The Client selected Fluor, in a joint venture with Holmes and Narver, for the engineering, procurement, and construction of expanded copper concentrating facilities at the Cyprus Bagdad Copper Company operation in western Arizona. The $240 million expansion project boosted mine production from 6,000 tons of copper ore a day, to 40,000 tons daily, a 700 percent increase in the mine's capacity.
The mine's history dates back more than a century. The original claims were discovered in 1882. The huge open-pit is in the Eureka mining district, located 65 miles west of Prescott. This arid, semi-desert is a region of hot, dry winds and 115 degree temperatures. Test drilling showed more than 303 million tons of copper-ore reserves lay within easy access.
Cyprus Bagdad initiated new environmental programs on this expansion. Electric trucks, dust control, and revegetation programs have prevented blighting of this desert region. Construction of a new tailings pond that recycles reclaimed water back to the mill not only saves water, it contributes to the overall efficiency of the operation.
The Client, in conjunction with the University of Arizona, in Tucson, pioneered revegetation techniques to remove signs of former mining operations. In a region that receives less than 10 inches of rainfall a year, on mine tailings devoid of nutrients, Cyprus agronomists developed a new strain of grass to enhance an ambitious revegetation program. Cyprus experimented with over 5,000 different species of barley to develop a new strain of grass to grow in the sandy, high silica tailings.
Fluor's involvement in the expansion began in 1973. Cyprus Mines Corporation had merged with Bagdad Copper to form Cyprus Bagdad Copper Company. Fluor was called in to conduct a feasibility study to determine if expansion of the existing mill would be advisable.
Ore from the pit is trucked to the primary crusher, and then carried on a 6,500-foot long overland conveying system to the radial stacker. The ore is belt-fed to the autogenous ball / cone crusher circuits and then moves to a potation circuit.
Zhengzhou Xinguang Mining Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd. , is a professional mining machinery manufacturer in China. Xinguang people are united, pragmatic, innovative and creative. We carry out information management, sales networking and international dialogue. We have introduced advanced technology for becoming bigger and stronger. We conquer market by perfect products, develop by our best quality, win customers by our reliable service and promote development by our credit stand
Starting for clients' demands and ending with clients' satisfaction, our company supplies technique, building design, instruction, and installation and debugging for free. We will offer lifelong services and provide spare
Xinguang people are united, pragmatic, innovative and creative. We carry out information management, sales networking and international dialogue. We have introduced advanced technology for becoming bigger and stronger.Starting for clients' demands and ending with clients' satisfaction, our company supplies technique, building design, instruction, and installation and debugging for free. We will offer lifelong services and provide spare parts for a long term.
So, you're hooked on making coffee from whole coffee beansand why shouldn't you be? The right coffee beans are more aromatic and flavorful than their pre-ground counterparts. If you simply don't have the time to grind your coffee beans every time you want a cup of coffee, may we interest you in a coffee maker that does the work for you? That's right, all of these coffee makers come with an electronic grinder, so the hard work of ultra-fresh coffee is built into the machine that turns those grounds into liquid gold. To make your mornings a little easier, here are the best coffee makers with grinders, for whatever type of coffee you're craving.
Coffee makers with grinders are typically a bit more expensive than traditional coffee makers. But this customizable coffee machine with a warmer and a "pause and serve" function proves you don't need to break the bank for a nice model.
With this machine, your whole coffee beans will turn into an espresso within one minute.Everything about this machine allows. you to personalize your cup, from the milk frother that you can control for optimal texture to the water pressure that helps draw out the flavor of your coffee with precision.
Since the 21st century, copper has been widely used and used in the electrical and electronic industries. It is mainly used in the manufacture of various electronic products such as mobile phones and computers, accounting for more than half of the total consumption. The types of copper ore mainly include natural copper, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, azurite, copper blue, etc.
Copper ore processing and production processes mainly include three processes: crushing, grinding, and beneficiation. In the crushing process, three-stage closed-circuit crushing is a modern method suitable for high-hardness copper ore crushing. It can complete the crushing and partial dissociation of the ore, thereby improving the subsequent grinding efficiency; in the grinding process, two stages and one closed grinding design can make the copper ore grinding more fully; among the beneficiation processes, the more successful new processes that have emerged in recent years are mainly the mixed flotation process.
Eastman, a professional mine crushing solution provider, has focused on copper ore processing technology for 30 years, and provides you with a complete set of processing technology and equipment from copper ore to copper concentrate. Contact us to do free design.
Large pieces of copper ore are evenly sent to the jaw crusher or coarse crushing mobile station (primary crushing) by the vibrating feeder for coarse crushing; After coarsely crushed copper ore are screened by vibrating screens, they are sent to a single-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher (second crushing) for intermediate crushing; The crushed copper ore materials are sent to a multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher for fine crushing;
Jaw crusher is mainly used for medium size crushing of various ores and bulk materials. It can crush materials with a compressive strength of up to 320Mpa, divided into two types: coarse crushing and fine crushing. Eastman has PE and PEX series jaw crushers with complete product specifications. Its feed size is 125mm1020mm, and the single machine output is as high as 600TPH. It is an ideal choice for primary crushing equipment.View More>>>
The GP (single-cylinder) hydraulic cone crusher is widely used in the medium and fine crushing process of iron ore, copper ore, gold ore and other metal mines. Eastman single-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher is a high-efficiency crusher designed with advanced American technology and the performance of high-quality materials in the industry.Automatic control and easy operation: using PCL touch screen operation and hydraulic adjustment of the discharge method, the discharge port is easy to adjust, easy to maintain, and it is more convenient and efficient to remove and replace the fixed cone, reducing downtime.<
HP (Multi-cylinder) hydraulic cone crusher is a new generation of high-efficiency hydraulic cone crusher based on nearly 30 years of crusher research and development experience, combined with domestic and foreign advanced technology, after several generations of product development and application. On the basis of the traditional multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher spindle fixed, eccentric sleeve rotating around the spindle structure and laminated crushing principle, the HP series has carried out a breakthrough optimization of the equipment structure, which significantly improves the use performance and crushing capacity of the equipment. The hydraulic lubrication system is designed to ensure the reliable operation of the equipment, while the operation control is more intelligent and humane.<
The tire-type mobile crushing station is widely used in the crushing process of mines. It can overcome the obstacles that the crushing site, environment, complex infrastructure and complex logistics bring to customers crushing operations, and truly provide customers with efficient and low-cost project operation hardware facilities . Eastman mobile tyre crusher has been successfully applied to mine crushing projects at home and abroad and plays an important role.<
Ball mill is a commonly used and efficient grinding equipment. It is suitable for grinding various ores such as iron ore, gold ore, copper ore and lead-zinc ore in metal beneficiation, and is used to grind the ore to below 0.075mm for subsequent beneficiation processes. According to different ways of discharging, it can be divided into grid type and overflow type. The grinding method can be divided into dry and wet grinding methods.<
Spiral classifier is a kind of equipment for mechanical classification based on the principle that the solid particles have different specific gravity, so the speed of precipitation in the liquid is different. It can filter the powder ground out of the mill, and then screw the coarse material into the feed port of the mill using a spiral blade, and discharge the filtered fine material from the overflow pipe.<
Magnetic separator is a device that uses appropriate strength of magnetism to select iron powder from powdered granules. Magnetic separators are widely used in beneficiation, suitable for wet magnetic separation of magnetite, pyrrhotite, roasted ore, ilmenite and other materials with a particle size of less than 3mm, and also used for coal, non-metallic minerals, building materials and other materials Iron removal operation is one of the most widely used and versatile machines in the industry.<
The dryer is a commonly used equipment after the mine beneficiation. The drying drum adopts the principle of the drum forward and reverse to achieve the non-winding effect of the dried items, so that the moisture in the material can be removed.<
As a reminder to readers, the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute Inc., also known as SAAMI, is an association of the nations leading manufacturers of firearms, ammunition and components.
This article picks up where part 1 left off in February. If you missed that, find out more about the background of the copper crushers by going to Februarys online archives, or go to www.industrialheating.com/rimfire for the rest of the story.
With 47 years of experience in design and manufacturing, I learned to expect the unexpected. So I wasnt too concerned when, early in 2013, I received two communications from SAAMI-member firearms manufacturers indicating that their research, development and quality-assurance departments inventories of SAAMI rimfire firing-pin indent copper crushers were running critically low and planning to coordinate an order soon.
My response: Coordinate an order? Let me look into that and get back with you. This was the first I had heard during my short time with SAAMI that my office was responsible for coordinating group purchases of specialty gauges and tooling to support industry activities.
A quick investigation on my part found that there was, indeed, a documented process and protocol for the rimfire firing-pin indent (RFPI) measurement contained in the SAAMI technical manuals. There were also pieces of the technical data package that were needed to develop a request for quote (RFQ). The RFPI process contained the necessary mechanical drawings for the RFQ, but what I found perplexing was the Material and Process Specifications (MPS) were scant to say the least Material, Copper Development Association Alloy 102.
The RFPI crusher was made of the same material specified in the SAAMI technical manual for the cylindrical pressure measurement used by ballistic test laboratories to measure the chamber pressure generated when a cartridge is fired and served as the firing-pin indent crusher used for testing centerfire firearms. Also, both articles were utilized to qualify the firing-pin indent, and there was a detailed material and process specification for the pressure measurement/centerfire firing-pin indent (CFPI).
It seemed a logical assumption to make (surely, my astute predecessors had seen no need to call out a material and process specification specific to the RFPI crusher), so they must have intended that those who followed in their footsteps would use the detailed material and process specification called out for the pressure measurement/CFPI copper crushers.
In mid-July 2013, I was up nights thinking that the lack of a specific reference to a material and process specification for the RFPI crusher was a potential disaster waiting to happen. With that in mind, I rallied around one of my colleagues favorite sayings: Singly we cannot know everything, but collectively we have a tremendous depth of knowledge. I was determined to see if any of my industry colleagues had more insight into the previous production runs of the RFPI crushers than the limited information available to me.
The natural place to start would be Olin-Winchester, Ammunition Division, which manufactured the SAAMI RFPI crushers for decades. Paul Szabo of Olin (retired 2016) responded that the last run of SAAMI RFPI crushers that Olin-Winchester ran was completed in the mid-1980s, and everyone involved in the project back then was now retired. A file folder of correspondence regarding the most recent production run of SAAMI RFPI crushers (circa 1997-98) was discovered and forwarded for review and future reference. A document revealed that SAAMI had contracted for production with an outside vendor. It became apparent that our predecessors had concerns about the raw copper bar stock, the heat-treat process and the post-anneal grain structure.
In the meantime, the RFQ was moving forward, and Cox Manufacturing (Cox) of San Antonio, Texas, was chosen by SAAMI as the preferred vendor for this production run of what was rapidly becoming known internally at SAAMI as the infamous RFPI copper crusher.
The choice of Cox (Fig. 2) was based on a number of key factors: Cox was known to many SAAMI-member companies both firearm and ammunition manufacturers as a trusted supplier for contracted-parts manufacturing. Art Raynes, vice president of business development, and Tia Good, contract manufacturing specialist at Cox, expressed the desire and willingness to accommodate the unique demands of this order, including an assurance of delivering a quality part at a competitive price. Good became one of my triad of key people, including Steve Davis, manager of process engineering and metallurgical laboratory at Olin-Winchester, and Peter Hushek, president and owner of Phoenix Heat Treating, whose collective knowledge, expertise and bulldog determination would be essential to the successful completion of this project.
Given the apparent simplicity of the copper-crusher team, if someone had told me it would be close to two and a half years to take this project from conception to completion, I would have been the first one to say, No way in hell, not on my watch, this is manufacturing simplicity.
That thought would come back to haunt me numerous times over the next two years. One of the attributes of a good project manager is to realize your own professional limitations and not be afraid to reach out for the knowledge and expertise required to ensure the project reaches a successful conclusion.
As the project moved into the fall of 2014, I quickly realized that with insufficient technical data history available from previous orders of rimfire crushers I needed someone with metallurgical experience to help develop, optimize and document the entire process and ensure we achieved the desired RFPI crusher performance. Szabo pointed me in the direction of Steve Davis, Olin-Winchesters manager of process engineering and metallurgical laboratory.
I reached out to Davis in October 2014 about participating in the effort to produce a new lot of Rimfire copper crushers for the industry, and he welcomed the challenge to join the copper-crusher team. Davis brought to the table 20 years of metallurgical/process engineering experience in the defense industry, including 16 years with Winchester Ammunition. For reasons already discussed, his experience with the copper-crusher component used for centerfire firearms was invaluable. Also important were the resources available at the Winchester plant in Oxford, Miss., including a metallurgical lab with materials-testing equipment and a state-of-the-art ballistics facility.
During the previous months, based on the original technical data package and the rather vague material specification, Cox moved forward in sourcing the raw material bar stock CDA Alloy-102, also known as C10200, which is 99.95% oxygen-free (Fig. 3). This copper alloy is one of the purest forms of commercially available copper, and procurement of the required 3,500 pounds of the alloy was the first challenge that Good would encounter. C10200 is not your everyday off-the-shelf copper.
At this point we needed a benchmark, since it was imperative to re-create the material and process specification that would exactly replicate the test results of decades past. Davis started by thoroughly testing and analyzing older lots of rimfire copper crushers to find the required metallurgical properties. This step was crucial in determining the suitable raw material necessary to achieve the same final crusher performance as older lots currently in use.
By the time Davis came on board, Cox had already received the required production quantity of C10200 rod. However, he quickly determined the rod was processed with mechanical properties not suitable to achieve the desired performance of the final part. Davis worked with Good and the copper smelting facility to ensure the new order of rod was processed and delivered with the proper combination of rod diameter, reduction in area and tensile strength and that it was produced with the correct ASTM standard and certifications.
We were slowly overcoming every hurdle encountered in reconstructing the manufacturing process and protocol of the RFPI crusher. And I was confident with two of the three main elements: a qualified manufacturing facility and an exceptional metallurgist who understood metals properties and had an extensive test and ballistic laboratory facility at his disposal to help overcome the underlying issue of a very simple part with complex heat-treating requirements, which were required to achieve the desired critical balance of metal hardness and microstructure of the finished parts.
What we needed now was a third pillar on the triad team an exceptional heat-treating facility. Once again, Good answered my call for help. Cox has a long-established working relationship with one of the preeminent heat-treat houses in the U.S., Phoenix Heat Treating in Phoenix, Ariz. Little did I know that one of Phoenix Heat Treatings guiding principles mirrors Coxs customer focus and hands-on expertise. Husheks background is a four-generation heat-treating family that began in Milwaukee in 1915 (Fig. 4).
Upon receiving the new rod, Davis and Hushek began the preliminary thermal processing and verification testing. They worked long hours and weekends testing and optimizing thermal-processing parameters. Phoenix Heat Treating took on the challenge of finding the heat-treat solution for required target hardness microstructure.
After completing the optimization process, Cox began machining production quantities of crushers into lot sizes. A random sample of finished crushers were subjected to a first-article test (FAT) that consisted of metallurgical analysis and firing tests in different firearms to validate the copper-crusher performance compared to older lots. Prior to delivery, every lot of crushers was required to pass a lot acceptance test (LAT) that included dimensional, metallurgical and performance criteria to ensure each lot performed to standards.
Based on this success, Davis began developing a new material and process specification document for SAAMI. The new specification serves as a guideline to ensure continuity of crusher performance for future production. The proposed specification covers details such as raw material, processing, inspecting, testing, performance and packaging requirements. This ensures the ammunition and firearms industry many years of uninterrupted critical testing of cartridge pressures and firing-pin indents.
In August 2015, two and a half years after the project began, Cox delivered the last of the three patterns of RFPI crushers on schedule. SAAMI is in the final stages of documenting the material and process specification, the FAT process and procedure, and LAT protocol.
In all probability, by the time the next production run of SAAMI rimfire firing-pin indent crushers is needed by the industry, everyone involved in this project will be enjoying retirement. I, for one, will be able to look back knowing those who follow in our footsteps have a clear road map of where they are going and how they are going to get there. For that, I have the likes of Peter Hushek at Phoenix Heat Treating, Steve Davis of Olin-Winchester and Tia Good of Cox Manufacturing to thank for their knowledge, expertise and unfailing fortitude to get the job done.
For more information: Contact Randy Bimson, director technical affairs and technical advisor; Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute, Inc., 11-Mile Road,Newtown CT, 06470; tel: 203-426-4358; e-mail: [email protected] Contributors can be contacted as follows: Steve Davis at Olin Corporation, [email protected]; Tia Good, Cox Manufacturing, [email protected]; Peter Hushek, Phoenix Heat Treating, Inc., [email protected]
As a reminder to readers, the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute Inc., also known as SAAMI, is an association of the nations leading manufacturers of firearms, ammunition and components.
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