general term refers to can take advantage of the copper-containing natural mineral aggregates, copper ore is generally aggregates of sulfides or oxides of copper and other minerals react with sulfuric acid to form a blue-green copper sulfate. Coppers industrial minerals: native copper, chalcopyrite, chalcocite, tetrahedrite, azurite, malachite.

Copperore crushing plantwill be the crucial machine because copper ore can only be used if it was processed into powder and copper ore crusher is within the 1st a part of the procedure. Because the hardness of copper ore in between two and 2.5, Kefid aggregate crushing plant can procedure the copper ore as effortless as turning its hand over. Kefid copper ore crusher includes jaw crusher, cone crusher, effect crusher, mobile crusher and vertical shaft influence crusher.

As for the application, not merely can ourcopper ore crusherprocedure copper ore, but can it also method stones like limestone, sandstone, pebble, basalt, bauxite, marble, gypsum, dolomite, kaolin, iron ore, aggregate, coal and cement, etc. And Kefid copper ore crusher is extensively used in cement creating market, developing, sand generating, metallurgical business, and so forth.

In thecopper orecrusher, the ore is broken into smaller pieces of less than 25 centimetres in diameter. Crushed ore is then loaded on to a conveyor belt which requires it to the storage bin. Inside the storage bin,ball millsand other grinding machine grind the ore till it is a fine powder. Throughout the crushing approach, Kefid has improved the capacity and end crushing items with our secondary crusher and tertiary crusher. The total power consumption is reduced significantly.

Comparing the operation efficiency of CS cone crusher and hydraulic cone crusher, we locate CS cone crusher accomplished far better outcomes in tertiary crushing. And if installing exactly the same number of secondary andtertiary crushers, a part of operation is transmitted from tertiary to secondary crushers where the liner wear is 3 times much less, which significantly influences on the expense reduction inside the crushing approach.

Kefid machinery company is a leading company in China, we can supply you with copper ore mining, copper ore crushing plant, copper ore mill plant, copper ore grinding process, coal ore beneficiation plant, if you want to know more knowledge about copper ore or copper ore processing plant and machines, please feel free contact with our online engineer for more support.

copper flotation

copper flotation

Although basic porphyry copper flotation and metallurgy has remained virtually the same for many years, the processing equipment as well as design of the mills has continually been improved to increase production while reducing operating and maintenance costs. Also, considerable attention is paid to automatic sensing devices and automatic controls in order to assure maximum metallurgy and production at all times. For simplicity in this study most of these controls are not shown.Many of the porphyry copper deposits contain molybdenite and some also contain lead and zinc minerals.

Even though these minerals occur in relatively small amounts they can often be economically recovered as by-products for the expense of mining, crushing, and grinding is absorbed in recovery of the copper.

Because the copper in this type of ore usually assays only plus or minus 1% copper, the porphyry copper operations must be relatively large in order to be commercial. The flowsheet in this study illustrates a typical 3,000 ton per day operation. In general most operations of this type have two or more parallel grinding and flotation circuits. For additional capacity, additional parallel circuits are installed.

The crushing section consists of two or three crushing stages with the second or third stages in either closed or open circuit with vibrating screens. Generally, size of the primary crusher is not determined by capacity but by the basic size of the mine run rock. The mine-run ore is normally relatively large as most of the porphyry mines are open pit.The crushing section illustrated is designed to handle the full tonnage in approximately 8 to 16 hours thus having reserve capacity in case of expansion.

Many mills store not only the coarse ore but also the fine ore in open stockpiles using ore as the side walls and drawing the live ore from the center. During prolonged periods of crusher maintenance the ore walls can be bulldozed over the ore feeders to provide an uninterrupted supply of ore for milling.

As it is shown in this study the or 1 crushed ore is fed to a rod mill operating in open circuit and discharging a product approximately minus 14-mesh. The discharge from this primary rod mill is equally distributed to two ball mills which are in closed circuit with SRL Rubber Lined Pumps and two or more cyclone classifiers. The rod mill and two ball mills are approximately the same size for simplified maintenance.

Porphyry copper ores, usually medium to medium hard, require grinding to about 65-mesh to economically liberate the copper minerals from the gangue. Although a clean rougher tailing can often be achieved at 65-mesh the copper mineral is not liberated sufficiently to make a high grade copper concentrate, thus some form of regrinding is necessary on the rougher flotation copper concentrate. It is not unusual to grind the rougher flotation concentrate to minus 200-mesh for more complete liberation of mineral from the gangue.

The cyclone overflow from each ball mill goes to a Pulp Distributor which distributes the pulp to two or more parallel banks of Flotation Cells. These distributors are designed so that one or more flotation banks can be shut down for maintenance or inspection and still maintain equal distribution of feed to the remaining banks.

In some cases it is beneficial to have conditioning before flotation, but this varies from one operation to another and it is not shown in this flowsheet. Ten or more Free-Flow Flotation Cells are used per bank and these cells are divided into groups of four or six cells with an intermediate step-down weir between groups. Free-Flow Flotation Cells are specified, as metallurgy is extremely good while both maintenance and operating expenses are traditionally low. One or more Free-Flow Mechanisms can be stopped for inspection or even replaced for maintenance without shutting down the bank of cells.

The concentrates from rougher flotation cells are sent directly to regrind. Often the grind is 200-mesh. After regrind is flotation cleaning. In some cases the concentrate from the first three or four rougher flotation cells can be sent directly to cleaning without regrinding.

After the rougher flotation concentrate is reground it is cleaned twice in additional Free-Flow Flotation Machines with the recleaned concentrate going to final concentrate filtration or, as the metallurgy dictates, to a copper-moly separation circuit.

The thickening and filtering is similar to other milling operations, however, as the porphyry copper installations are often in arid areas, the mill tailing is usually sent to a large thickener for water reclamation and solids go to the tailings dam.

Automatic controls are usually provided throughout modern plants to measure and control pulp flow, pH and density at various points in the circuit. Feed and density controls are relatively common and the newer installations are using automatic pulp level controls on flotation machines and pump sumps. Automation is also being applied to the crushing systems.

The use of continuous on stream X-ray analysis for almost instantaneous metallurgical results is not shown in thus study but warrants careful study for both new and existing mills. Automatic sampling of all principal pulp flows are essential for reliable control.

The flowsheet in this study illustrates the modern approach to porphyry copper treatment throughout the industry. Each plant will through necessity have somewhat different arrangements or methods for accomplishing the same thing and reliable ore test data are used in most every case to plan the flowsheet and design the mill.

In most plants engaged in the flotation of ores containing copper-bearing sulphide minerals with or without pyrite, pine oil is employed as a frother with one of the xanthates or aerofloat reagents or a combination of two or more of them as the promoter. Lime is nearly always used for maintaining the alkalinity of the circuit and depressing any pyrite present. The reagent consumption is normally within the following limits

While good results are often obtained with ethyl xanthate alone as a promoter, the addition of a small quantity of one of the higher xanthates is frequently found to improve the recovery of those minerals that are not readily floated by the lower xanthate, especially those that are tarnished or oxidized, but since the action of a higher xanthate is, as a rule, more powerful than that of the ethyl compound, it is usually best to add no more of the former reagent than is necessary to bring up the less readily floatable minerals, controlling flotation with the less powerful and more selective lower xanthate. Better results are obtained with some ores by replacing the higher xanthate with one of the dithiophosphates, flotation being controlled, as before, with ethyl xanthate. Sometimes a dithiophosphate can be effectively used without the xanthate, although the dual promotion method is more common. A rule of thumb system for the selection of these reagents cannot be laid down as the character of the minerals differs so widely in different ores ; the best combination can only be found by experiment.When aerofloat is employed alone as the promoter, the reagent mixture is somewhat different from that given above. A reliable average consumption is difficult to determine as the plants working on these lines are few in number, but the following is what would normally be expected.If this combination of reagents gives results equal to those obtainable with a xanthate mixture, its employment has these advantages over the latter method: The control of flotation is not so delicate as with xanthates, it has less tendency to bring up pyrite, and, if selectivity is not required, the circuit may be neutral or only slightly alkaline.

When the ore is free from pyrite, the function of the lime, whatever the reagent mixture, is to precipitate dissolved salts and to maintain the alkalinity of the pulp at the value which has been found to givethe best results ; soda ash is seldom employed for this purpose. When pyrite is present, lime performs the additional function of a depressor, the amount used being balanced against that of the promoterthat is, no more lime should be added than is required to prevent the bulk of the pyrite from floating, as any excess tends to depress the copper minerals, and no more of the promoter should be employed than is needed to give a profitable recovery of the valuable minerals in a concentrate of the desired grade, since any excess tends to bring up pyrite. In many cases a more effective method of depressing pyrite is to add a small quantity of sodium cyanidee.g., 0.05-0.10 lb. per tonin conjunction with lime, less of the latter reagent then being necessary than if it were used alone.

It is not often that a conditioning tank has to be installed ahead of the flotation section in the treatment of sulphide copper ores, as the grinding circuit usually provides suitable points for the introduction of the reagents. The normal practice is to put lime into the primary ball mills and to add xanthates at the last possible moment before flotation, while aerofloat and di-thio-phosphates are preferably introduced at some point in the grinding circuit, since they generally need an appreciable time of contact as compared with xanthates. There is no special place for the addition of pine oil, but care should be taken if it is put into the primary ball mills, as a slight excess may cause an undue amount of froth to form in the classifiers.

In a plant where the primary slime is by-passed round the grinding circuit, it is necessary to ensure that this portion of the pulp receives its correct proportion of and contact time with the reagents.

As regards flotation installations, the present tendency is to employ machines of the air-lift or Callow-Maclntosh rather than of the subaeration type. While two stages of cleaning (circuits 10 and 11) are sometimes essential to the production of a clean final concentrate, circuits 8 and 9 comprising a single stage of cleaning are probably the most widely used. Occasionally the primary machines can be run as rougher-cleaner cells (circuit No. 5), particularly when they are of the air-lift or subaeration type. This method, however, is not often employed, although its use is more common in the flotation of copper sulphide minerals than of any other class of ore ; a stage of cleaning is preferable as providing greater lattitude of control.

Two variations of normal procedure are worth notice. In one or two plants employing two-stage grinding, improved results have been obtained by separating the slime from the primary ball mill circuit and sending it direct to a special flotation section. This method is useful when the feed to the flotation plant contains an appreciable quantity of fines, which, due generally to oxidation through exposure, require different treatment from the unweathered part of the ore. Such fines are usuallyfriable and can be separated as slime from the primary grinding circuit without the inclusion of an undue proportion of unoxidized material, the bulk of which thus passes to the secondary grinding circuit and thence to its own division of the flotation plant.

The second variation consists of grinding the rougher concentrate before cleaning. The method is applicable to an ore in which the copper- bearing minerals are so intimately associated with pyrite that very fine grinding is necessary to liberate them completely. It is often possible, after grinding such an ore to a comparatively coarse mesh, to make a profitable recovery of the copper in a low-grade concentrate which does not represent too large a proportion, say 30% or less, of the total weightof the feed. The concentrate can then be reground and refloated with the production of a high-grade copper concentrate together with a low- grade pyritic tailing suitable for return to the roughing circuit. This method is likely to be less costly than one involving the fine grinding of the whole ore. No standard system can be given for handling the various products as their disposal depends so much on the occurrence of the minerals and the efficiency of the regrinding operations, but a typical flow sheet is illustrated in circuit No. 12 (Fig. 60). It is diagrammatic to the extent that the thickener and regrinding unit may receive its feed from several roughing machines and deliver its discharge to a number of cleaning cells. It is usual to dewater the rougher concentrate and return the water to the primary circuit for two reasons : First, to supply the regrinding mill with a thick enough pulp for efficient operation, and, secondly, as far as possible to prevent the reagents used in the roughing circuit from entering the cleaning section.

In normal practice a recovery of over 90% of the copper which is present as a sulphide is generally possible, whatever the flotation process or circuit employed. As regards the average grade of concentrate, no more can be said than that it depends on the class of the copper-bearing minerals present and their mode of occurrence and on the character of the gangue. It usually contains over 20% of copper, but a difficult chalcopyritic ore may yield a concentrate with less than that percentage, while it is theoretically possible to obtain one running over 75% should the mineral consist entirely of pure chalcocite.

The flotation of native copper ores is nearly always preceded by gravity concentration in jigs and tables not only because the combined process is more economical as regards costs, but also because the copper often occurs as large grains which flatten out during grinding and cannot be broken to a size small enough for flotation. The flow sheet depends on the mode of occurrence of the mineral. The tailings from some of the gravity concentration machines may be low enough in value to be discarded, but those products which still contain too much copper to be sent to waste are thickened and reground, should either operation be necessary, and then floated with pine oil and a xanthate or aerofloat reagent in a neutral or slightly alkaline circuit. The reagent consumption is approximately the same as that given for the treatment of copper- bearing sulphides. While a pine oil, lime, and ethyl xanthate mixture has proved satisfactory, better results have sometimes been obtained by the substitution of aerofloat and sodium di-ethyl-di-thio-phosphate, soda ash being used instead of lime on account of its gangue deflocculating properties. On the average 0-12 lb. per ton of aerofloat and 0.03 lb. of the di-thio-phosphate are substituted for 0.1 lb. of xanthate.

Since a high-grade concentrate is desired in order to keep smelting costs as low as possible, the circuit usually comprises two stages of cleaning. In most plants flotation is carried out in mechanically agitated machines.

The problem of the flotation of oxidized copper ores has not yet been solved. One or two special processes are in operation for the flotation of malachite and azurite, but none of them has more than a limited application; nor has any method been worked out on a large scale for the bulk flotation of mixed oxidized and sulphide copper minerals when the former are present in the ore in appreciable quantity.

how is copper ore mining crushing

how is copper ore mining crushing

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copper ore crushing-sbm industrial technology group

copper ore crushing-sbm industrial technology group

According to a report launched by CDA (Copper Development Association), in the 21st century, copper is widely used in electric and electronic industry such as the production of smart phone and computer, which brings potential market opportunities to the exploitation of copper ore.

The production technologies mainly include 3 processes: crushing, grinding and beneficiation. For crushing, three-stage closed-circuit crushing process is suitable for super-hard copper and can separate the ore partly so as to improve the later grinding efficiency. For grinding, two-stage closed-circuit grinding process can fully grind the ore. For beneficiation, a typical modern beneficiation technology is mixed floatation. SBM, as a famous supplier of mining crushing solutions, can offer complete set of copper ore crushing equipment and comprehensive technical support to every customer.

china copper ore separation, tantalum ore separation, chrome ore washing factory, manufacturers and suppliers - xi'an desen mining machinery equipment co.,ltd

china copper ore separation, tantalum ore separation, chrome ore washing factory, manufacturers and suppliers - xi'an desen mining machinery equipment co.,ltd

With the Advanced Technological Support and Excellent Performance Equipment, We Offer One-stop/Turn-key Service of No More Than 10000t/d Capacity fFor Gold, Silver, Copper, Chrome, Lead-Zinc, Tungsten-Tin-Tantalum-Niobium, Manganese Ore to yYou and Ensure the hHigh Rate rRecovery of Your Mine.

mining legacy processes setting the industry behind in sustainability targets report

mining legacy processes setting the industry behind in sustainability targets report

A report commissioned by Glasgow-based engineering company the Weir Group states that the total amount of power used in hard rock mining is equal to 12 exajoules per year, or close to 3.5% of global energy use and that, therefore, the industry has to move away from legacy systems and processes if it wants to meet sustainability targets.

After analyzing mine energy data from over 40 studies published from 2007 to 2020 and which focused on five commodities copper, gold, iron ore, nickel and lithium comminution was identified as the single biggest user of energy at mine sites, typically accounting for 25% of minings final energy consumption.

Extended across all hard rock mining, this is equivalent to the power used by 221 million typical UK homes, or c.1% of total consumption globally, the report reads. Comminution is, therefore, a natural target for the most impactful energy savings opportunities.

In the gold mining sector, most studies reviewed for the report estimated that the overall average energy consumption is approximately 134 GJ/kg of gold for underground mines and average energy consumption of 372 GJ/kg of gold for open-pit operations.

According to the document, by comparing what the literature shows with a database of 400 mine sites it is possible to conclude that copper production has an average energy intensity of approximately 25 GJ/t of copper.

Energy use in the mining operations is 40% electricity (primarily ventilation) and 60% diesel (for loading and hauling). In the processing plant, the majority of energy consumption occurs in grinding (90%) with the remaining energy consumption in this study being attributed to flotation, the report reads.

Nickel sulphide processing, on the other hand, averages an energy intensity for concentrators of 31 GJ/t of nickel produced. Of this, the split between mining and processing is approximately 50:50with then 90% of the processing plant energy consumption being used in comminution.

Under the premise that hard rock lithium mining is likely to dominate in coming years due to the trend towards low/no cobalt batteries which tend to use lithium hydroxide rather than lithium carbonate, the review indicates that energy requirements for a lithium concentrator are approximately 15 GJ/t lithium produced. Of this, 60% of energy consumption is electricity in the concentrator with the remaining 40% in the mining operations.

In the processing plant, the largest portion of energy consumption was identified to be in the crushing area, followed by dense media separation. Crushing accounts for about 20% of site energy consumption, with a further 7% in the regrind mill.

In hematite operations, the report found that energy intensity averages less than 0.15 GJ/t of iron ore, taking into account both diesel consumption in the mine and electricity production for processing plants.

Approximately 90% of the energy consumption was determined to be diesel consumption in mobile equipment, while the remaining energy consumption is electricity in processing plantsmostly crushing and conveyors.

In magnetite operations, the paper shows that energy intensity for processing is 0.23 GJ/t of shipped ore, including the additional separation and concentration equipment. Mining operations add up to an additional 0.16 GJ/t of shipped ore giving a total site energy intensity of 0.3 GJ/t of shipped ore.

According to the document, small improvements in comminution technologies can lead to relatively large savings in both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. As an example, the report presents the idea of a 5% incremental improvement in energy efficiency across comminution, which could result in greenhouse gas emissions reductions of more than 30m tonnes of CO2e.

The replacement of traditional comminution equipment with new grinding technology also reduces indirect emissions in the mining value chain, for example by removing the need for the manufacture of emission-intensive steel grinding balls. Of the remaining energy consumption by the mining industry, diesel in varied forms of mobile equipment accounts for 46%, electricity in mining (ventilation) 15% and other electricity 14%, the review states.

Advancements in high pressure grinding rolls, high intensity grinding and stirred mills/vertical mills mean that traditional semi-autogenous grinding/ball mill applications could be replaced and the same outcomes achieved subject, of course, to the amenability of the particular ore type and processing requirements to these comminution circuits, the report suggests.

The paper notes that additional throughput in grinding circuits as a result of energy savings unlocking additional energy capacity should form part of business cases when exploring the potential of equipment and circuit changes.

Similarly, the report found that a good case could be built around automating operations so that computing technology and big data are able to provide high-fidelity block models showing mineral concentration and composition throughout mining areas.

Further, becoming a zero-emissions industry is also presented as a possibility if zero-emissions energy sources are deployed for mining equipment. Renewable energy, energy storage and alternative fuels are mentioned as viable options which, in turn, would leave a relatively small role for offsets and carbon credits to play.

The report comes as the mining industry is under ever-greater pressure to produce essential minerals that support some of the biggest global structural trends, the study reads. Copper, nickel, steel and lithium are core components of electricity transmission and storage, electric vehicles and renewable energy infrastructure. The move to a decarbonized economy will result in increased primary consumption of these mined commodities, even after factoring for recycling, so it is important that mining itself becomes more sustainable.

major mines & projects | lumwana mine

major mines & projects | lumwana mine

The Lumwana Project contains two major copper deposits, Malundwe and Chimiwungo, which are structurally controlled shear zone hosted deposits considered to be an end member of Central African Copperbelt class of deposits. These copper + cobalt + gold + uranium deposits are hosted within the Mwombezhi Dome, which is a northeast trending basement dome in the western arm of the Lufilian Arc thrust fold belt.In Zambia, the Lufilian Arc contains variably deformed and metamorphosed Late Proterozoic metasediments and volcanics of the Katangan Lower and Upper Roan, Mwashia, Nguba, and the Kundelungu supergroups, which unconformably overly the basement. The basement consists of older metamorphosed gneisses, schists, migmatites, amphibolites and granitoids. Subsequent to the deposition of the Katangan sequences, the basin was inverted, deformed, metamorphosed, and uplifted by generally north directed thrusting and folding to produce the late Neoproterozoic Cambrian Lufilian Arc.The copper mineralization at Malundwe and Chimiwungo is hosted almost entirely within high grade metamorphosed, intensely mylonitized, recrystallized muscovitephlogopitequartzkyanite schists with disseminated sulphides (typically <5%) dominated by chalcopyrite and bornite which is locally referred to as Mineralized Ore Schist. The distribution of copper mineralization is controlled by visibly identifiable stratabound geology, within which copper grades are consistent. Optimal grade continuity is aligned to an observed northsouth stretching lineation.The copper mineralization at Lumwana is almost entirely disseminated sulphides (typically <5%) dominated by chalcopyrite and bornite with a minor amount of the resource classified as oxide or transition.The overall strike length of mineralization at Malundwe is approximately six kilometres north-south and up to 1.5 km wide (east-west), predominantly as a single Mineralized Ore Schist horizon. The mineralization outcrops in the east, has an overall gentle dip to the west, and plunges to the south.The Chimiwungo deposit is partitioned into three bodies by two steep west-northwest trending dip-slip fault zones. The mineralized zones are referred to as Chimiwungo South, Chimiwungo Main (includes the recently discovered Chimiwungo East mineralized shoot), and Chimiwungo North. The mineralization Chimiwungo currently extends up to 1.5 km north-south and 2.8 km in the east-west orientation and remains open to the east and south.

There are two mining areas; Malundwe and Chimiwungo, which are 7 km apart in a direct line. Malundwe was the first pit to be mined, commencing in 2008. However Chimiwungo now contains 93% of the remaining reserves. The Chimiwungo mining area consists of three separate pits; South, Main and East. Malundwe was the first pit to be mined, commencing in 2008. However Chimiwungo now contains 93% of the remaining reserves. The Chimiwungo mining area consists of three separate pits; South, Main and East. Sulphide copper ore at Lumwana is mined by open pit methods that follow the typical sequence of tasks: grade control drilling, blasthole drilling, blasting, loading by hydraulic shovels (15 m3 and 27 m3 ), and hauling by off-highway trucks (254 t). The mine started operations in 2008, and now mines an average daily capacity of 260,000 t of total material mined. Mining is done primarily by Lumwana personnel and equipment; however production is also supplemented by a contractor with specialized small articulated fleet of trucks to meet pre-stripping requirements, particularly the stripping of weathered material in the wet season. They use 40 tonne capacity Volvo articulated trucks and 90 tonne tracked excavators. The contractors move 45,000 tonnes per day and are scheduled by the Lumwana Mine Engineering Department to coordinate material movements.

There are two crushers; at Malundwe and Chimiwungo South, which have the same setup and similar design. The Malundwe crusher was commissioned at the start of operations in 2008, whereas the Chimiwungo South crusher was commissioned in Q3 2011.Trucks from the mines can tip directly into a 400t capacity run-of-mine (ROM) dump hopper. The ROM pad accepts ore that cannot be directly dumped into the crusher feed hopper due to blending requirements or capacity constraints. The primary gyratory crusher crushes the ROM ore from a nominal top size of 1,500mm to less than 200mm. Oversize material is deposited on the ROM pad to be further broken by a mobile rock breaker. Crusher product is then conveyed via overland conveyor to a conical crushed ore stockpile with 12 hours live capacity. The Malundwe overland conveyor is 4.5km long, and the Chimiwungo South overland conveyor is 3.5km long.Stockpiled and crushed ore is reclaimed via apron feeders onto a conveyor belt providing direct feed, at a rate of approximately 3,200t/h, into the 38ft diameter by 18ft SAG mill. The SAG mill trommel undersize discharges into a hopper and is pumped to conventional hydrocyclones, operating in closed circuit with a 26ft diameter by 40ft ball mill. The hydrocyclone overflow, with a particle size distribution of 80% passing 380m, reports to flotation, and the cyclone underflow returns to the ball mill for further size reduction.

The Lumwana concentrator flow sheet has a nominal design capacity of 25Mtpa.The flotation plant consists of two parallel trains of rougher/scavenger cells. The rougher/scavenger concentrate reports to the regrind circuit to further liberate the copper minerals. Following regrinding, the concentrate is cleaned in a conventional cleaner/recleaner circuit to reach final concentrate grade. Final concentrate grades of approximately 25% to 33% copper are expected.Five 17 m3 Dorr Oliver flotation cells are utilized for re-cleaner flotation. The tailings report to the cleaner flotation cells. The concentrate from the re-cleaner flotation circuit is pumped to the concentrate thickener after passing the final concentrate sample analyser and trash screen. The sample analyser determines the pulp density, and the copper, iron, and cobalt concentrations.Collector, frother, and flocculant are the primary reagents used in the processing plant at Lumwana. A number of ........

saudi arabia mining industry: gold ore and copper ore mining

saudi arabia mining industry: gold ore and copper ore mining

Saudi Arabia is abundant with oil and the output is 526 million tons. Besides oil, natural gas is also very rich and it is in the fourth in the world. There are other ore mineral resources in this country, such as gold ore, copper ore, iron ore, tin ore, aluminum ore and zinc ore etc. Learn the ore mineral materials and how to mine them will bring high profits for the whole country.

Gold ore is one of the most common ore mineral resources in Saudi Arabia. It has enough gold content and this gold ore can be used for industrial mineral processing. The gold ore in Saudi Arabia can be mined to get pure gold materials. Gold deposit is formed by mineralization and it can be of a certain scale industrial gold ore accumulation. Gold in the earth's crust and mantle is low abundance and scattered.

As the above mentioned, gold ore is rich in Saudi Arabia and the copper ore is also abundant in this country. Copper ore is mined from copper rock mountains. After processing, it can be the high grade copper or copper ore sands. The copper ore can be divided into pyrite, chalcopyrite, barite, chalcocite, blue copper, copper blue and malachite etc. It is mainly used in metallurgical industry as the raw material.

Ore mining processing line refers to the stone mineral materials processed by the mining equipment. The main stages include crushing stage, grinding stage and beneficiation process. Ore mining production line starts with the feeding stage. Feeding equipment will be used to send materials into crushing machine. For the crushing stage, it can be divided into primary crushing process, secondary crushing stage and tertiary crushing process. These crushing stages cooperate with each other to get the large scale ore materials be small ones.

The most used crushing machine has jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, hammer crusher, gyratory crusher and so on. Jaw crusher belongs to the primary crushing machine and is used in the first crushing stage. Cone crusher, impact crusher can be used as the secondary crushing equipment. Gyratory crusher is the high efficient and large scale crusher machine.

Grinding equipment is after the crushing machine working process. In this stage, ore mineral materials will be grinded into smaller size related with the crushed materials. Beneficiation process will help get the clean and high grade ore materials. It mainly refers to the screening, washing and so on.

Ore crusher machine and grinding mill are the necessary machines used in mineral production line. SBM is a professional mining and construction machine manufacturer from China and we can provide high quality and high efficiency equipment for the Saudi Arabia clients. Here will introduce the gold ore cone crusher and copper ore ball mill for you all.

In gold ore mining process, cone crusher plays the important role in the line. SBM gold ore cone crusher features a unique combination of crusher speed, cavity and throw. The combination can provide customers the superior product quality and higher capacity. This crushing machine has been proved that it has wide application ranges, such as limestone, basalt, iron ore sand etc. In some working situation, it provides unbeatable performance in secondary, tertiary and quaternary applications.

Besides the above gold ore cone crusher, the ball mill is also necessary in the production line. Copper ore ball mill produced by SBM can be widely used for the mineral materials. This ball mill can be used for dry and wet grinding of different materials such as the limestone, copper ore, cement materials etc. Besides, horizontal ball mill has become a reliable part of grinding plants.

SBM copper ore ball mill has low operation and low maintenance. With high capacity and operating reliability, this milling machine is welcomed by clients. If you want to know more information of Saudi Arabia ore mining processing machine, you can contact us for more detailed, such as the price, working principle or others.

crushing and milling | mining of mineral resources | siyavula

crushing and milling | mining of mineral resources | siyavula

In this chapter we build on what was done in the previous two chapters. After learning that rocks contain minerals, we now explore how the minerals may be extracted so that they may be utilised. Mining plays an important role in the wealth of a country. Learners will therefore learn about the mining industry in South Africa and the impact that mining may have on a country and the globe.

The mining industry is an important industry in South Africa. It involves a number of industries working together. Exploration is followed by excavation, which is followed by crushing and milling to reduce the size of the rocks. This is followed by extraction (removing the valuable minerals from the ore) and finally refining. Each of these processes are discussed in this chapter. The idea is not that learners should know all the terms off by heart, but rather that they grasp the bigger picture. A number of different processes are needed with each one dependent on the efficiency of the step before. The flow diagram exercise towards the end of the chapter is meant to consolidate the chapter content and help learners realise the continuous nature of many industrial processes.

A research project is also included in this chapter. Let the learners choose one industry and research the different aspects of mining covered in this chapter for their chosen industry. The following mining industries can be researched: gold, iron, copper, diamond, phosphate, coal, manganese, chromium or platinum group metals (PGMs). Learners could also choose their own.

The projects need to be handed out in the beginning of the term/chapter. Learners can then present their projects at the end of the chapter, by doing a poster or an oral, or both. For the orals, we suggest you work with the language department so that learners can be assessed there as well. If posters are done, then we suggest you put these up for display for the whole school to see. Learners can stand at their posters during breaks where learners from other grades have the opportunity to come and have a look at their work and ask questions about it.

The project has a two-way purpose, firstly for learners to continue learning about doing research, finding information and presenting the information to others, and secondly, for learners to explore careers in this industry. Part of what they should include in their research is a section on careers in mining.

In the previous two chapters you have learnt about the spheres of the Earth especially the lithosphere. The lithosphere consists of rocks, which contain minerals. Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. A mineral could be a pure element, but more often minerals are made up of many different elements combined. Minerals are useful chemical compounds for making new materials that we can use in our daily lives. In this chapter we are going to look at how to get the minerals out of the rocks and in a form that we can use. This is what the mining industry is all about.

You already know that minerals in rocks cannot be used. Many processes are used to make minerals available for our use. We need to locate the minerals. We must determine whether these concentrations are economically viable to mine. Rocks with large concentrations of minerals, are called ores. Mining depends on finding good quality ore, preferably within a small area.

The next step is to get the rocks which contain the mineral out of the ground. Once the ore is on the surface, the process of getting the mineral you want out of the rock can start. Once the mineral is separated from the rest of the rock, the mineral needs to be cleaned so that it can be used.

This project should be handed out in the beginning of the chapter so that learners have time to work on it. Information for the project is provided in the sections in the chapter, but learners also need to find information on their own. Guiding questions are provided to help learners.

One of the most important steps in mining is to find the minerals. Most minerals are found everywhere in the lithosphere, but in very, very low concentrations, too low to make mining profitable. For mining to be profitable, high quality ore needs to be found in a small area. Mining exploration is the term we use for finding out where the valuable minerals are.

Today technology helps mining geologists and surveyors to find high quality ore without having to do any digging. When the geologists and surveyors are quite sure where the right minerals are, only then do they dig test shafts to confirm what their surveying techniques have suggested.

In all these methods we use the properties of the minerals and our knowledge of the lithosphere to locate them underground, without going underground ourselves. For example, iron is magnetic so instruments measuring the changes in the magnetic field can give us clues as to where pockets of iron could be.

Exploration methods are used to find, and assess the quality of mineral deposits, prior to mining. Generally a number of explorative techniques are used, and the results are then compared to see if a location seems suitable for mining.

Remote sensing is the term used to gain information from a distance. For example, by using radar, sonar and satellite images, we can obtain images of the Earth's surface. These images help us to locate possible mining sites, as well as study existing mining sites for possible expansion.

Rare earth elements are a set of 17 elements on the Periodic Table, including the fifteen lanthanides and scandium and yttrium. Despite their names, they are found in relatively plentiful amounts in the Earth's crust.

Geophysical methods make use of geology and the physical properties of the minerals to detect them underground. For example, diamonds are formed deep in the Earth at very high temperatures, in kimberlite pipes of igneous rock. The kimberlite pipe is a carrot shape. The first kimberlite pipe to be detected was in Kimberley in South Africa. The pipe was mined, eventually creating the Big Hole.

Geochemical methods combine the knowledge of the chemistry of the minerals with the geology of an area to help identify which compounds are present in the ore and how much of it is present. For example, when an ore body is identified, samples are taken to analyse the mineral content of the ore.

When colonialists arrived, they realised the potential mineral wealth of South Africa as gold, and later diamonds, were discovered. They ruthlessly took land from the local people wherever minerals were found, completely ignoring their right to ownership and access.

De Beers purchased the mining rights and closed all access to diamond mining areas. Anyone entering the area would be prosecuted and the sale of so-called 'illegal' diamonds was heavily punished. Other large mining companies have tried to claim the right to the minerals that they mine.

Once the ore body has been identified, the process of getting the ore out of the ground begins. There are two main methods of mining - surface mining and underground mining. In some locations a combination of these methods is used.

Surface mining is exactly what the word says - digging rocks out from the surface, forming a hole or pit. In South Africa, this method is used to mine for iron, copper, chromium, manganese, phosphate and coal.

Let's look at coal as an example. For surface mining, the minerals need to be close to the surface of the Earth. Most of the coal found in South Africa is shallow enough for surface mining. Usually the rocks are present in layers. To expose the coal layer, the layers above it need to be removed. The vegetation and soil, called the topsoil, is removed and kept aside so that it can be re-deposited in the area after mining. If there is a layer of rock above the coal face, called the overburden, this is also removed before the coal can be excavated. Once all the coal has been removed, the overburden and topsoil are replaced to help in restoring the natural vegetation of the area. This is called rehabilitation.

There is a growing emphasis on the need to rehabilitate old mine sites that are no longer in use. If it is too difficult to restore the site to what it was before, then a new type of land use might be decided for that area.

When you mine you are digging into solid rock. The rock needs to be broken up into smaller pieces before it can be removed. Holes are drilled in the rock and explosives, like dynamite, are placed inside the holes to blast the rock into pieces. The pieces are still very large and extremely heavy. The rocks are loaded onto very large haul trucks and removed. Sometimes the rocks (ore) are crushed at the mining site to make them easier to transport.

Mining trucks are enormous. They are up to 6 meters tall, that's higher than most houses. These trucks can carry 300 tons of material and their engines have an output 10-20 times more powerful than a car engine.

Often the minerals are not found close to the surface of the Earth, but deeper down. In these cases underground mining, also called shaft mining, is used. Examples of underground mining in South Africa are mining for diamonds, gold and sometimes the platinum group metals (PGM).

The PGMs are six transition metals usually found together in ore. They are ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (Rh), palladium (Pd), osmium (Os), iridium (Ir) and platinum (Pt). South Africa has the highest known reserves of PGMs in the world.

Sometimes the ore is very deep, which is often the case with diamonds or gold ore. In these cases mine shafts go vertically down and side tunnels make it possible for the miners and equipment to reach the ore. A structure called the headgear is constructed above the shaft and controls the lift system into the vertical shaft. Using the lift, it can take miners up to an hour to reach the bottom of the shaft.

The TauTona Mine in Carletonville, Gauteng is the world's deepest mine. It is 3,9 km deep and has 800 km of tunnels. Working this deep underground is very dangerous. It is very hot, up to 55C. To be able to work there, the air is constantly cooled to about 28 C using air-conditioning vents.

South Africa is a world leader in the gold mining industry. We have been doing gold mining for more than a century and our mines are the deepest in the world. Until 2010 we were the leading producer of gold in the world. Gold is a lustrous, precious metal which has a very high conductivity.

Yes it is, the mines are very deep, of the deepest in the world. Mining deep underground is difficult and dangerous because of the heat and lack of oxygen. Rocks can also collapse because of the pressure.

One of the methods used in underground mining is called room and pillar, and is often used for mining coal. Part of the mine is open to the surface and part of it is underground. The coal face is dug out, but pillars of coal are left behind to keep the tunnels open and support the roof. Machines called continuous miners are used to remove the coal. The coal is loaded onto conveyor belts and taken up to the surface for further crushing.

This section looks at methods to get very large rocks crushed and ground until it is as fine as powder. The first concept that needs to come across here is that minerals are inside rocks and by crushing rocks, the minerals are exposed at the surface of the rock fragment. Only then can chemicals be used to extract the mineral. An analogy with a choc chip biscuit is used to demonstrate this principle. The second concept is that a lot of energy is needed to break rocks. This is a very energy-intensive step in the mining industry, and one of the reasons why mining is so expensive.

This lesson can be introduced by demonstrating the principle explained above to the class. Use choc chip biscuits and crush them with your fingers. This is to get the minerals (choc chips) out. The next step is to separate the choc chips from the crumbs - also a step in the mining process.

Mineral crystals are spread throughout rocks, just like chocolate chips are spread throughout a choc chip biscuit. Sometimes we can see the chocolate chips from the outside, but most of the time the chips are not visible because they are inside the biscuit.

The only way to find out how many choc chips there are is to crush the biscuit. In the same way we can sometimes see mineral crystals from the outside of the rock, but mostly we don't know what minerals there are and and what concentrations are inside the rock. The only way to find out is to break the rock into smaller and smaller pieces.

Once we have crumbled the choc chip biscuit, the chocolate pieces can be separated from the crumbs. In the same way in the mining process the valuable minerals can be separated from the unwanted rock. The unwanted rock is called waste rock.

Let's look at an example. You have learnt in the previous chapter that copper minerals are found in rocks. In South Africa, the Bushveld Igneous Complex is an area which stretches across the North West and Limpopo Provinces. Igneous rock with high mineral content is found here. Here they mine for PGMs, chromium, iron, tin, titanium, vanadium and other minerals using open pit and underground mining. The rocks from the mines are transported by conveyor belts to crushers. Jaw crushers and cone crushers break the huge rocks into smaller rocks.

You can demonstrate this to your class by placing some pieces of broken up biscuit into a plastic container with some marbles or ball bearings. Place the lid on the container and then shake it so that the marbles help to crush and break up the biscuit pieces even further.

This process of reducing the size of the rocks requires a lot of energy. Just image how hard it is to break a rock. How much more energy do you think is needed to crush a rock until it is like sand? This is one of the steps in the mining process that is very expensive because energy is needed to drive the process.

Most minerals are found as compounds in rocks. Only a few minerals are found in their pure form, in other words not bound to any other element. Examples of minerals found in their pure form are gold and diamonds (diamonds consist of the element carbon).

Some rocks are used as is, and do not need to be crushed into powder, or involved in minerals extraction. For example phosphate rock itself can be used as a fertiliser, or it can be used to make phosphoric acid. Sand, or the mineral silicon dioxide (SiO2) is used in the building industry. Coal found in sedimentary rock, is crushed into the appropriate size and used as fuel for electricity generation or the iron-making process.

Before the minerals can be used, they need to be separated from the waste rock. A number of different separation techniques are used. These techniques are based on the properties of the minerals. Different minerals are often found together, for example copper and zinc, gold and silver or the PGMs. A combination of techniques are used to separate the minerals from the waste and then the minerals from each other.

Sorting by hand is not a very effective method to separate out the minerals you want. It can only be used in exceptional situation or by individuals, for example many people mine for alluvial diamonds by hand in rivers in Angola. It is a cheap and easy process to do individually, but it is not feasible on an industrial scale.

Iron is a metal with magnetic properties. Iron ore can be separated from waste rock by using magnetic separation techniques. Conveyor belts carry the ore past strong electromagnets which remove the magnetic pieces (containing the iron) from the non-magnetic waste. How do you think this works? Study the following diagram

The magnetic iron ore will fall into the container on the right as it is attracted to the magnetic roller and travels around the bend of the magnet for a longer period, whereas the non-magnetic waste drops straight down due to gravity, as the magnet turns, and falls into the first container on the left.

One of the first methods for mining gold was that of panning, a technique where ore is mixed with water and forms a suspension. When it is shaken, the dense particles of gold sink to the bottom and could be removed.

Let the learners work in groups of three. The value of the activity is the process of doing it, and not so much the end product. Learners will want to separate every single bead in the process and this is not possible, nor does it happen in the mining industry. Valuable materials do end up as waste.

When choosing beads to separate, ensure that there are a variety of shapes, round and flat, small and large. Most plastic beads will float on water, but metallic ones will sink. The piece of carpet is provided to make the tray rough, but still smooth enough for round beads to roll off, and flat beads to stick. Choose the smallest flattest beads to represent the valuable materials.They will remain on the carpet in the tray more easily.

To separate by density, learners can drop the beads into water - some beads will float and others will sink. To separate by size, learners can use the mesh and let the smaller beads fall through into the cup, with the larger ones staying behind.

As an extension, include some beads which are identical in shape and size, but different colours. At this point, learners will want to hand sort them. Tell learners that hand sorting, although effective and is used by individuals, it is a very time-consuming process and therefore almost never done in the mining industry. Ask learners if they have any other ideas. This is where chemical properties come in. For example, tell learners that one colour bead reacts with an acid and the other does not. Get learners to discuss how they would then separate the beads knowing this. A real world example is that silver reacts with chlorine, but gold does not.

As you have seen in the activity, separating a mixture can be done using different properties, depending on the different properties of the beads. There could be a number of different ways to separate the beads depending on which type of bead you want to select (considered to be the most valuable ones).

Size separation is used frequently in mining to classify ore. For example, when iron ore is exported, it needs to be a certain size to be acceptable to the world market. Coal that is used in power stations also needs to be a certain size so that it can be used to generate electricity effectively.

Flotation makes use of density separation, but in a special way. Chemicals are added to change the surface properties of the valuable minerals so that air bubbles can attach to them. The minerals are mixed with water to make a slurry, almost like a watery mud. Air bubbles are blown through the slurry and the minerals attach to the bubbles. The air bubbles are much less dense than the solution and rise to the top where the minerals can be scraped off easily.

The focus of this activity is to illustrate the principle of flotation and for learners to practice explaining their observations. They will have to apply what they know about density to be able to explain what they see. This activity can also be modified by letting the learners predict what they think will happen before they add the peanuts and raisins to the tap water; and again before they add it to the soda water. The outcome might not be what they expected and the value of the activity is for them to try to explain what they see.

The activity can be done as a classroom demonstration, but it is more effective if done by the learners in pairs. The one learner can use the tap water, and the other the soda water. A suggestions is to buy packets of peanuts and raisins separately, otherwise oil from the peanuts can coat the raisins, causing some of the raisins to rise. The raisins can also be rinsed in acidulated water because they are often dressed with oil before sale for visual enhancement.

Learners should observe that the peanuts and raisins sink to the bottom in the tap water and remain there since they are more dense than water. However, in the soda water, the peanuts and raisins initially sink to the bottom, but then the peanuts start to rise. Small bubbles from the soda water attach to the peanuts' oily surface and cause them to rise to the surface.

The methods mentioned so far are all physical separation methods. Sometimes they are sufficient to separate minerals for use, like coal or iron ore. But more often the element that we are looking for is found as a chemical compound, and so will have to be separated by further chemical reactions. For example, copper in Cu2S or aluminium in Al2O3. What is the name for the force that is holding atoms together in a compound?

Once the compound is removed from the ore, the element we want needs to be separated from the other atoms by chemical means. This process forms part of refining the mineral, as you will see in the next section.

There are many different methods used to concentrate and refine minerals. The choice of methods depends on the composition of the ore. Most of the methods however, make use of chemistry to extract the metal from the compound or remove impurities from the final product. We will discuss the extraction of iron from iron ore as an example.

Iron atoms are found in the compounds FeO, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 and in rocks like haematite and magnetite. South Africa is the seventh largest producer of iron ore in the world. Iron has been mined in South Africa for thousands of years. South African archaeological sites in Kwa-Zulu Natal and Limpopo provide evidence for this. Evidence of early mining activities was found in archaeological sites dating mining and smelting of iron back to the Iron Age around 770 AD.

The first iron mining techniques used charcoal which was mixed with iron ore in a bloomery. When heating the mixture and blowing air (oxygen) in through bellows, the iron ore is converted to the metal, iron. The chemical reaction between iron oxide and carbon is used here to produce iron metal. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is:

This extraction method is still used today. The bloomery is replaced with a blast furnace, but the chemistry is still the same. Iron ore, a type of coal called coke (which contains 85% carbon) and lime are added to the top of the blast furnace. Hot air provides the oxygen for the reaction. The temperature of a blast furnace can be up to 1200C. The reaction takes place inside the furnace and molten iron is removed from the bottom. Lime (calcium carbonate or CaCO3) is added to react with the unwanted materials, such as sand (silicon dioxide or SiO2). This produces a waste product called slag. The slag is removed from the bottom and used for building roads. Iron is used to make steel. Hot gases, mainly carbon dioxide, escape at the top of the furnace.

For safety reasons, this experiment should rather be demonstrated. Ensure that you wear safety glasses when performing this experiment. It is quite easy to do, but takes a long time to actually react. The blow pipe needs to redirect the flame into the hollow in the block. Blow through the top of the blue part of the flame. Use a straw to extend the blow pipe so that you can stand a bit further away from the flame. Ensure that a steady stream of heat gets right into the middle of the mixture so that it glows red hot for a while. The video link in the Visit box also shows how the experiment is performed (and the mistakes made). The product can clearly be seen in the video.

In this experiment carbon was used to remove the oxygen from the lead(II) oxide. The carbon and oxygen form carbon dioxide, and the lead is left behind as a metal. This is the same process that is used in iron extraction in the blast furnace, that we discussed above. Coke, which is mainly carbon, removes the oxygens from the iron(III) oxide to form carbon dioxide and leaves behind the iron metal.

The iron that is formed in the blast furnace often contains too much carbon - about 4% where it should contain not more than 2%. Too much carbon makes the iron brittle. To improve the quality of the iron, it needs to be refined by lowering the amount of carbon. This is done by melting the metal and reacting the carbon with pure oxygen to form carbon dioxide gas. In this way the carbon is burned off and the quality of the iron improves. The iron can now be used in the steel-making process. Carbon reacts with oxygen according to the following chemical equation:

Most minerals go through chemical extraction and refining processes to purify them for use in making materials and other chemical products. These are then distributed to where they are needed, for example, coal is distributed to coal power stations and slag is distributed to construction groups for building roads. The mining industry supplies the manufacturing industry and the chemical industry with its raw materials, for example iron is distributed to steel manufacturing industries.

Long before diamonds were discovered in the Kimberley area and the Gold Rush in Pilgrim's Rest and Witwatersrand areas in the late 1800s, minerals have been mined in South Africa. At Mapungubwe in the Limpopo Province evidence of gold and iron mining and smelting was found which dates back to the early 11th century AD. However, it was the large scale mining activities that accelerated the development of the country.

South Africa has a wealth of minerals. We are the world's largest producers of chromium, manganese, platinum, vanadium and andalusite; and the second largest producer of ilmenite, palladium, rutile and zirconium. We are the third largest coal exporter, fifth largest diamond producer and seventh largest iron ore producer. Up to 2010 we were the world's largest gold producer, but our gold production has declined steadily over a number of years. We are currently fifth on the list of gold producers.

The Bushveld Igneous Complex has the world's largest primary source of platinum group metals, indicated on the map in light blue. It is one of the most important mining areas in South Africa due to its abundance of minerals.

Learners need to develop their own symbols for each mineral that is mined, and also colour code the map. The map is blank and so they must find out where each town is located and add it to the map. Let them also fill in the name of the city/town/area in which they live. If there are mining activities in your area which is not indicated on this table, let the learners add it to the list. The list provided is not exhaustive, but it is still fairly long. If you want to make the activity simpler, learners can also chose a certain number of minerals to represent.

There are two types of diamond mining, alluvial (which is found on the coast or in inland rivers which have washed through kimberlite pipes) and kimberlite (which is found inland). What is the link between these two types of diamond mining?

This activity is meant to consolidate the knowledge from this chapter. Each industry will have its own unique flow diagram. The idea is for the learners to realise that it is a continuous system where the one process feeds into the next one to produce a useful end product. This activity links up with the research project and should give learners a good guide for doing and presenting their research projects.

Coal mining: Finding coal seams through exploration in Mpumalanga, Free State and KwaZulu Natal mining for coal using open pit mining removing the coal by blasting and drilling loading onto haul trucks and removing from mine crushing the coal sorting into different sizes distribution to power stations electricity generation

Mining has played a major role in the history of South Africa. It accelerated technological development and created infrastructure in remote areas in South Africa. Many small towns in South Africa started because of mining activity in the area. It also created a demand for roads and railways to be built. Most importantly it created job opportunities for thousands of people. Even today many households are dependent on the mining activities for jobs and an income. Mining is an important part of our economic wealth. We export minerals and ore to many other countries in the world.

Mining activities also have a negative impact on the environment. In many cases the landscape is changed. This applies particularly to surface mines (open pit mines), where large amounts of soil and rock must be removed in order to access the minerals. The shape of the landscape can be changed when large amounts of rocks are dug up from the Earth and stacked on the surface. These are called mine dumps. Open pit mines also create very large unsightly and dangerous holes (pits) in the ground that change the shape of the land.

Air and water pollution can take place if care is not taken in the design and operation of a mine. Dust from open pit mines, as well as harmful gases such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, could be released from mining processes and contribute to air pollution. Mining activities produce carbon dioxide. Trucks and other vehicles give off exhaust gases.

If the mining process is not monitored properly, acid and other chemicals from chemical processing can run into nearby water systems such as rivers. This is poisonous to animals and plants, as well as to humans who may rely on that water for drinking.

An example are pollutants (dangerous chemicals), called tailings, left over from gold mining which pose a threat to the environment and the health of nearby communities. Dangerous waste chemicals can leak into the groundwater and contaminate water supplies if the tailings are not contained properly.

There are no specific answers for this activity. It is an open discussion. We suggest that you discuss the impact of mining in South Africa through this activity. The idea is that learners should come up with all the issues and think about the impact of what we as humans do. The answer to solving the issues is not necessarily to close down all mining activity.

Use the following concept map to summarise what you have learnt in this chapter about mining of mineral resources. What are the three types of mining that we discussed in this chapter? Fill these into the concept map. Remember that you can add in your own notes to these concept maps, for example, you could write more about the environmental impacts of mining.

Phalaborwa is home to one of the largest open pit mines in the world. The original carbonate outcrop was a large hill known as Loolekop. Archaeological findings at Loolekop revealed small scale mining and smelting activities carried out by people who lived there long ago. An early underground mine shaft of 20 meters deep and only 38 centimeters wide were also found. The shafts contained charcoal fragments dating the activities to 1000 - 1200 years ago.

In 1934 the first modern mining started with the extraction of apatite for use as a fertiliser. In 1946 a well known South African geologist Dr. Hans Merensky started investigating Loolekop and found economically viable deposits of apatite in the foskorite rock. In the early 1950s a very large low grade copper sulfide ore body was discovered.

In 1964 the Phalaborwa Mine, an open pit copper mine, commenced its operations. Today the pit is 2 km wide. Loolekop, the large hill, has been completely mined away over the years. A total of 50 different minerals are extracted from the mine. The northern part of the mine is rich in phosphates and the central area, where Loolekop was situated, is rich in copper. Copper with the co-products of silver, gold, phosphate, iron ore, vermiculite, zirconia and uranium are extracted from the rocks.

The open pit facility closed down its operation in 2002 and has now been converted to an underground mine. This extended the lifetime of the mine for another 20 years. The mine employs around 2500 people.

2000 million years ago this area was an active volcano. Today the cone of the volcano is gone and only the pipe remains. The pipe is 19 km2 in area and has an unknown depth, containing minerals like copper, phosphates, zirconium, vermiculite, mica and gold.

This mine was a leader in the field of surface mining technology with the first in-pit primary crushing facility. This meant that ore was crushed by jaw crushers before taken out of the mine. They also used the first trolley-assist system for haul trucks coming out of the pit. Today the mine has secondary crushing facilities, concentrators and a refinery on site.

In 1982 a series of cavities with well-crystallised minerals were discovered, for example calcite crystals up to 15 cm on edge, silky mesolite crystals of up to 2cm long and octahedral magnetite crystals of 1-2 cm on the edge.

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