Crushing Plant Design and Layout ConsiderationsCrushing Circuit A shows a small simple layout for use in mills up to 100 tons. In order to keep the flowsheet simple, and because of the use of the forced feed type of crusher, we can crush small tonnages up to 100 tons per day with a very simple arrangement; using a stationary or vibrating grizzly ahead of the crusher and then crushing the oversize before conveying into the fine ore bin. Elevators are often used for this purpose but are not recommended on very sticky ore.
In Crushing Circuit A the chute leading from the stationary or vibrating grizzly should be steep, for wet, sticky ore will build up if there is not a nearly vertical drop on to the conveyor. If the bottom of the conveyor is in a pit, plenty of room should be allowed in back of the tail pulley for the mill operator to shovel if necessary. A drain should be provided in case of floods or spills in the mill. The conveyor should not be placed at an elevation of more than 20 degrees. The fine ore bin should preferably be a deep bin in which storage capacity for at least a 36 hour supply of ore should be provided. In other words, for a 100 ton mill, this fine ore bin should have a capacity of at least 150 tons.
Crushing CircuitB shows the use of a secondary crusher for handling larger tonnages. The type of secondary crusher will vary according to the characteristics of the ore. Usually a cone type crusher is recommended for this secondary crushing, although in many cases a jaw crusher can be used as the secondary crusher, setting up the jaws closer than in the primary crushing operation. The interchangeability of parts is important if the two crushers are of the same size. The jaw crusher is the simplest and most fool-proof of secondary crushers. Rolls are often used where the shearing action of a roll crusher and a minimum amount of slimes are desired. However, rolls ordinarily should not be used to produce a feed finer than 1/8 and a reduction of 4 to 1 should be the maximum between the feed and discharge. Rolls have often been condemned because of the use of too small diameter rolls, cheap and poorly designed units.
For larger intermediate crushing the well-known cone gyratory crushers are recommended. Crushing Circuit B shows the use of a secondary cone crusher in the circuit between the primary crusher and the fine ore bin. A vibrating screen removes the undersize before the feed enters the secondary crusher. On small- tonnage plants, particularly on a steep millsite, this FLOWSHEET B is highly recommended, for both the primary crusher and the secondary crusher can be kept in a building in close proximity to each other.
Crushing Circuit C shows the modification of Crushing Circuit B where a light-weight, secondarycrusher can be placed over the fine ore bin. Oftenthe fine ore bin is strong enough, together with additional steel supports, to make this simple arrangement practical.
Crushing Circuit D shows a very practical arrangement even for large-tonnage plants, enabling both theprimary crusher and the secondary crusher to be inthe same crushing building and to utilize the minimum amount of conveying. There is a great deal ofmerit to this crushing layout D, for the same conveyor belt can handle the products from two crushersand thus the minimum amount of conveyor equipment and building space is required. In most instances this crushing arrangement D will prove tobe most practical from the first cost as well as from anoperating point of view.
Crushing Circuit E was at one time the most common arrangement for a crushing plant in which largetonnages were handled. This arrangement was recommended where compactness and space were not asimportant factors as under the arrangement D.Crushing CircuitE covers the fundamental factors ofa good crushing plant if floor space and expense arenot critical.
In all of the above Crushing Circuit flowsheets we recommend amagnetic head pulley or a permanent magnet aheadof the secondary crusher to remove injurious magneticmaterial, particularly the detachable drill bits whichare now becoming so common in many of our miningoperations.One can readily see the importance of this magnetic protection, particularly since in many mines the throwing down of worn out drill bits is an every-day occurrence. The removal of the fines from the crushed material before each crushing stage is also a very important step in good crushing practice.
This flow diagram shows a three-stage gravel plant schematically. It shows the interrelationships and functions of the various components of the plant. This sort of diagram can be used to advantage in working out the solution of an aggregate plant problem.
We should consider how the work is done by crushing machines, hammermills and pure impact crushers lift the kinetic energy of the material to a level where on sudden impingement against a stationary plate breakage occurs.
These two cone crushing configurations are commercially available and have entirely different concepts of the amount of ore being crushed as a proportion of the total feed, for the example shown (fig, 2), we are comparing two machines engaged in fine crushing with feed top size of 30 mm. This shows the smaller eccentric throw, longer chamber crusher can be expected to make a finer product at the same close side setting compared to the larger throw, short chamber machine, this is because it is working on a greater proportion of the feed, for further discussion, i will define this ability to inject energy per unit of feed as the power rate of the crusher.
you will notice from these results that in each case crushers 2 and 3, with the smaller eccentric throws, made a higher percentage of finer products even though in the case of crusher 3 the close side setting was 40 percent more open.
Dividing the power consumed by the tons of size produced gave remarkably similar power per ton figures, results from other tests on other sized crushers processing many different materials seem to confirm that cone type crushers use the same energy to reduce similar quantities of material to the same size. The efficiency in the application of energy converted to useful work by the crusher, therefore, appears independent of eccentric throw.
The only variables in the process which we can control routinely are feed rate and setting change to the crusher. These affect the power consumed at the drive motor and rate of energy input as follows.
At fixed settings (fig 5) near the point of economic operating capacity, feed rate versus power drawn has a linear relationship. Power rate tends to remain a constant.With variable setting, power changes in an exponential relationship (fig 6).
This example shows that for a very small change in setting there is a big change in power drawn, because for a small change in setting there is little volumetric change there will also be an exponential relationship in crusher setting versus energy per ton of feed (power rate) which is a direct measure of reduction, as is shown in fig, 7.
It should be obvious that if we can change the setting of the crusher whilst it is operating, we can affect both the productivity (consumed power) and, through the power rate the amount of reduction within the constraints set by the eccentric throw, speed and chamber configuration,
An important point which is often overlooked by plant design and application people is that the crusher must have an adequate amount of evenly distributed feed, fig, 8 shows the effect of poor and good feed distribution. If the feed is right the crusher will have maximum productivity (highest average crushing force) for minimum mechanical stress, a crusher cannot normally be fed properly from a vibrating screen discharge, this is why we have shown surge bins with pan or belt feeders in the diagrams that follow on plant discussions.
Usually mounted on a tyre or crawler frame and self-powered or moved using a tractor, mobile crushing plants are often used for on-site operations due to their great flexibility to be moved whenever required. The advantages of using a mobile crushing plant are the savings in transport and infrastructure costs, the ability to crush on site and move at any time; in addition, mobile crushing plants have good asset retention and are popular with project contractors and machinery rental companies.
In the construction and demolition waste disposal sector, mobile crushing plants are used to process concrete, asphalt and other demolition debris, not only to recover useful construction aggregates, but also to reduce transport and landfill costs.GEP Ecotech's mobile jaw crushers, mobile impact crushers, and mobile screening machines have been used in different projects in many places around the world for many years, and their excellent performance and reliability have been continuously proven in practice.
When the mobile crusher plant moves, it is powered by the power system and the crawler chassis is driven by the hydraulic electric control system; during installation, the power system automatically completes the installation of the equipment by driving the hydraulic cylinders and other movements through the hydraulic electric control system control; during operation, the power system drives and controls the mainframe and auxiliary equipment through a hydraulic electric control system. The material enters the mainframe mounted on the tracked chassis and frame and is discharged through an integrated belt conveyor after being crushed and sorted.
GEP Ecotech's mobile crushing plants are available on both tire and crawler chassis, with the tire chassis crushing plants using tractor-trailers for easy and cost-effective for long-distance transfers. Crawler chassis crushing plants are diesel or electrically powered with high passability. Allowing freedom of movement around the job site.
GEP Ecotech's mobile crushing plants are available on both tire and crawler chassis, with the tire chassis crushing plants using tractor-trailers for easy and cost-effective for long-distance transfers. Crawler chassis crushing plants are diesel or electrically powered with high passability. Allowing freedom of movement around the job site.
The work of doing a research about Crushing Plant Design and Layout Considerations is necessary to bring further profit, reasonable crush plant is the fundamental of efficient crushing production. The main factors of crushing plant quality as following paper of crushing plant design and layout considerations.
The basic purpose of crushing ore is to achieve a certain particle size requirement for ore, raw materials or fuel. In ore dressing, the purpose of crushing ore is: (1) supply the most reasonable ore feeding size for rod grinding, ball milling, or provide qualified grinding medium for autogenous mill and gravel grinding; (2) make coarse-grained embedded minerals monomer preliminarily dissociated, create convenience for the coarse grain dressing methods, such as heavy medium separation, jig concentrate, dry magnetic separation and washing dressing; (3) to make high-grade iron ore reach the required grain size so that it can be smelted directly. Different purposes require different particle sizes, and thus there are many types of crushing processes. Crusher plant solutions supported by engineers team
The crushing stage is the most basic unit of the ore-crushing process. Different crushing stages and different combinations of crusher and sieve require different ore crushing processes. The basic forms of the crushing stage are as follows: (a) one stage crushing; (b) one stage crushing with prescreening; (c) one stage crushing with control screening; Both (d) and (e) one stage crushing with prescreening and control screening, the difference is (e) type with pre-screening and control-screening operations on the same plate. The two-stage crushing and over two stages crushing is a combination of different crushing stages, so there are many possible schemes. However, a reasonable crushing process can be determined according to the number of broken stages required and the necessity of applying pre-screening and control screening.
The number of crushing stages depends on the maximum grain size of the crude ore, the required particle size of the final crushing product, and the crushing ratio that can be achieved in each broken section, that is, the total crushing ratio required and the crushing ratio of each section. The maximum grain size in the ore is related to the occurrence conditions of the ore, the scale of the mine, the mining method, and the transportation and handling methods of the ore. Open-pit mining depends mainly on the size of the mine and the volume of the loading shovel, typically 500 to 1300 mm. When mining underground, it depends mainly on the size of the mine and the mining method, generally 300 ~ 600 mm.
The size of the broken final product varies depending on the purpose of the crush. For example, the feeding of the autogenous mill is 300 to 500 mm, the particle size of the iron-rich ore smelting in the blast furnace is divided into two stages of 25 ~ 30 and 25 ~ 30 mm. The reasonable ore size of the rod mill is 20 ~ 40, the ball mill has a reasonable ore size of 10 to 25 mm. The reasonable final crushed product size depends mainly on the requirements of the process and the results of technical and economic comparisons.
When determining the optimum final particle size of the ball mill, the total technical and economic effects of crushing and grinding should be considered. The larger the particle size of the crushed product, the higher the crushers production capacity and the lower the crushing cost; however, the grinding machines production capacity will be reduced and the grinding cost will increase. On the contrary, the smaller the particle size of the crushed ore, the smaller the production capacity of the crusher and the higher the cost of crushing; but the production capacity of the grinding machine will increase and the grinding cost can be reduced. Therefore, the crushing and grinding should be considered comprehensively, and the particle size which minimizes the total cost should be selected as the suitable crushing final product particle size. The practice has proved that the most suitable ore size of the grinding machine is 10~25 mm. As the production scale of the concentrator is larger, the grain size of the grinding machine is reduced, and the economic effect is greater.
The crushing ratio of each crushing stage depends on the type of crusher, the type of crushing stage, the hardness of the ore processed, and the like. The crushing that can be achieved by the common crusher is shown in the Table below. When the hard ore is treated, the crushing ratio is small; when the soft ore is processed, the crushing ratio is large.
Pre-screening is to pre-screen the qualified grain size before the ore enters the crushing section, which can reduce the number of minerals entering the crusher and increase the production capacity of the crusher; at the same time, it can prevent the ore from being crushed. When processing with ore with higher water content and more fine ore, the wet mineral powder will block the crushing chamber of the crusher and significantly reduce the production capacity of the crusher. The use of pre-screening to remove wet and fine mineral powder can cause more normal working conditions for the crusher.
Therefore, the application of the pre-screening is mainly determined based on the content of the fine-grained grade in the ore (less than the fraction of the width of the discharge port of the crusher). The higher the fine fraction content, the more advantageous it is to use pre-screening. Studies have shown that technically and economically, pre-screening favorable ore, in which the limit content of fine-grain grade is related to the crushing ratio of the crusher.
From this, it can be seen that when the ore size characteristic is a straight line, it is always advantageous to use pre-screening regardless of the crushing ratio. In most cases, the grain size characteristics of the ore are concave, so pre-screening before crushing is economically cost-effective. However, due to the need to increase the height of the plant by using pre-screening, when the production capacity of the coarse crusher is sufficient, or when the direct filling is used, the pre-screening may not be provided. The fine fraction content in the second crushing section and the third crushing section is mainly determined by the grain size characteristics of the ore discharging of the previous section of the crusher. According to the actual measurement, the grain size characteristic curves of various coarse crushers and medium crushers are mostly concave, that is to say, fine particles are dominant, so the second crushing section and the third crushing section are pre-screened. necessary. Only when there is a surplus in the production capacity of the selected crusher, it is not necessary to pre-screen before the crushing.
The purpose of screening is to control the particle size of the crushed product and to maximize the production capacity of the crusher. Because some of the crushing products of various crushers have a coarse fraction which is larger than the width of the discharge opening, such as the short-head cone crusher when crushing the medium-breakable ore, the product has a grain size greater than the width of the discharge opening takes 60%, the maximum particle size is 2.2 ~ 2.7 times of the discharge port; even worse when breaking the broken ore. The content of the coarse fraction (greater than the size of the discharge port) and the maximum relative particle size Z (that is, the ratio of the maximum particle to the size of the discharge port) in the crushed products of various crushers are shown in the table below. After control sieving, the unqualified granules are returned to the crusher, just as the closed loop of the grinder and the classifier is beneficial to improve the grinding efficiency. Control screening can improve the production capacity of the crusher. However, the use of control screening will increase the investment and complicate the equipment configuration of the crushing workshop. Therefore, it is generally only used in the last crushing section to check and screen, and combined with the pre-screening to form a pre-screening closed loop. It is thus necessary to pre-screen in each of the crushing stages; the control screening is generally only used in the last crushing section.
The crushed product obtained by the two-stage open crushing process has a coarse particle size and is only used in a simple small ore dressing plant or an industrial test plant. The first stage may not be pre-screened. In this case, when the mud and water in the ore are high, a small concentrator can also be used in order to make the production work normally. The small ore dressing plant handles the ore mining with small granularity in the underground mining, and the second section adopts the two-stage closed-circuit crushing process when the relatively large crushing impact crusher is used.
The basic types of the three-stage crushing process are three-stage open circuit and three-stage one closed circuit. The three-stage and the one-closed crushing process has been widely used as a preparation for grinding. Whether it is underground or open-pit mining ore, as long as the ore is not high in mud, it can be effectively adapted. Therefore, the concentrators of different scales can be used.
Compared with the three-stage and one-closed process, the three-stage open-circuit crushing process has a coarser particle size, but it can simplify the equipment configuration of the crushing plant and save capital investment. Therefore, this process can be used when the grain size of the ore is not critical and the coarse grinding of the grinding section is carried out by rod grinding, as well as the treatment of muddy ore with high moisture content and terrain limitation. When dealing with ore with high moisture content, it is not as easy to block the screen and the crushing chamber as the three-stage closed circuit process. The three-stage open-circuit and rod-grinding crushing process do not require complex closed-circuit screening and return product transportation operations, and the rod mill is less affected by the ore-grain size change, and the ore-mining particle size is uniform, which can ensure the lower-stage grinding operation. The operation is stable; at the same time, the production process produces less dust, which can improve the sanitary conditions. This process can be used when coarser grain sizes (re-election plants) or brittleness (tungsten, tin ore) and large specific gravity (lead ore) minerals are required. Only very hard ore and very large-scale concentrators are treated. In order to reduce the crushing ratio of each section or increase the total crushing ratio, the four-stage crushing process is considered.
When the amount of ore containing mud (-3 mm) exceeds 5-10% and the water content is more than 5 ~ 8%, the fine fraction will bond into a mass, which will deteriorate the production conditions of the crushing process, such as blockage of crushing cavity and sieve hole, prone to equipment failures, in severe cases, production cannot be carried out. At this point, the washing facility should be added to the crushing process. Increasing the washing equipment will not only fully exploit the potential of the crushing equipment, but also make the production work normally. Improve labor intensity, and increase the recovery rate of useful metals and expand the use of resources. sand washing machine for sale The washing process is generally set before or after coarse crushing, depending on factors such as the ore size, water content and structure of the washing equipment. Commonly used washing equipment includes washing sieve (trommel screen, grid sieve, vibrating screen, cylindrical sieve) spiral trommel washing machine, cylinder trommel scrubber washing machine, etc. The net mine after washing, some need to be broken, and some can be used as a qualified grade. Washed mud, if the grade is close to the tailings grade, can be discarded; if the grade is close to the original grade, it needs to be sorted. Due to the different features of the mineral ore, the way of washing and the treatment of fine mud are different, so the process is diverse. as an example, The ore is a skarn type copper deposit with 6-11% mud and about 8% water. The washing process is shown in the upper, and the crushing process is three sections and one closed circuit. In order to make the crusher safe and normal production, the first washing is carried out on the sieve, the product is sieved for coarse crushing, and the sieved product is washed into the vibrating screen. After the second washing, the product on the sieve enters the medium crushing. The product under the sieve is graded and delimed into the spiral classifier. The classified sand return is combined with the final crushed product. The graded overflow is buffered by the thickener, and after dehydration, it is separately fine. mud grinding, flotation. JXSC provides a full set of crusher machines, crushing plant design is available, contact us to get more details about crushing plant design and layout considerations.
Jiangxi Shicheng stone crusher manufacturer is a new and high-tech factory specialized in R&D and manufacturing crushing lines, beneficial equipment,sand-making machinery and grinding plants. Read More
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NW120 Rapid portable jaw crusher is a wheel-mounted jaw crushing plant made for reducing hard and soft rock, as well as recycled materials. It can be transported from one site to another by road or in a shipping container.
NW120 Rapid is a standard equipment, as all NW Rapid plantswhich are made to deliver a faster return on investment. We have optimized all the critical milestones in the solution's lifetime starting from purchase and continuing all the way to after-sales support.
To accommodate road transportation in North America Metso Outotec has developed a special model of NW120 Rapid portable jaw crusher. The unit has been re-designed for permittable transportation in most states of the North American market. With the use of a booster bogie and heavy haul jeep for lower axel weigh, it can be moved by towing with a prime mover. Combined with lights, side and mud guards and ABS-brakes the entire primary crushing and screening plant can be transported on road safely, and in one compact package from coast to coast.
NW120 Rapid portable jaw crusher can be equipped with optional hydraulically adjusted support legs, side walls, and on-board main and side conveyors which can be set up without using heavy cranes. Furthermore, a rock breaker can be added, and metals can be removed from the end product with an optional magnetic separator.
NW120 Rapid portable jaw crusher is safe and easy to operate and maintain. Design features such as flywheel composite covers with spacious service platforms and excellent accessibility make daily operations safe and easy.
All portable jaw crushers are supported by Metso Outotecs global network of service professionals and optimization experts. A wide range of high-quality spare parts and wear parts can be delivered promptly and tailored for any specific process need.
The track mounted 3-deck mobile screening plant combines maximum performance with robust and compact design, short set-up times, superior screening results and low fuel consumption. The track mounted mobile screening plant is applicable for a big variety of materials, such as construction waste, gravel, sand, asphalt, etc. The machine is equipped with a direct feeding chute and load-sensing technology.
As a result of the great development of the basic construction and the reconstruction of the towns and the rapid rise of the high-rise buildings, the old-style buildings die out, and the waste of the construction wastes is directly buried without treatment, Then it will cause long-lasting harm to our living environment. Crusher plant can deal with construction wastes well.
Our company, a professional construction machinery manufacturer in China, provides top quality crushing plant, asphalt plant, concrete batching plant for sale. If you are interested, just contact with us now!
Compared with the mobile crushing plant, the stationary crushing screen plant has no tires. In view of the present situation of construction waste treatment in our country, crushing plant has strong advantages, but with the increasing maturity of construction waste disposal market, it will slowly be transformed into fixed crushing plant, that is to say, mobile crushing station is transitional equipment, and slowly will be converted into fixed type.
It is mainly used for fields like metallurgical, chemical, building material, hydro-power that needs material processing, especially for highway, railway, hydro-power with the operation of mobile stone. Customers can choose multiple configuration according to types of raw material, size and finished material requirements.
Mobile crusher plant can not only reduce the cost of transportation, but also cooperate with brick making machine to make the raw material into finished products at one time. With the increasing market demand, various types of crushing plant are needed, such as jaw mobile crushing plant, tire mobile crushing plant and other types. These plants can produce product with high quality, high crushing ratio, reliable performance.
Vibration feeder takes eccentric shaft as excitation source, gear transmission, low noise, stable operation, long life, and it can screen fine material in advance to make crusher more efficient. Adjust the gap grid design to prevent material blockage. Customers can selectively install speed-regulating motor, easy to control the feed quantity, no need for frequent start-up of the motor.
Circular vibrating screen is a kind of screening machine, which mainly produces centrifugal inertia force (excitation force) with radial variation because of the unbalanced rotation of the vibrating wheel of the exciter. Itdrives the screen box and makes the screen vibrate. The trajectory of the screen frame is elliptical. The material on the screen is thrown up by the upward movement of the screen surface, and then falls back to the screen surface after a distance. In this way, the screening is completed in the process of moving from the feed end to the discharge end. The amplitude of the vibrating screen can be adjusted by changing the weight and position of the counterweight.
As far as the counterattack crusher is concerned, the rotor rotates at high speed under the drive of the motor while working, and the material entered from the feed port is hit by the plate hammer on the rotor, which is broken by the high speed impact of the plate hammer; the broken material is hit back on the liner and broken again; later, it is discharged from the outlet. Adjusting the gap between counterattack frame and rotor frame can change the particle size and shape of material.
The material is uniformly transported into the crusher through the feeder, and after the crusher is initially broken, the closed circuit system is formed by the circular vibrating screen to realize the cyclic crushing of the material, and the material in accordance with the grain size requirements is output by the conveyor, so as to achieve the production purpose.
Before the operation, check whether the supporting equipment can run normally, such as crusher, feeder, and so on, whether the connection of these supporting equipment is loose or falling off, and whether the transmission device is abnormal. Especially the crusher, ensure that there is no residual materials in the crusher. In addition, because the working environment of the stone crushing plant is complex, the tire of the mobile crushing station is a vulnerable part, the user should also check whether the tires can work normally before carrying out the operation, so as to ensure the overall performance and normal operation.
The circuit problem of the whole machine in the operation process is a problem that the user needs to pay attention to. If there are special noises, odors or sparks in the working process, stop the operation immediately, maintain in time and never work by force. Otherwise, the whole equipment and motor may be damaged, and it is easy to cause inestimable losses to the user.
Before the stop of the crushing plant, the user must ensure that all the equipment can stop after all the materials are discharged. After the mobile crusher stops, the user should also check the circuit of the equipment, the supporting equipment and lubrication in time. For any abnormal condition, repair and maintain in time. In addition, due to the complexity of the working environment of the aggregate crushing plant, users need to clean and maintain the equipment in time after operation.Get in Touch with Mechanic