ICLG - Mining Laws and Regulations - USA covers common issues in mining laws and regulations including the acquisition of rights, ownership requirements and restrictions, processing, transfer and encumbrance, environmental aspects, native title and land rights in 15 jurisdictions.
The US legal system consists of many levels of codified and uncodified federal, state, and local laws. The Governments regulatory authority at each level may originate from constitutions, statutes, administrative regulations or ordinances, and judicial common law. The US Constitution and federal laws are the supreme law of the land, generally pre-empting conflicting state and local laws. In many legal areas, the different authorities have concurrent jurisdiction, requiring regulated entities to comply with multiple levels of regulation. Mining on federal lands, for example, is generally subject to multiple layers of concurrent federal, state, and local statutes and administrative regulations. Increasingly, the executive branch of the federal Government has made use of Presidential Executive Orders to impact mining policy and procedure.
Federal and state Governments have developed comprehensive mining regulatory schemes. Although the US is a common law nation, practising US mining law often resembles practising mining law in civil law countries because the regulatory schemes are set out in detailed codifications. See, e.g., 43 C.F.R. 3000.0-5-3936.40 (US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) minerals management regulations). However, these mining law codifications are subject to precedential interpretation by courts pursuant to common law principles (and in some situations by quasi-judicial administrative bodies). US mining law may originate from federal, state, and local laws, including constitutions, statutes, administrative regulations or ordinances, and judicial and administrative body common law.
Determining which level of Government has jurisdiction over mining activities largely depends on surface and mineral ownership. A substantial amount of mining in the US occurs on federal lands where the federal Government owns both the surface and mineral estates. Federal law primarily governs mineral ownership, operations, and environmental compliance, with state and local Governments having concurrent or independent authority over certain aspects of federal land mining projects (e.g. permitting, water rights and access authorisations). If the resource occurs on private land, estate ownership is a matter of state contract law, but operations and environmental compliance are still regulated by applicable federal and state laws. Estate ownership on state-owned land is regulated by state law, and operations and environmental compliance are regulated by applicable federal and state laws, and in some cases local zoning ordinances.
The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), 43 U.S.C. 17011787, governs federal land use, including access to, and exercise of, mining rights on lands administered by the BLM and the US Forest Service (USFS). FLPMA recognises the Nations need for domestic sources of minerals, 43 U.S.C. 1701(a)(12), and provides that FLPMA shall not impair GML rights, including, but not limited to, rights of ingress and egress. 43 U.S.C. 1732(b). However, FLPMA also provides that mining authorisations must not result in unnecessary or undue degradation of public lands. 43 C.F.R. 3809.411(d)(3)(iii); see also 43 U.S.C. 1732(b). BLM and USFS have promulgated extensive FLPMA mining regulations. See, e.g., 36 C.F.R. 228.1228.116, 43 C.F.R. 3000.0-5-3936.40. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 42 U.S.C. 4321-4370m-12, requires federal agencies to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for all major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Mining operations on federal lands or with a federal nexus generally will involve an EIS or a less intensive environmental assessment (EA) examining environmental impacts. The NEPA process involves consideration of other substantive environmental statutes. Other Government statutes affect mining with regard to the following: solid and hazardous material disposal and transportation; reclamation; clean water and air; toxic substances; historic and cultural preservation; and endangered species.
The US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulates mineral resources and reserves reporting by entities subject to SEC filing and reporting requirements. The SECs reporting classification system is based on the SECs 1992 Industry Guide 7, which provides for declaration only of proven and probable reserves. On October 31, 2018, the SEC adopted amendments to modernise the property disclosure requirements for mining registrants which more closely align with current industry and global regulatory practices and standards, including the Committee for Reserves International Reporting Standards. Under the new rules, Guide 7 has been replaced with a new subpart of Regulation S-K which, among other new requirements aimed at protecting investors, requires mining registrants to disclose both mineral resources and mineral reserves and to support all disclosures with a technical report prepared by qualified persons with mining expertise. The SEC adopted a two-year transition period with the initial compliance year beginning on or after January 1, 2021, but registrants may voluntarily comply immediately.
The United States Congress is intensifying efforts to increase domestic mining and processing of strategic minerals. The American Critical Minerals Exploration and Innovation Act now moving through Congress would allocate more than $2 billion over a 10-year period to research and development of strategic minerals. The proposed legislation also aims to streamline the mine permit review process.
The legislation comes on the heels of several efforts during the Trump administration to focus on strategic minerals. Pursuant to Executive Order 13817, President Trump outlined a federal policy to reduce the countrys dependency on the importation of minerals considered critical to the security and prosperity of the United States. He directed the Secretary of the Interior, in coordination with the Department of Defense and other executive branch agencies, to identify such critical minerals based on the following criteria: (i) a non-fuel mineral or mineral material essential to the economic and national security of the United States, (ii) the supply chain of which is vulnerable to disruption, and (iii) that serves an essential function in the manufacturing of a product, the absence of which would have significant consequences for our economy or our national security. On May 18, 2018, the Department of the Interior published the final list of critical minerals which includes uranium. Final List of Critical Minerals 2018, 83 Fed. Reg. 23,295 (May 18, 2018).
The Executive Order further directed implementation of the critical mineral policy to: (a) identify new sources of critical minerals; (b) increase activity at all levels of the supply chain, including exploration, mining, concentration, separation, alloying, recycling, and reprocessing of critical minerals; (c) ensure that miners and producers have electronic access to the most advanced topographic, geologic, and geophysical data within the U.S. territory to the extent permitted by law; and (d) streamline leasing and permitting processes to expedite exploration, production, processing, reprocessing, recycling, and domestic refining of critical minerals.
In order to conduct reconnaissance, miners must demonstrate that they hold a right to access the minerals. Such rights may be based on fee ownership, lease or contracting of privately owned minerals, or through locations, leases, or contracts of federal and/or state-owned mineral. Where the surface and minerals have been severed, surface access rights may need to be demonstrated as well.
The General Mining Law of 1872 (GML), 30 U.S.C. 2154, 611615, as amended, is the principal law governing locatable minerals on federal lands. The GML affords US citizens the opportunity to explore for, discover and purchase certain valuable mineral deposits on federal lands open for mineral entry. Locatable minerals include non-metallic minerals (fluorspar, mica, certain limestones and gypsum, tantalum, heavy minerals in placer form, and gemstones) and metallic minerals including gold, silver, lead, copper, zinc, and nickel. Locating these mineral deposits entitles the locator to certain possessory interests: unpatented mining claims, which provide the locator an exclusive possessory interest in surface and subsurface lands and the right to develop the minerals; and patented mining claims, which pass title from the federal Government to the locator, converting the property to private land. However, a mining patent moratorium has been in place since 1994 and no new patents are being issued. The GML affords US citizens the opportunity to explore for, discover and purchase certain valuable mineral deposits on federal lands open for mineral entry. The process for developing locatable mineral rights on federal lands involves:
The Materials Disposal Act of 1947, 30 U.S.C. 601615, as amended, provides for the disposal of common minerals found on federal lands, including, but not limited to, cinders, clay, gravel, pumice, sand or stone, or other materials used for agriculture, animal husbandry, building, abrasion, construction, landscaping and similar uses. These minerals may be sold through competitive bids, non-competitive bids in certain circumstances or through free use by Government entities and non-profit entities.
The Mineral Lands Leasing Act of 1920, 30 U.S.C. 181287, as amended, establishes a prospecting permit and leasing system for all deposits of coal, phosphate, sodium, potassium, oil, gas, oil shale, and gilsonite on lands owned by the United States, including National Forests. In addition, sulphur deposits found on public lands in Louisiana and New Mexico are leasable, as are geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources, uranium, and hardrock mineral resources. These same deposits found in some acquired federal lands, including acquired forest lands, are leasable.
Acquired lands are those obtained by the federal Government from private owners through purchase, condemnation, or gift, or by exchange. These lands are not subject to location. However, the Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands of 1947, 30 U.S.C. 351360, authorises the leasing of coal, phosphate, oil and gas, oil shale, sodium, potassium, and sulphur found in acquired lands. Leasing is also allowed for those minerals that would be considered locatable if found on the public domain, as well as geothermal resources.
Areas designated as national parks, national monuments, most Reclamation Act project areas, military reservations, wilderness areas, and wild and scenic river corridors are generally not open to mining locations and leases. Project proponents should research mineral access when considering exploration activities on federal lands.
Prospecting and mining are prohibited after an area is incorporated into the National Park System; rights acquired prior to an areas inclusion into the system may remain valid if properly located and maintained, but will be subject to control of the National Park Service which regulates use of privately owned reserved and other mineral interests on lands within the boundaries of the National Park System in addition to controlling surface and subsurface uses of both patented and unpatented claims.
States have the authority to lease, sell, exchange, or otherwise manage state-owned mineral lands pursuant to constitutional or statutory provisions, and as regulated by state boards or officers, through either a single agency or a combination of agencies. Leasing is the most common method of obtaining mining rights on state mineral land. A few states provide for both mining claims and permits, while others allow prospecting rights under mineral leases. Some require neither. The purpose is to generally allow the applicant to obtain an exclusive right to explore untested or undeveloped ground while giving the state some control over mineral activities. Once minerals of value are located and described, the applicant typically obtains a preferred right to a mineral lease. In some instances, competitive bidding is required.
The Mineral Lands Leasing Act of 1920, 30 U.S.C. 181287, as amended, provides US citizens the opportunity to obtain a prospecting permit or lease for coal, gas, gilsonite, oil, oil shale, phosphate, potassium, and sodium deposits on federal lands. The process for obtaining a permit or lease involves filing an application with the federal agency office with jurisdiction over the affected land. Depending on the type of permit or lease applied for, applicants may be required to:
The GML requires that mine claimants, permittees and lessees must be US citizens. A citizen can include a US-incorporated entity that is wholly owned by non-US entities or corporations. There generally are no restrictions on foreign acquisition of these types of US mining rights through parent-subsidiary corporate structures. The Mineral Lands Leasing Act, Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands and Reorganization Plan No. 3 require that the holder of a mineral lease or prospecting permit must be a citizen of the United States. 30 U.S.C. 181, 352; 43 C.F.R. 3502.10(a). Corporations organised under the laws of the United States or any state or territory of the US may qualify to hold leases or prospecting permits. While foreign persons are permitted to be shareholders, the citizenship of the shareholders is significant. The country of citizenship of each shareholder must be a country that does not deny similar or like privileges to U.S. citizens. 30 U.S.C. 181 (such countries are referred to as non-reciprocal countries). Disclosure of foreign ownership is not required unless it meets the 10% threshold. 43 C.F.R. 3502.30(b). Therefore, even foreign stockholders from non-reciprocal countries may own less than 10%.
While the GML does not specifically mention corporate eligibility, the requirement of proof of citizenship refers to a corporation organised under the laws of the United States or any state or territory thereof and an association of persons unincorporated. These requirements have generally been interpreted to mean that for a corporation, it is the jurisdiction of formation that determines its citizenship, but for unincorporated associations such as partnerships and limited liability companies the entity is disregarded, and the associations members need to satisfy the citizenship requirement. The interest in mining claims by a person or entity not qualified by citizenship is voidable by the United States, rather than void, and such defects may be corrected by conveying the interest to a qualified holder.
Foreign investments are subject to US national security laws. The Committee on Foreign Investment in the US, for example, is an inter-agency committee chaired by the Secretary of the Treasury that has authority to review foreign investments to protect national security and make recommendations to the President to block the same. 50 U.S.C. 4565. The President may exercise this authority if the President finds that the foreign interest might take action impairing national security and other provisions of the law do not provide the President with appropriate authority to act to protect national security. 50 U.S.C. 4565(d)(4).
Foreign employees are governed by general US immigration laws and are required to obtain a work visa or other authorisation. A limited number of visas are available for skilled workers, professionals and non-skilled workers, but these workers must be performing work for which qualified US workers are not available. 8 U.S.C. 1153(b)(3)(C).
The GML does not contain change of control restrictions. Mineral leases and contracts may contain change of control restrictions by their terms. A change of control in the holder of a lease, licence or permit may require federal and state agency approval depending on the type of right involved.
There are no restrictions or limitations on the sale, import, or export of extracted or processed minerals, unless such minerals are deemed a national security risk by the US Department of Homeland Security or State Department. For example, projects involving the export of particular minerals, such as uranium or rare earth elements, can be subject to greater scrutiny when foreign companies are involved.
Privately held mineral rights and the rights to conduct reconnaissance, exploration and mining on such rights may be subdivided among numerous parties. Rights to conduct such operations on federal and state mineral interests are governed by the instruments conveying such rights and may or may not permit subdivision.
Generally, the holder of a mining claim or lease for a primary mineral is entitled to extract from a claim/lease those associated minerals or secondary minerals which may be economically recovered along with the primary mineral(s), unless the Government or private mineral interest owner has expressly reserved such minerals to itself.
Generally, the holder of a mining claim or lease may exercise rights over residue deposits on the land concerned. However, certain residue deposits may be subject to ownership by another party and may not be contemplated by a mining lease or other mineral rights instrument.
Yes. There are special federal and state rules relating to offshore exploration and mining, depending on whether exploration and mining are taking place in state-owned or federal waters. Generally, the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 43 U.S.C. 1331, et seq., provides the US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) with authority to manage minerals on the US outer continental shelf. Minerals may be offered for lease by the BOEM in accordance with federal regulations at 30 C.F.R. Parts 580582.
Upon making a discovery of valuable minerals, the locator of a federal mining claim receives the exclusive right of possession and enjoyment of all veins, lodes, and ledges throughout their entire depth which have apexes within the mining claim. The locator also receives the exclusive right to possess all surface areas within the claim for mining purposes, but the United States retains the right to manage the surface of the property for other purposes. A locators possessory rights are considered vested property rights in real property with full attributes and benefits of ownership exercisable against third parties, and these rights may be sold, transferred and mortgaged.
Holders of federal and state mineral leases and contracts may obtain surface access rights under the terms of the instrument, but in some instances additional access rights may have to be obtained through rights-of-way regulations.
Split-estate lands are lands where the ownership of the surface estate and mineral estate have been severed. In such instances, surface rights may have been granted to private parties, with the minerals reserved to the United States. Even where surface and mineral interests are in private ownership, these interests may be held by different parties. When surface rights and mineral rights are owned by different parties, the mineral rights owner (or lessee or locator) has the legal right to use as much of the surface as is reasonably necessary to mineral development. However, the mineral estate owner must show due regard for the interest of the surface estate owner. In such cases, the mineral rights holder must comply with notice requirements and other state and federal requirements that protect the surface owner, including submission of an adequate bond for reclamation.
Those projects that require NEPA review will be subject to public notice and comment requirements and the review will involve consideration of the projects cultural, societal and economic impacts. State and local permitting processes also may require applicants to secure public input. State laws may impose a public interest standard for projects requiring state approval. For example, mining operations that require state water rights may need to show that the use of the water is in the public interest, which may include consideration of wildlife, fisheries and aquatic habitat values.
As discussed in question 8.1, the law governing split estates requires both the mineral estate owner and the surface estate owner to proceed with due regard for the other, and to accommodate the use of the other. The mineral rights owner is generally entitled to use as much of the surface and subsurface as is reasonably necessary to exploit its interest in the minerals, but this entitlement must be balanced against the surface owners right to use his property. Federal and state legislation has granted additional protections to surface owners, which may include notice and consent requirements, bonding for reclamation, and the payment of damages for surface destruction.
There is little risk of expropriation of mining operations by Government seizure or political unrest. Rights may only be expropriated following due process and payment of due compensation to the holder.
NEPA is the principal environmental law implicated by mining on federal lands. NEPA requires federal agencies to take a hard look at the environmental consequences of its projects before action is taken. An agency must prepare an EIS for all major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. An agency may first prepare an EA to determine whether the effects are significant. If the effects are significant, the agency must prepare the more comprehensive EIS. If the effects are insignificant, the agency generally will issue a finding of no significant impact, ending the process. NEPA does not dictate a substantive outcome; however, the analysis generally requires consideration of other substantive environmental statutes and regulations, such as those identified in the response to question 1.3 above. NEPA is administered by the federal agency making the decision that may significantly affect the environment.
Mining projects on federal lands, or that otherwise have a federal nexus, will likely have to go through some level of NEPA environmental review. State laws may also require environmental analysis. Where analysis is required by different agencies, it may be possible to pursue an agreement among the agencies to allow the operator to produce one comprehensive environmental review document that all agencies can rely on.
There is no statutory deadline for federal agencies to complete their NEPA review. Small mine project reviews may take in excess of a year to complete. Larger project reviews likely will take longer. Third parties may sue the federal agency completing the review to ensure that the agency considered all relevant factors and had a rational basis for the decisions made based on the facts found. Prosecuting the litigation would extend the project approval time, and if the agency loses, additional time would be required for the agency to redo its flawed NEPA analysis. In some instances where mines were proposed in especially sensitive areas, it has taken decades to obtain approval.
The Clean Air Act regulates air emissions from stationary and mobile sources. The Clean Air Act is administered by the Environmental Protection Agency and states with delegated authority. The Clean Water Act regulates pollutant discharges into the waters of the US, including the territorial seas. 33 U.S.C. 1311(a). The Clean Water Act is administered by the Environmental Protection Agency, US Army Corps of Engineers, and states with delegated authority. The Endangered Species Act requires federal agencies to ensure their actions are not likely to jeopardise the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or destroy or adversely modify designated critical habitat and prohibits the unauthorised taking of such species. The US Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service administer the Endangered Species Act.
Additional environmental statutes that may impact mining are identified in the response to question 1.3 above. States also have a wide range of environmental laws that govern permitting and reclamation on mining projects.
A variety of federal and state laws govern the storage of tailings and other waste products on mining operations and for the closure of mines. In general, a mine plan must provide a detailed description of how the mine operations will comply with such requirements.
FLPMA requires BLM and USFS to prevent unnecessary or undue degradation of public lands. 43 U.S.C. 1732(b). Casual- use hardrock mining operations on BLM lands that will result in no, or negligible, surface disturbance do not require any reclamation planning. Notice-level exploration operations requiring less than five acres of surface disturbance must meet BLM reclamation standards and provide financial guarantees that the reclamation will occur. 43 C.F.R. 3809.320, 3809.500(b). Plan-level operations require a plan of operations that includes a detailed reclamation plan for closure. 43 C.F.R. 3809.11, 3809.401. BLM reclamation standards for closure generally include saving topsoil for reshaping disturbed areas, erosion and water control measures, toxic materials measures, reshaping and re-vegetation where reasonably practicable, and rehabilitation of fish and wildlife habitat. 43 C.F.R. 3809.420. Mining in BLM wilderness study areas additionally requires that surface disturbances be reclaimed to the point of being substantially unnoticeable in the area as a whole. 43 C.F.R. 3802.0-5(d).
Mining activities on National Forest lands must be conducted so as to minimise adverse environmental impacts on National Forest System surface resources. 36 C.F.R. 228.1. Operators must take measures that will prevent or control on-site and off-site damage to the environment and forest surface resources, including erosion control, water run-off control, toxic materials control, reshaping and re-vegetation where reasonably practicable, and rehabilitation of fish and wildlife habitat. 36 C.F.R. 228.8(g). State laws may also include closure and reclamation requirements, including, for example, water and air pollution controls, re-contouring and re-vegetation, fish and wildlife protections, and reclamation bonding requirements. Mining projects can often address both federal and state requirements through a single closure and reclamation plan and financial guarantee.
Federal and state laws generally require financial guarantees prior to commencing operations to cover closure and reclamation costs. These reclamation bonds ensure that the regulatory authorities will have sufficient funds to reclaim the mine site if the permittee fails to complete the reclamation plan approved in the permit.
Individual counties and municipalities may impose certain zoning requirements on lands subject to their jurisdiction, including prohibitions on mining in certain areas and designations of specific areas for mining.
The US contains numerous reservations comprised of federal lands set aside by treaty, Congressional Act or administrative directive for specific Native American tribes or Alaska natives. Tribal reservation title generally is held by the US in trust for the tribes, and the US Bureau of Indian Affairs administers the reservations. Alaska native lands are owned and administered by Alaska native corporations. Mineral development within the tribal reservations and Alaska native lands requires negotiation with the appropriate administrator, leases with tribes for tribally-owned mineral rights and tribal consent for access rights. Tribes also may acquire land in fee by purchase as any private party. Reservations may contain inholdings of private or Government-owned surface and mineral interests. Therefore, title to a particular parcel of lands within reservation boundaries is important to understanding the complex jurisdictional issues that may impact mining.
Tribal cultural interests are considered through NEPA and two specific laws. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), 54 U.S.C. 300101, et seq., requires an analysis that includes social and cultural impacts, and may require tribal consultation. Section 106 of NHPA requires federal agencies to inventorise historic properties on federal lands and lands subject to federal permitting, and to consult with interested parties and the State Historic Preservation Office. 54 U.S.C. 306108. The Native Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, 25 U.S.C. 30013013, imposes procedural requirements that apply to inadvertent discovery and intentional excavation of tribal graves and cultural items on federal or tribal lands. Locatable minerals found on American Indian reservations are subject to lease only. Under the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982, 25 U.S.C. 21012108, tribes may enter private negotiations with mineral developers for exploration and extraction, subject to the Interior Secretarys approval. Tribes also may assert off-reservation rights for fishing and hunting if such rights have been granted by treaty or otherwise, and such rights may impact mining even where operations are not on tribally-owned lands.
The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act, 30 U.S.C. 801966, requires the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) to inspect all mines each year to ensure safe and healthy work environments. 30 U.S.C. 813. MSHA is prohibited from giving advance notice of an inspection, and may enter mine property without a warrant. 30 U.S.C. 813. MSHA regulations set out detailed safety and health standards for preventing hazardous and unhealthy conditions, including measures addressing fire prevention, air quality, explosives, aerial tramways, electricity use, personal protection, illumination and others. See, e.g., 30 C.F.R. 56.156.20014 (safety and health standards for surface metal and non-metal mines). MSHA regulations also establish requirements for: testing, evaluating, and approving mining products; miner and rescue team training programmes; and notification of accidents, injuries, and illnesses at the mine. 30 C.F.R. 5.1036.50, 46.149.60, 50.10.
Mining has been deemed one of 16 critical infrastructure sectors identified by the US Department of Homeland Securitys Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Agency, citing the mining industrys role in critical manufacturing and the production of medical equipment. As such, mining operations have not been required to shut down operations in light of state and local closure requirements. However, MSHA has issued a directive indicating that it will abide by the Presidents Coronavirus Guidelines for Americans which are based on the Center for Disease Control Interim Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health Management of Persons with Potential Coronavirus Disease 2019. Additional state and local requirements may impact mining operations. Because MSHA does not have jurisdiction to enforce or implement state and local Governments emergency orders, mining companies are required to consult with such Governments to ensure compliance with workplace requirements.
On June 4, 2020, President Trump issued Executive Order 13927, Accelerating the Nations Economic Recovery from the COVID-19 Emergency by Expediting Infrastructure Investments and Other Activities, 85 Fed. Reg. 35165, which authorises federal agencies to invoke their emergency authorities to expedite transportation, defence and other infrastructure project approvals that would otherwise be subject to lengthy environmental review. The mining industry is likely to benefit from expedited permitting of infrastructure projects. However, environmental groups have indicated they will challenge projects approved pursuant to the order.
No. Land and mineral title records are kept in the Government office having jurisdiction over the mining rights (e.g., the BLM) and in the real property records of each county in which the property is located. All relevant sources must be consulted to determine title.
The US Constitution and federal laws are the supreme law of the land, generally pre-empting conflicting state and local laws. In many legal areas, the different authorities have concurrent jurisdiction, requiring regulated entities to comply with multiple levels of regulation. Mining on federal lands, for example, is generally subject to multiple layers of concurrent federal, state, and local statutes and administrative regulations.
Many international treaties of general application apply to mining industry investment by foreign persons into the United States, but none specifically address investment in the mining industry or trading in various minerals. See the response to question 15.2.
There are no federal taxes specific to minerals extraction. General federal, state, county and municipal taxes apply to mining companies, including income taxes, payroll taxes, sales taxes, property taxes and use taxes.
Federal tax laws generally do not distinguish between domestic and foreign mining operators. However, if a non-US citizen acquires real property, the buyer must deposit 10% of the sales price in cash with the US Internal Revenue Service as insurance against the sellers income tax liability. The cash requirement can be problematic for a cash-strapped buyer that may have purchased the mine property with stock.
Locatable minerals claimants must pay an annual maintenance fee of $165 per claim in lieu of performing assessment work required pursuant to the GML and FLPMA. 43 C.F.R. 3834.11(a), 3830.21. Failure to perform assessment work or pay a maintenance fee will open the claim to relocation by a rival claimant as if no location had been made. 43 C.F.R. 3836.15. Certain waivers and deferments apply.
Leasable minerals permittees and lessees must pay annual rent based on acreage. The rental rates differ by mineral and some rates increase over time. 43 C.F.R. 3504.15. Prospecting permits automatically terminate if rent is not paid on time; the BLM will notify late lessees that they have 30 days to pay. 43 C.F.R. 3504.17. State laws may also include closure and reclamation requirements, including water and air pollution controls, re-contouring and re-vegetation, fish and wildlife protections, and reclamation bonding requirements. Mining projects can often address both federal and state requirements through a single closure and reclamation plan and financial guarantee. Local Governments may require that transfer taxes be paid upon the recording of a conveyance of mining properties.
There are generally no royalties levied on the extraction of federally owned locatable minerals under the GLO. However, mineral leases generally carry royalty obligations. Many states, however, charge royalties on mineral operations on state-owned lands and taxes that function like a royalty on all lands, such as severance taxes, mine licence taxes, or resource excise taxes. These functional royalties can differ depending on land ownership and the minerals extracted.
As noted above, state and local Governments have concurrent or independent authority over certain aspects of mining projects (e.g. permitting, water rights and access authorisations). Ownership of state-owned land and minerals is controlled by state law and varies by state. State laws generally are similar to federal laws in that title remains with the state until the minerals are severed pursuant to statutory procedures. State and local laws may impose a public interest standard for projects requiring state approval. State laws also include permitting requirements and closure and reclamation requirements, including, for example, water and air pollution controls, re-contouring and re-vegetation, fish and wildlife protections, and reclamation bonding requirements. Local permits may be required for certain operations, e.g., truck haulage. Many state laws require financial guarantees prior to commencing operations to cover closure and reclamation costs. In addition, some states charge royalties on mineral operations on state-owned lands and impose taxes that function like a royalty on all lands, such as severance taxes, mine licence taxes, or resource excise taxes. Local zoning laws may prohibit or limit mining in certain areas.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) among the US, Canada and Mexico, in Chapter 11, required equal treatment between the NAFTA countrys own citizens and those from another NAFTA country, and required that the NAFTA country protect those investors and their investments. Among the most important protections were the broad prohibitions on expropriation of the investors rights, including a prohibition on the NAFTA country implementing measures tantamount to expropriation except in accordance with approved criteria, and requiring payment of compensation resulting from losses incurred by the investor. In November 2018, the three countries executed a new agreement, called the United StatesMexicoCanada Agreement (USMCA), to replace NAFTA. The USMCA entered into force in July 2020, and includes more enforceable labour and environmental standards, intellectual property protections and a new chapter on the digital economy.
Under the GML, rights in unpatented mining claims can be abandoned voluntarily or by non-payment of annual maintenance fees. Minerals leased under federal law (energy minerals such as coal), minerals owned by states, and minerals owned by private entities can only be abandoned in accordance with the terms of the lease or other grant from the mineral owner to the holder of the right to develop the minerals. All such abandonments are subject to reclamation and closure requirements.
Under the GML, there is no obligation to relinquish an exploration or mining right after a certain period of time. The terms of federal mineral leases, state mineral leases or private leases generally set the term limits of mining rights, but may permit rights to continue past an initial or extended term as long as minerals are continuing to be produced and sold.
Under the GML, unpatented mining claims may be cancelled for failure to pay annual maintenance fees, or, in some instances, the federal Government can challenge the validity of unpatented mining claims for failure to make a valid discovery of a valuable mineral. The terms of federal, state and private leases often contain default provisions allowing cancellation upon failure to comply with conditions of the lease.
I found it to be a very compelling insight into business crime, an excellent handy reference and useful tool for any Public Prosecutor dealing with complex cross-border financial infringements."Alain Guissart, Magistrate - Deputy Public Prosecutor - Financial Crime Unit, Belgium
The general term gypsum refers to two minerals, raw gypsum and anhydrite. Raw gypsum is calcium dihydrate (Ca [SO4] 2H2O), also known as dihydrate gypsum or plaster. Anhydrite is anhydrous calcium sulfate.
It is a very important industrial raw material that is widely used in construction, building materials, industrial and artistic models, chemical industry (sulfuric acid production, paper filler, paint filler), agriculture, food processing, pharmaceutical, and many other industries and applications.
The plaster of Paris (also known as hemihydrate gypsum), divided into -type gypsum powder and -type gypsum powder, is formed from gypsum raw materials by heating at a high temperature of 105-200 .
The -type gypsum powder has good crystallinity and solidity, so it can be used in ceramic molds, sculptures, gypsum lines and high-end buildings. The -type gypsum powder is mainly used for mortar levelling, gypsum board production, painting, etc.
Gypsum powder can be used as Portland cement retarder in the concrete industry. In agriculture, because gypsum powder is alkaline, it is possible to sprinkle it into the acidic soil to integrate the ph value of the soil so as to make use of a lot of lands.
In the pharmaceutical industry, gypsum is the main medicine in the famous Chinese medicine " Baihu Tang ", which has a good effect in treating acute high fever and thirsty irritable. In addition, dentists use plaster to make models of gums, and surgeons also use plaster to repair the fractures.
Is gypsum harmful to humans? Is gypsum powder safe to eat? Will gypsum kill plants? Here is a video about how gypsum is used, including its uses in toiletries, food additive, fertilizer, chalks, etc. It also shows the process of gypsum.
In recent years, the gypsum industry has developed rapidly. Gypsum building materials are increasingly welcomed by the market and recognized by society with their applications becoming more and more widespread.
According to the US mining forecast, the world's gypsum demand will increase at a rate of 2.5% in the next few years. It is estimated that the world's gypsum demand will reach 300 million tons in 2030. The total annual consumption of the gypsum board will reach 2.04 billion square meters.
With the increase in the market demand for gypsum powder, the requirements for its production technology are getting higher and higher, so the price has risen accordingly. The price of gypsum powder is generally calculated in tons.
Its price varies with its accuracy and use. The price of gypsum powder is between $ 28.8-$ 403.6 per ton according to its whiteness and fineness. The cooked gypsum powder is about $ 28.8-$ 158.6 per ton, the cooking gypsum is about $ 72.1-$ 317.2 per ton, and the refined gypsum powder is about $ 201.8-$ 720.8 per ton.
1. The ex-factory price of Australian recycled gypsum is $ 35.00 per ton, plus $ 25 per ton freight, which is $ 60.00 per ton at the farm gate, and $ 10.00 per ton to spread. Its purity is measured at 17% S wet weight. Total cost of gypsum supply and application per ton of pure CaSO4.2H20 = (35+25+10) 18.6 17 = $ 76.59 per ton.
2. The ex-factory price of gypsum mined in New South Wales is $ 15 per ton, plus $ 40.00 per ton freight, which is $ 60.00 per ton at the farm gate, and $ 11.00 per ton to spread. Its purity is measured at 15% S wet weight. Total cost of gypsum supply and application per ton of pure CaSO4.2H20 = (15+40+11) 18.6 15 = $ 81.84 per ton.
The world's major gypsum producing countries are the United States, Iran, China, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Spain, Thailand, etc. The United States, Brazil, China, and Canada are rich in gypsum resources.
The largest consumption area of gypsum is the building decoration material industry, which is mainly used to manufacture gypsum boards for construction and decoration. In many countries, the manufacture of slabs accounts for more than 80% of gypsum consumption.
The mining technology of gypsum ore is divided into two categories: the mining of fibrous gypsum ore and the mining of alabaster, ordinary gypsum and anhydrite mines. Due to the difference in physical and mechanical properties of the ore and surrounding rock, the mining technology of these two kinds of gypsum mines is very different.
Fibrous gypsum has low hardness and its rock consolidating coefficient is 1.2 for parallel fibrous gypsum and 1.5 for vertical fibrous gypsum. Because it is brittle, it will easily become fine ore to be lost. Due to the high price of the ore, most fibrous gypsum mines adopt the longwall method, selective mining and filling method.
The mining techniques of alabaster mine, ordinary gypsum mine and anhydrite mine are similar. The room and pillar mining method (generally 8-12 m in width) and breasting method are adopted. The drilling of gypsum ore is easy, but the explosive consumption is large, generally 0.34 kg/t.
The roller drilling rig is modern new drilling equipment. It is suitable for drilling operations of various hardness of minerals and rocks with the characteristics of high perforation efficiency, low operating cost, high mechanization and automation. At present, it has become a widely used perforation equipment in open-pit mines all over the world.
The excavator is composed of the power plant, working device, swing mechanism, control mechanism, transmission system, moving mechanism, auxiliary equipment, etc. The excavator can also perform pouring, lifting, installation, piling, ramming, and pile pulling operations after changing its working device.
After sieving with the vibrating screen equipment, the finished material conforming to the size is sent to the finished product area, while the large material is returned to the crusher for being crushed again until it meets the required size.
The common gypsum crushing equipment is the jaw crusher with a crushing ratio of 4-6. The jaw crusher, which is often used as the primary gypsum crushing equipment, can crush large pieces of gypsum into 150 mm particle size.
If the gypsum crushed by the jaw crusher cannot meet the particle size requirements, secondary gypsum crushing equipment such as cone crushers, hammer crushers, and impact crushers can be equipped to carry out further medium and fine crushing of gypsum. Specific equipment should be configured depends on the actual needs of the customer.
The crushed gypsum is sent to a ball mill for grinding until 90% of it is less than 149 m (100 mesh). The ground gypsum powder leaves the mill in the form of airflow and is collected in the cyclone separator.
The ball mill is mainly a machine for dry or wet grinding of the crushed gypsum. The machine is mainly used for repeated grinding of the raw materials in the barrel through the steel ball medium in the ball mill to complete the ball grinding operation.
The cyclone separator is suitable for purifying non-viscous, non-fibrous dry dust larger than 1-3 microns. It is purification equipment with simple structure, convenient operation, high-temperature resistance and low equipment cost.
Under the design pressure and air volume conditions, solid particles 10 m can be removed. At the operating point, the separation efficiency is 99%, and within 15% of the operating point, the separation efficiency is 97%. Under normal working conditions, the pressure drop of a single cyclone separator at the operating point is not greater than 0.05 MPa.
The gypsum material is lifted by an elevator and transported into the top silo of the rotary kiln preheater. Then, the gypsum material is evenly distributed into rooms of the preheater through the feeding pipe.
In the preheater, gypsum is heated to about 900 C by the flue gas of the roasting kiln at 1150 C, and about 30% of it is decomposed. Then, it is pushed into the rotary kiln by a hydraulic push rod, and -type hemihydrate gypsum (180240 ), anhydrous gypsum (350 ) and overfired gypsum (450700 ) can be produced.
The gypsum produced after calcining and decomposing in the rotary kiln is sent to the cooler to be cooled to below 100 C by the cold air blown in the cooler and discharged. The gypsum from the cooler is sent to the product warehouse via a vibrating feeder, bucket elevator, and belt conveyor.
Gypsum rotary kiln is a kind of thermal equipment for calcining gypsum. Its appearance and shape are similar to lime rotary kiln and cement rotary kiln. Its main structure includes kiln head, kiln tail sealing device, rotary cylinder, supporting device, back-up roll device, etc.
The finished gypsum clinker calcined in the gypsum rotary kiln produced by Fote has the characteristics of high taste, high purity, easy to control during the production process, high mixing degree of raw materials, uniform raw meal composition, high strength grade of the clinker, with less dust in the grinding process, less fly ash in the calcining process and reasonable price.
The large demand and wide application of gypsum powder have stimulated the prosperity of many industries and fields, so the production of high-quality gypsum powder is the general trend of the gypsum powder industry in the future.
Fote Heavy Machinery, as one of the three major mining machinery manufacturers in China, has 38 years of experience. We are always ready to provide you with high-quality milling equipment and the best service.
As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.
Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.
The limestone caves and rock shelters of Indonesia's southern Sulawesi island hold the oldest traces of human art and storytelling, dating back more than 40,000 years. Paintings adorn the walls of at least 300 sites in the karst hills of Maros-Pangkep, with more almost certainly waiting to be rediscovered. But archaeologists say humanity's oldest art is crumbling before their very eyes.
"We have recorded rapid loss of hand-sized spall flakes from these ancient art panels over a single season (less than five months)," said archaeologist Rustan Lebe of Makassar's culture heritage department.
The culprit is salt. As water flows through a limestone cave system, it carries minerals from the local bedrock, and the minerals eventually end up in the limestone. At the limestone's surface, those minerals oxidize into a case-hardened rocky crust. Nearly all of the oldest rock art in Maros-Pangkeplike the oldest drawing in the world that depicts an actual objectis painted in red or mulberry-purple pigment on that hard outer layer. The rock is resistant to most weathering, providing a durable canvas for humanity's oldest artwork.
But beneath the surface, trouble is brewing. Flowing water deposits minerals in the void spaces beneath the mineralized outer crust, and some of those minerals crystallize into mineral salts. As those crystals form, grow, and shrink, they push against the outer layer of mineralized limestone. Eventually, the rocky canvas where people first drew images of their world 40,000 years ago falls apart in hand-sized flakes.
To help understand the extent of the problem and confirm that salt is to blame, Griffith University archaeologist Jillian Huntley and her colleagues collected flakes from the walls and ceilings of 11 caves in the area, including Leang Timpuseng, home of the oldest hand stencil. They found mineral salts like halite and calcium sulfate on the back sides of flakes from three of the sites. And all 11 sites showed high levels of sulfur, which is a key ingredient in many of the destructive salts that worry rock-art conservators.
Exfoliation isn't a new process, but archaeologists and site custodians in Maros-Pangkep say they have watched the process speed up over the last few decades. Some of the local people who manage and protect the rock-art sites have done so for generations, and they report "more panel loss from exfoliation over recent decades than at any other time in living memory," wrote Huntley and her colleagues.
Here's how the process works: heavy monsoon rains drench Indonesia and the surrounding region from November to March, leaving behind water in cave systems, flooded rice fields, and brackish aquaculture ponds along the coast. The water carries a load of dissolved salts and their mineral ingredientsthings like table salt or halite, along with gypsum, sodium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, and calcium chloride.
When the water begins to evaporate, the salt it carried stays behind as crystals, which expand and contract along with changes in temperature and humidity. Some geological salts, like the ones mentioned above, can expand up to three times their original size when heated, and they can put an impressive amount of pressure on the surrounding rock. The result is similar to the freeze-thaw cycles that enable water ice to crack rocks and concrete.
The whole cycle is more active and more pronounced when temperatures rise and the local weather swings from extremely wet to extremely dry every few months. And that's precisely the conditions Indonesia is experiencing as the climate gets warmer and extreme weather events become more frequent. More and more over the last few decades, severe monsoon flooding is followed by periods of intense drought.
"We are in a race against time," said rock-art expert Adhi Agus Oktaviana of Indonesia's National Research Center for Archaeology (ARKENAS). "Our teams continue to survey the area, finding new artworks every year. Almost without exception, the paintings are exfoliating and in advanced stages of decay."
To win the race, archaeologists and conservators will have to work at a small scale, monitoring conditions in individual caves and preserving individual paintings. But the large scale, across the whole complex landscape of Indonesia, also matters. We need to understand and mitigate the impacts of climate change, mining, and intensive farming on the ancient karst landscape itself.
One key influence lies along the country's coast in networks of brackish ponds where aquaculture farmers raise about 15 million tons of shrimp and fish every year. Many of those ponds are dual-purpose, providing a home for farmed fish in flooded fields where rice grows. People have farmed rice on Sulawesi for at least 7,000 years, but farming has intensified over the previous few centuriesand drastically so over the last few decades.
Aquaculture and expanding rice farming may offer a bulwark against food insecurity as the world's climate grows warmer and less stable. Huntley and others say it's also important to considerand hopefully mitigateunintended consequences. Fish farming, especially shrimp farming, can have a devastating impact on marine environments if not carefully managed. The farming may also be indirectly threatening the world's oldest art.
"Holding surface water in these ways enhances humidity, prolonging the seasonal shrink and swell of geological salts, as well as leading to more mineral deposition," said Huntley. "All of which leads to rock art degradation." Regulations from Indonesia's government might help mitigate the problem, but conservators and policymakers need to better understand the scope and the local details of the problem before they can shape a policy that might help.
"Detailed monitoring of the rock art and microclimate on the Maros-Pangkep caves will help us quantify how rapidly the rock art is being impacted, and within the region where areas of higher impact occur," Huntley told Ars.
Conservation agency BPCP has already started a small-scale program to monitor the condition of rock art in some of the area's caves, make 3D digital scans, and measure temperature, humidity, and chemical conditions inside the caves. That kind of work is already standard in some of Europe's most famous Pleistocene painted caves, like Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. Huntley and her colleagues argue that Sulawesi's galleries of ancient art deserve the same protection.
With that information, conservators may be able to save some of the most threatened ancient paintings. "Conservation interventions for stone (especially built heritage) are available and well understood, so there are probably a number of options to explore," Huntley told Ars. "Of course, best conservation practice is to undertake trails and apply treatments incrementally to ensure there are no unintended effects."
But she emphasized that the battle to save humanity's earliest recorded stories won't be won in a cave-to-cave fight. "In my opinion, the scale of the salt weathering in southern Sulawesi and the Australasian region is so large that the best mitigation measures will be of an equal landscape scale."
Spain is a European country that borders the Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Biscay and the North Atlantic Ocean. The country is the fourth largest in Europe and the second largest in the European Union, covering a total area of 505,990 km2 with a population of 46,507,760.
Spain joined the EU in 1986, which lead to a rapid economic modernization. The gross domestic product (GDP) of Spain for 2018 is $1.314 trillion nominal. The climate of the country is clear and hot summers in the interiors, with cloudy weather along the coasts.
The key natural resources of Spain include iron ore, coal, copper, lignite, lead, uranium, tungsten, zinc, magnesite, fluorspar, mercury, pyrites, gypsum, kaolin, potash, sepiolite, hydropower, and arable land.
In 2008 the clean energy use in Spain was less than 8% of total energy supply, a far cry from the 2020 target of 22.7% stipulated by the National Renewable Energy Action Plan 2011 2020.To curb the high energy dependency on oil imports, the government framed the Energy Efficiency and Saving Action Plan 2008 2012 to encourage the use of florescent bulbs. It also offered financial incentives to promote eco-friendly and innovative vehicles and extended support for electric vehicles in line with the Comprehensive National Strategy to Promote Electric Vehicles.
The National Plan for Air Quality and Atmosphere Protection 2013 2016set the framework to improve air quality through specific actions undertaken in coordination with other sectoral plans. Several programs for the non-ETS sectors within the second period of the Kyoto Protocol (2013-2020) have been developed. Different Plans focusing on specific sectors have been set up to promote the reduction of GHG emissions in hotel and other tourism facilities through energy efficiency improvements.
Furthermore, the National River Restoration Strategy and the National Integrated Plan for Solid Waste Management 2008 2015 were approved by the government. The Spanish Monitoring Plan was set up to assessthe effectiveness of the measures taken to reduce POPs, and human biological bio monitoring (HBM) is not the gold standard in pollutant exposure estimations in humans.
Spain ranks high on innovation drivers specific to clean technology and commercial cleantech innovation. However, it scores low on emerging cleantech innovation. Experts feel that though Spain has government policies that are cleantech-friendly, what the country needs is more public R&D spending and access to private finance. The poor score in emerging cleantech innovation is due to lack of environmental patents and VC investment.
According to the World Banks Little Green Data Book, Spains average annual deforestation percentage stood at -1.9% during 1990 to 2007 and 3.7% of its total energy is generated from biomass and waste. About 61.8% and 9.2% of the total electricity produced in the country is being generated from fossil fuels and hydropower, respectively. Also, the whole of Spain has access to improved water source and sanitation.
Globally Spain currently ranks 12th in the Environmental Performance index, with a score of 78.39. It ranked number one in water and sanitation, and scored highly in areas such as air quality and environmental health. In the climate and energy arena, it has a score of 67.77 and ranked 23rd. This performance index tracks a set of objectives such as ecosystem vitality and environmental health.
Each of these objectives comprises policy categories such as ecosystem effects and climate change. These are further sub- divided into several core indicators of environmental performance, which can be directly measured, e.g., child mortality and indoor air pollution.
An environmental performance report from the OECD lauds a number of Spains environmental policies. However, the report also insists that the country needs to enhance the efficiency of these environmental policies and should integrate the environmental concerns in industries such as tourism, transport, energy, construction, and agriculture.
Gary graduated from the University of Manchester with a first-class honours degree in Geochemistry and a Masters in Earth Sciences. After working in the Australian mining industry, Gary decided to hang up his geology boots and turn his hand to writing. When he isn't developing topical and informative content, Gary can usually be found playing his beloved guitar, or watching Aston Villa FC snatch defeat from the jaws of victory.
AZoCleantech speaks withStephanie Ribet andProf. Vinayak Dravid from Northwestern University. Stephanie and Vinayak were part of a team that has developed a way to remove phosphate from aquatic systems and reuse it.
AZoCleantech speaks with Dr. Christopher Cornwall from Victoria University of Wellington. Christopher is the lead author of a paper published in the journalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences1that documents the findings of an international collaboration of scientists.
To raise awareness of the extent of plastic pollution and to commemorate Earth Day 2021, AZoCleantech speaks to Emma Nichols who has extensively studiedMarine Pollution Ecologyatthe Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in Tasmania.
The rock from the homogeniser is ground down even further before it goes through whats called the calcination process. Here, any water from the rock is removed in a low temperature kettle to create the first resemblance of plaster powder. This then travels through the mill, where the particle size of the powder is modified to suit the type of plaster being made.
At this stage, the plaster is almost ready! With the inclusion of a few additives that give each mix of plaster its own special properties, the plaster is pumped into bags and then palletised. Quality control checks are carried out across every batch to ensure that customers receive the same product, every time.
From here, the plaster leaves the British Gypsum plant and is sent to merchants and distributors across the UK, ready for plasterers to buy. Once the plasterer mixes the product with water, it will return back into its original state, creating a plaster finish for their project.
The impacts of quarrying of the gypsum deposits on the environment at Maqna, Tabuk, were evaluated by intensive field studies including in situ testing, mapping and sampling of gypsum and well water. Field and laboratory tests were made to determine the engineering properties including tensile and compressive strengths, unit weight, fracture spacing and the rock quality designation (RQD) values. Results were used to determine the most suitable method for quarrying and extraction. Chemical analyses of gypsum and water well samples were conducted along with mineralogical analysis using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results show that there are no harmful impacts on the environment of the studied area associated with the extraction and quarrying of the gypsum deposits at the Maqna area. They also revealed that the gypsum can be quarried using a ripping technique, which does not create noise and/or vibration in the surrounding areas.
Studies of crop response to Ca fertilizers are generally few as well as information concerning the Ca nutrition of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var.gemmifera). Six field studies were conducted, over three years, to determine yield response of Brussels sprouts to soil applied gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), lime (calcite), and elemental S on sandy loam to loamy sand Orthic Podzols in Prince Edward Island. Relative yield of marketable (032mm) Brussels sprouts were related to soil ammonium acetate extractable Ca (r = 0.71). The highest yields (11 to 13 t ha1) were associated with an extractable Ca of above 400g g1 soil, while a Ca level below 400g reduced yield by 20%. Highest marketable yields were associated with a Ca level in the leaf tissue (in upper mature leaves at sprout formation) of above 2.2% (w/w) (r = 0.55), this in turn was associated (r = 0.87) with an extractable soil Ca above 400g g1 soil. Calcite and elemental S did not influence yield or mineral content. Gypsum, as expected increased leaf S content, but leaf tissue S levels were not related to marketable yield. Slight decreases in soil pH due to increasing gypsum rate (0.54.3 t ha1) were associated with changing accumulations of B, Mn, Fe, Ca, and Zn in the leaf tissue. Gypsum had little effect on soil porosity and structure indices, but changing pH (in both gypsum and lime treatments) significantly influenced soil microbial biomass.
Carter MR, Pearen JR, Karkansis PG, Cairns RR and McAndrew DW (1986) Improvement of soil properties and plant growth on a brown solonetzic soil using irrigation, calcium amendments and nitrogen. Can J Soil Sci 66: 581589
Lawrence JR, Gupta VVSR and Germida JJ (1988) Impact of elemental sulphur fertilization on agricultural soils. II. Effects of sulphur-oxidizing populations and oxidation rates. Can J Soil Sci 68: 475483
Needham P (1983) The occurrence and treatment of mineral disorders in the field.In Robinson JBD (ed) Diagnosis of mineral disorders in plants. Volume 1: principles. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office
Thomas RL, Sheard RW and Moyer JR (1967) Comparison of conventional and automated procedures for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium analysis of plant material using a single digest. Agron J 59: 240243
Carter, M.R., Cutcliffe, J.A. Effects of gypsum on growth and mineral content of Brussels sprouts, and soil properties of Orthic Podzols. Fertilizer Research 24, 7784 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01073225
The range of As concentrations found in natural waters is large, ranging from less than 0.5 g l1 to more than 5000 g l1. Typical concentrations in freshwater are less than 10 g l1 and frequently less than 1 g l1. Rarely, much higher concentrations are found, particularly in groundwater. In such areas, more than 10% of wells may be affected (defined as those exceeding 50 g l1) and in the worst cases, this figure may exceed 90%. Well-known high-As groundwater areas have been found in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, China and Hungary, and more recently in West Bengal (India), Bangladesh and Vietnam. The scale of the problem in terms of population exposed to high As concentrations is greatest in the Bengal Basin with more than 40 million people drinking water containing excessive As. These large-scale natural As groundwater problem areas tend to be found in two types of environment: firstly, inland or closed basins in arid or semi-arid areas, and secondly, strongly reducing aquifers often derived from alluvium. Both environments tend to contain geologically young sediments and to be in flat, low-lying areas where groundwater flow is sluggish. Historically, these are poorly flushed aquifers and any As released from the sediments following burial has been able to accumulate in the groundwater. Arsenic-rich groundwaters are also found in geothermal areas and, on a more localised scale, in areas of mining activity and where oxidation of sulphide minerals has occurred. The As content of the aquifer materials in major problem aquifers does not appear to be exceptionally high, being normally in the range 120 mg kg1. There appear to be two distinct triggers that can lead to the release of As on a large scale. The first is the development of high pH (>8.5) conditions in semi-arid or arid environments usually as a result of the combined effects of mineral weathering and high evaporation rates. This pH change leads either to the desorption of adsorbed As (especially As(V) species) and a range of other anion-forming elements (V, B, F, Mo, Se and U) from mineral oxides, especially Fe oxides, or it prevents them from being adsorbed. The second trigger is the development of strongly reducing conditions at near-neutral pH values, leading to the desorption of As from mineral oxides and to the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxides, also leading to As release. Iron (II) and As(III) are relatively abundant in these groundwaters and SO4 concentrations are small (typically 1 mg l1 or less). Large concentrations of phosphate, bicarbonate, silicate and possibly organic matter can enhance the desorption of As because of competition for adsorption sites. A characteristic feature of high groundwater As areas is the large degree of spatial variability in As concentrations in the groundwaters. This means that it may be difficult, or impossible, to predict reliably the likely concentration of As in a particular well from the results of neighbouring wells and means that there is little alternative but to analyse each well. Arsenic-affected aquifers are restricted to certain environments and appear to be the exception rather than the rule. In most aquifers, the majority of wells are likely to be unaffected, even when, for example, they contain high concentrations of dissolved Fe.
Gypsum is a mineral found in crystal as well as masses called gypsum rock. It is a very soft mineral and it can form very pretty, and sometimes extremely large colored crystals. Massive gypsum rock forms within layers of sedimentary rock, typically found in thick beds or layers. It forms in lagoons where ocean waters high in calcium and sulfate content can slowly evaporate and be regularly replenished with new sources of water. The result is the accumulation of large beds of sedimentary gypsum. Gypsum is commonly associated with rock salt and sulfur deposits. It is processed and used as prefabricated wallboard or as industrial or building plaster, used in cement manufacture, agriculture and other uses.
Most of the worlds gypsum is produced by surface-mining operations. In the United States, gypsum is mined in about 19 states. The states producing the most gypsum are Oklahoma, Iowa, Nevada, Texas, and California. Together, these states account for about two-thirds of the United States annual production of gypsum. Over 30 million tons of gypsum is consumed in the United States annually. Canada, Mexico and Spain are other significant producers of raw gypsum. In all, more than 90 countries produce gypsum. In most open pit gypsum operations, benches are drilled and blasted using ammonium nitrate as the explosive. Because gypsum is so soft, most drills can drill through it at a rate of roughly 23 ft per minute. Sometimes the drill holes become wet, which can cause problems with the ammonium nitrate. In these cases the ammonium nitrate is bagged in plastic bags before being lowered into the blast hole. Mines use approximately 1 kg of explosives for each ton of gypsum they blast.
The most significant use for gypsum is for wallboard and plaster products. All modern homes in North America and other developed countries use a great deal of wallboard for interior walls. The United States is the worlds leading consumer of wallboard at over 30 billion square feet per year. Some gypsum is used to make Portland cement, and some is used in agricultural applications. A small amount of very pure gypsum is used in glass making and other specialized industrial applications.
Gypsum processing equipment differs significantly in scale and level of technology. some plants produce one or two tonnes per day using low-cost manual technologies, some other plants of a thousand tonnes per day that are highly mechanized and capable of producing different types and grades of gypsum plaster or plaster boards.
---Diamond Processing Plant--- 8TPH Diamond Mining Process in Angola 18TPH Alluvial Gold & Diamond Mining Process in Angola 50TPH Alluvial Diamond Mining Process in Central African 50TPH Diamond Extraction Process Flow Chart 60TPH Alluvial Diamond Extraction Process in Venezuela 75TPH Diamond Dense Medium Separation Process in Congo ---Chrome Processing Plant--- 1.2TPH Chromite Ore Beneficiation Process Flow 15TPH Chrome Ore Beneficiation Process in Ukraine 24TPH Chrome Ore Processing Plant in South Africa 25TPH Chromite Ore Concentrating Plant in South Africa 50TPH Chromite Ore Beneficiation Process in South Africa
---Silica Processing Plant--- 50TPH Silica Sand Processing Plant in Indonesia 65TPH Silica Sand Washing Plant in Malaysia 100TPH Silica Sand Processing & Washing Plant in Malaysia 20TPH Beach Sand Mining Plant in India 100TPH Beach Sand Zircon Mining Plant in Sierra Leone ---Coltan Processing Plant--- 10TPH Coltan Ore Mining Plant in Liberia 10TPH Alluvial Coltan Process Plant In Mozambique 20TPH Tantalum Niobium Mining Plant in Uganda 25TPH Tantalite Mining Plant in Burundi 100TPH Alluvial Coltan Processing Plant in Nigeria 100TPH Tantalite Ore Processing Plant in Sierra Leone 150TPH Coltan Ore Processing Plant in Ghana ---Lead, zinc, iron, manganese, etc--- 15TPH Tailings Lead & Barite Extraction Plant in Iran 30TPH Rock Lead Zinc Process Plant in Morocco 200TPH Rock Manganese Mining Plant in Zambia 150TPH Iron Ore Processing Plant in Malaysia 8TPH Gold & Tin Extraction Process in Zimbabwe 10TPH Tin Ore Slag Beneficiation Processing Plant in Malaysia 50TPH Alluvial Tin Ore Mining Plant in Nigeria 3TPH Barite Beneficiation Process Plant in Morocco
---Gold Washing Plant--- 0.5TPH Portable Hard Rock Gold Processing Plant in Sudan 0.5TPH Small Rock Gold Processing Plant In Sudan 1T/H Rock Gold Processing Plant In India 2TPH Quartzite Gold Wash Plant In Africa 2TPH Small Scale Rock Gold Processing Plant In Congo 4TPH Gold Ore Processing Plant In Zimbabwe 5T/H Rock Gold Processing Plant In Tanzania 5TPH Quartz Rock Gold Mining Process in Nigeria 10TPH Alluvial Coltan Process Plant In Mozambique 10TPH Copper Mining Process Plant In Zambia 10TPH Sulfide Gold Processing Plant In Ghana 20TPH Rock Contain Gold Mining Process in Zimbabwe
20TPH Alluvial Gold & Hard Rock Gold Processing Plant in Madagascar 30TPH Placer Gold & Rock Gold Wash Plant in Zambia 50TPH Gold Washing Plant In Uzbekistan 50TPH Alluvial Gold Mining Process In Ghana 50TPH Alluvial Gold Washing Plant In Sierra Leone 60TPH Wheel Mobile Gold Processing Plant In Mali
60TPH Gold Processing Plant In Russia 60TPH Mobile Alluvial Gold Wash Plant In Ghana 60TPH Small Portable Gold Wash Plant in Mali 75TPH Hard Rock Gold Mining Plant in Sudan 100TPH Clay Alluvial Gold Washing Plant In Ghana 100TPH Alluvial Gold & Diamond Processing Plant in Congo 100TPH Rock Copper & Cobalt Ore Process Plant In Congo 100TPH Tailings Copper & Zinc Process Plant In Kyrgyzstan 100TPH Gold Tailings Processing Plant In Uganda 100TPH Placer Gold Processing Plant In Kyrgyzstan 100TPH Alluvial Deposit Gold Processing Plant In Ghana 100TPH Alluvial Gold Wash Plant In Suriname 100TPH Alluvial Rock Gold Washing Plant In Mozambique
Mining Equipment Manufacturers, Our Main Products: Gold Trommel, Gold Wash Plant, Dense Media Separation System, CIP, CIL, Ball Mill, Trommel Scrubber, Shaker Table, Jig Concentrator, Spiral Separator, Slurry Pump, Trommel Screen.Get in Touch with Mechanic