We get asked this question every day. At least we hope we do! So what are the factors that most influence this price?Many times the cost of the installation equipment far outweighs pardon the pun the cost of labor. So lets run down the top driving factors we consider in an industrial machine move cost estimate, for rigging machine selection. This is written with the person that would be asking this question in mind. What does an industrial machine move cost? There will be little here for any salty riggers that stumble across this article, but read it anyway!
The weight will likely be the single most determining factor in rigging equipment selection. Once over 100,000 pounds indoors the equipment list gets short. This is the question every rigger will ask right up front.
Sometimes we cant get close enough to a machine to use any of our mobile tools. Sometimes the weight is too great. Then the Hydraulic Gantry is the tool of choice. These lifting systems are incredibly powerful. Loads of 4-800 tons are commonly handled with these machines. They can operate in very low headroom, and span voids and pits that other machines can not contend with. The track rails disperse weight over a wide area. This lowers the pounds per square inch, and greatly increases the floor bearing capacity. However, the hydraulic gantry is a machine move itself. It requires a crew and equipment to assemble. It can take longer to unpack and assemble the gantry, than it does to move your machine! These factors alone make this choice costly. Slow and steady is the way.
Where is machine move?Is it inside or outside of the facility. This will be yet another crucial factor in equipment selection. Cranes are great, but they are very limited indoors. Ceiling heights as low 30 feet can make them almost inoperable in a building. They have limited mobility due to their size as well. Outside they are many times they right choice. The can function on surfaces that make heavy forklifts inoperable. A cranes reach capacity is many times higher than a forklift.
A specialized heavy fork lift, like our Hoist 40/60 has an incredible 60,000 pound lift capacity on solid ground. But thats the catch. Its useless on soft or unstable ground without extensive stabilization and road plating. This equipment shines on tight in-plant work. Its compact design allows it to operate in tight and low headroom environments. The heavy forklift can also lift and carry. This gives it the ability to transport a heavy load, long distances. Sometimes its a combination of the Crane and the Lift. Both of these solutions are able to set up and move fast. The expensive equipment make the job costly. However the labor can be cheaper as the machine is doing the work.
The Romans used rollers. So do we! The most economical way to move a very heavy load is Jacks and Skates. These systems are very versatile and incredibly powerful on stable surfaces. Why is a dock important? We can actually load virtually any weight equipment into a container or on to an open deck trailer with this tool. No dock likely back to lift or crane to load trucks. The lower the center of gravity, the safer these systems are. If a machine is tall or top heavy, your butt cheeks will be clenched the whole time. This entire system can be transported in a standard pick up truck. A trained rigging crew can economically perform amazing feats with set up.
So what does an industrial machine move cost? It is based on more factors than just the ones listed here. Every job is different. A good contractor will take the time to develop an economical plan. From this they will prepare an estimate. Most contractors dont charge for a machine moving estimate. If they do, WE DONT CALL US!!! Seriously though, chose someone you are comfortable with. That will take the time to explain what needs to be done, and why. Your equipment and time are valuable. Thanks for reading!!!
Opening a new mine or expanding an existing operation can be a challenging and daunting task. Aside from assessing and evaluating social-environmental concerns and designing the mining and material movement approach, the first question often asked is, "how much will it cost us to mine?" This may need to be determined even before you decide that there is a potential project. Mine cost estimation may be done at many levels. At first it may be a simple back of the envelope estimation using similar operations to benchmark against. Later it may be decided to use an existing mine that the company owns and factor and compare costs against them. In the final stages a detailed bottom-up estimation based on first principles may be completed.
This paper will investigate common methodologies of estimating operating costs for mines and present examples from actual operations and why those methods were selected. It will highlight why some methods are superior to others. Finally, we will explore the potential pit falls in cost estimation that often occur and the opportunities that may exist to lower mine costs.
This article has been evaluated and edited in accordance with reviews conducted by two or more professionals who have relevant expertise. These peer reviewers judge manuscripts for technical accuracy, usefulness, and overall importance within the hydroelectric industry.
Under Italian tax law, hydro plant components are included in the assets subject to estate tax. The value for taxation purposes must be declared by the plant owner. Hence, it is necessary to determine the value of installed machinery and civil works.
The value must be proven by documentation showing the cost of construction/installation or inferred using the comparative value procedure with documented similar plant components. Because of the lack of documentation showing the cost of construction, especially for older systems, ENEL personnel had to create a uniform and equalized calculation method based on a sample of cost data and documented on a classification that would allow for comparison in determining the cost of machinery. ENEL developed a similar procedure for determining the cost value of civil works.
ENEL is Italys largest power company and one of Europes main listed utilities. ENEL operates in 40 countries, has more than 97 GW of net installed capacity, and sells power and gas to about 61 million customers. The company operates a wide range of hydroelectric, thermal, nuclear, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic and other renewable plants. ENEL has an installed hydroelectric capacity of 30,265 MW in 780 plants, 430 of which have a capacity of less than 10 MW.
A cost estimate for feasibility studies or budgets cannot rely solely on market analysis and/or statistics. A close link between the technical and engineering departments should help determine the parameters that influence cost and to what extent. Existing documentation is not sufficiently reliable.
The purpose of the study discussed in this article was to analyze the relationship between the cost of a component installed in a hydro plant and the main parameters that define it. Because the parameters that define cost are numerous, the objective was to identify the minimum set of parameters needed to estimate a good approximate cost. Often, not all parameters are known or defined. The procedure used was to examine orders for which the supply details were known and therefore it was possible to calculate a comparable price.
The figures and formulas presented in this article should be understood as a simplified model that is based on the known cost of a component. The rate of error increases as the known component and the component being compared to it become more parametrically distant.
It should be noted that even if costs are estimated in a non-uniform way through the assessment of overall weight, ENEL has confirmed that this approach is valid for many components as long as it is not extended to extremely different key parameters. By adding a feature that sees a higher unit cost for small pieces of equipment compared to larger ones, the approximation is acceptable.
A mathematical model of equipment cost is more accurate the greater the number of parameters that are available, but it is also often true that many parameters have a minor influence or may not be properly assessed (such as a significant increase in the price of raw materials).
The order price is influenced by the cost of raw materials and labor, marketing strategies (aggressive new competitors or closed markets), the size of competing businesses, and different companies fixed costs. These parameters can change the price and are a source of uncertainty if the data has been collected without proper understanding of the context in which a bid should take place. In addition, data collection must be consistent and not spread over time, as changes in costs may introduce additional difficulties in deriving the standards in relation to the parameters already identified.
The two categories of main inlet valves are butterfly and spherical valves. To find a relationship between weight and approximate cost, ENEL used the valve weights quoted in the manufacturers catalogues. Diameter and maximum head are the main parameters that establish the weight and, consequently, the cost.
Figure 1 equates ENELs costs for butterfly valves to their diameter in millimeters. The analyses made are similar to those reported elsewhere for these valves.2 An analysis also is available for the cost variation of rotating valves.2 Using these curves, ENEL defined a constant for accurate estimation of valve prices. However, sufficient data was not available to make a similar analysis for spherical valves.
Because it is simple to find a preliminary total weight of the supply, ENEL did not refer to dimension parameters such as capacity and pressure, instead using the unitary price, which is linked to the material cost and is strongly related to quantity.
ENEL built many large plants from 1970 to 1990. The companys net installed hydroelectric capacity increased by 7,037 MW from 1970 to 1990. A total of 86 units were installed with an average capacity of 81 MW. The largest ENEL hydroelectric plant was commissioned in 1982 with a total installed capacity of 1,190 MW. From 2000 to 2010, many of these plants have been rebuilt, and the machines have been replaced as a result of the green certificate incentive mechanism. In these cases, the hydraulic machines had to be integrally replaced, with the exception of the cast iron parts.
Pelton: Minimum parameters needed are the power, number of jets and speed. Studies carried out in the 1980s3 provide a relationship between the total turbine weight (including the main inlet valve) and the parameters of power, number of jets and rated speed. A similar relationship was discovered with regard to supply costs from 2000 to 2010 (see Figure 2).
Francis and reversible single stage: Minimum parameters needed are power and speed. From the 1980s analysis,3 a relationship between total weight and these parameters was found. A more recent analysis was carried out on Francis machines by evaluating a larger number of cases, and the validity of the previous model was confirmed (see Figure 3).
Pumps and reversible multiple stage: Minimum parameters needed are power, number of stages and speed. Again, in the 1980s analysis,3 a relationship between weight and these parameters was found. Because of the peculiarity of the machines and the small number of ENEL plants in which they are installed, the analysis of the historical results could not be confirmed.
Kaplan: Minimum parameters are power and speed. From 2000 to 2010, by using the parameters obtained from plant renovation, it was possible to perform an analysis comparable to those of the other machines, obtaining a similar expression.
A further analysis was made starting from a draft of an ENEL study from the 1990s. In a diagram of the cost by power unit in function of the power and of the cost by weight unit in function of the total weight of a series of vertical machines, ENEL found the following relationships:
This expression places the total mass in relationship with the ratio A/n and consequently with the ratio P/n (torque), as it is for the hydraulic machines. By applying this relationship to the recent years supplies, a better data interpolation results (see Figure 4).
For electric machines, ENEL assumed as fundamental parameters the apparent power, speed and axis configuration (vertical or horizontal) and set the value of K = 40 for horizontal axis and K = 50 for vertical axis generators.
For those models having the purpose of evaluating the total cost of the machines with the variation in power in a large field, it is necessary to consider that the specific cost by unit of weight or power is not a constant but increases with the decrease in power of the machine.
For the purpose of evaluating the cost of new machines with existing embedded parts in civil structures, it is necessary to introduce coefficient Kconf that considers the relative cost of the cast iron components compared to the whole ex novo supply. These coefficients, identified by analyzing the price composition of some supplies, can be estimated as 0.8 for Francis, 0.6 for Kaplan, 1 for horizontal Pelton and 0.85 to 0.9 for vertical Pelton units.
Taking as a reference the voltage level of 132 kV for oil transformers having an oil natural air natural (ONAN) cooling system, the curve of the cost in function of the power will have an exponent of 0.56. If the cost of some of ENELs recent years supplies are displayed on a diagram, the pattern is substantially confirmed.
It is necessary, particularly for the transformers, to underline that the price is very sensitive to the capitalization losses established in a tender. In fact, diagramming the price of several purchase orders including the capitalization losses, ENEL finds that the regression coefficient is close to 1. Further investigations have confirmed the transfer criteria published elsewhere9 both for the high-voltage transfer level and for different cooling systems.
The two parameters to estimate the cost of an overhead powerhouse crane are the capacity and span. From an analysis of the data coming from new supplies of powerhouse cranes carried out in recent years (22 supplies) and with a span varying from 7 meters to 20 meters, ENEL demonstrated that the parameter span in a simple model can be disregarded.
Among the secondary parameters that can affect the costs are, besides the span, lifting head, specification of test standard and operating mode. The cost of a gantry crane can be estimated from the cost of the overhead crane by adding the cost of the metallic structure of the stand.
To find a simple model, ENEL referred to manufacturer price lists. The fundamental parameter is the apparent power and whether a soundproof enclosure is supplied. The quadratic model becomes linear for a diesel generator set with a limited power. Among the secondary parameters are the speed and typology of the diesel motor.
Cost of the cooling system of the turbine and generator unit in a closed circuit with water-water heat exchangers placed in the downstream channel, with oil-water heat exchangers for the bearings and air-water heat exchangers for the generator, can be expressed as a function of the power of the unit or of the cooling system nominal flow.
Among the secondary parameters that can cause a variation in costs are the materials used (e.g., carbon steel or stainless steel), length of the circuit, and difference of the temperature between the inlet and outlet.
To evaluate the cost of rectifiers and batteries, ENEL assumes the rated current as a fundamental parameter. The direct current system of ENELs power plants has a rated voltage of 110 V. It is evident that the cost is very sensitive to the variation of the cost of the raw materials, and over recent years this has seen a remarkable price increase.
For transformers dedicated to the auxiliary service (insulated cast resin transformers), the fundamental parameter to evaluate the cost is power. For this equipment, the linear relationship obtained for small power is not valid for higher power.
The more complex aspect of the hydroelectric plant evaluation is estimating the civil works component. The latest modifications to the Italian fiscal policy caused a significant increase in the taxable real property value that now involves all plant components including the hydraulic works. For this reason, ENEL has established a procedure whereby there is a comparison of historical data available and comparisons between plants built in the past and those recently built or those being built, in order to evaluate the rebuilding cost. This has been created by establishing homogeneous and objective criteria to assess the costs, useful life of the works and consequent degradation due to ageing.
This article presents the initial results of this standardization study. In other countries, new taxation systems are being analyzed that could be fairer, be simpler and incentivize a better use of resources. This could push energy production companies to invest in renewable energy sources in a rational way, by managing the various requests of the system more efficiently, especially in the areas of energy production, tariff, incentives, various use of resources, and increases in ecologic emissions.
Consider a statistical evaluation concerning 39 dams and works in roller-compacted concrete with volume greater than 30,000 m3 for more than 6.3 million overall, with an average value in 2000 of 33.6/m3 and a range of variability between 14.3 and 66.0 /m3.10
We have presented a methodology and a tool for carrying out cost estimates for hydroelectric plant components. This tool does not intend to establish a specific price which, as said before, is determined by market rules and tender strategies and methods.
The cost estimates remain a valuable guide for carrying out the assessment needed for the investment analysis and for the patrimonial evaluation of the goods present in a plant and inherent taxation implications.
7. Malquori, E., Relazione Generale Sullo Stato dellArte delle Turbine, Congresso Nazionale Macchine e apparecchiature idrauliche Memoria esposta da C. Reynaud (ENEL) al convegno di Baveno maggio 1993.
Initially, Bitcoin mining was a simple task even home computers could participate in. Today, mining is done by ultra-powerful computers that are designed for that sole purpose. In this post Ill cover the best mining hardware available today.
Before I get into the various miners on the market today, I want to make sure youre familiar with what Bitcoin mining is. If you already know about the purpose of mining and how it integrates with the Bitcoin network, feel free to skip this part.
Miners evolved from using PCs to GPUs (graphics processing unit) and later on to FPGAs (field-programmable gate array) before reaching their current state of ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) mining.
Today, if you try to mine with anything other than an ASIC miner, youre in for a disappointment. ASICs are built specifically for Bitcoin mining and are therefore the most efficient type of miner out there.
Todays focus is on creating smaller chips for ASIC mining in order to produce more powerful miners. The smaller the chip, the more chips you can put inside a miner, increasing its mining capabilities.
However, since these controversial events and some setbacks and closures, Bitmain has adopted a less aggressive business strategy. Its likely that the bulk of mining equipment today consists of Bitmain miners, based on analysis placing Bitmains share of the ASIC market at 60%70%.
MicroBT or Bit Micro is a relative newcomer to the space but a successful one; they sold 650,000 ASICs in 2019 and are shaping up to be a strong rival to Bitmain and Canaan. They are based in China, specifically the tech production hotspot of Shenzen.
Canaan is the worlds second-largest ASIC producer. The company has a wealth of experience in electronic design and production.Its clear that this veteran industry player has big plans for its future.
Innosilicon is a hardware company with design teams in China and North America, Innosilicon pride themselves on providing low cost, high-performance, fully customizable solutions combined with award winning customer design support.
Their IP can be found in millions of mobile, multimedia and consumer electronic devices such as: tablets, cell phones, HD set-top boxes, TV, cameras, network devices, computing ICs that have achieved leading market shares.
While GMO Internet is mainly engaged in the Internet infrastructure business, it also runs other businesses such as online advertising & media, Internet financial services, mobile entertainment, and of course cryptocurrency.
Ebang mainly engages in R&D, manufacture and sales of fiber optical telecommunication products. The company is also one of the largest ASIC chip manufacturers in their region. Ebang miners carry the Ebit brand.
Bitfury is a veteran Bitcoin hardware and software company formed back in 2011. The company conducts large-scale mining operations on its own and has been known to account for large amountsof the Bitcoin network hashrate.
While you can find a wide variety of miners on the market, its highly recommended to use the latest models out there since they will give you the best return on investment. Heres a short overview of the top miners around.
The MicroBT M30s++ is billed as the new hash king on the companys website. A bold claim but at least at the current time not untrue. Surprisingly, it uses 12 nanometer chips rather than the newer 7 nanometer chips seen in rival miners. It achieves an extraordinary 112 Th/s and is extremely efficient at 31 Joules / TH.
Fighting for the title of best post-halving bitcoin mining hardware is the Antminer S19 Pro, from Bitmain the ASICs veterans. The S19 Pro is a hashing monster that packs a 110 Th/s punch over a 3250W power consumption. With an almost identical price tag, its very hard to conclude which of the above 2 is better, at least on paper.
The T19 range is the latest and greatest from Bitmain. Launched on the 1st of June 2020, this model was designed in an effort to find a middle ground between price tag and hashing power, mainly due to the slow sales of its bigger brother, the Antminer S19 PRO.The T19 delivers 84 TH/s with a power consumption of 3150W, making it a cheaper, less efficient alternative for its bigger brother, the S19 Pro.
This 7nm miner deployed in March 2019 is Bitmains popular and proven miner. The miner can reach 68 Th/s, with a power consumption of around 2680 Watts. It is still able to compete with its newer adversaries if acquired for the right price.
I compared the leading miners against one another in our Bitcoin mining calculator. For electricity costs I used $0.67, which is the average industrial electrical rate in the US. For sake of comparison, the average consumer electricity price for the world is $0.12. This rate gives a better idea of how important low electricity costs are for profitable mining.
Calculations are done according to June 2020 values. The Bitcoin price at the time of calculation was $9500 and the Difficulty was 555. For pool fees I used the standard 2% fee that can be found on most pools.
As can be seen, on paper the S19 Pro shows an advantage over the whatsminer M30s++, with both giving away %63-%67 off their profits for electricity expenses. Both are coming off as profitable, even for consumer electricity rates of $0.10 per KWs, which is impossible to say for any of the competing miners available at the time of writing.
For comparison, for the same mining time period, the Antminer T19 delivers less than a half of the profits of the stronger two miners, for almost the same electricity costs (even though it was released after them).
Its clear that when it comes to efficiency, the T19 is no match for the other miners on this comparison but keep in mind that the examples above dont include hardware costs. In order to get a clear profit calculation you have to factor that in (the mining calc has a field for that as well).
The reason I dont include prices in this article is because these miners tend to sell out pretty fast, and most of the time people buy them on second hand markets such as eBay or Amazon, so prices can vary a lot.
For example, prices can vary so much that you may get your hands on a T19 for less than a half of the price of an S19 PRO or an M30s++. As you can imagine, this might put things in a different perspective.
Bt-miners is the biggest scam i purchased 2 x S19 pro 110th totaling $26500usd and they sent me 2 x S9. they refused to replace and refund me. Their company is based of china where getting your money back is a nightmare. They pretend to be in usa but found out its just mail forwarding address where they are susbribed to dupe customers. BE AWARE HUGE SCAMMERS
Does anyone have any historical data or can you provide any data regarding the Bitmain S19 miners. We are in the middle of engineering the ventilation system for our pod but we are having trouble obtaining the follwoing information. 1. What is the heat generation of each unit to the surrounding space, which would include radiant heat and fan generated heat through the unit 2. What is the airflow volume of the fans for each unit? 3. Are the fans sized based on an anticipated entering air temperature? If yes, what is that temperature? What is the leaving temperature at full capacity?
Can anyone just explain how to mine a bitcoin without having to outsource? Every site I visit tries to tell you that your rig is not good enough. I am curious how these crooks can say I cant join in on the funwho cares if I dont get a single portion, I am just trying to research how its done.
this is a fascinating learning curve for me. I have Heard so much about Bitcoins, but theres not to many resources for the uninitiated like myself. This could prove to be interesting. Even profitable.
Costs of sinking a mine shaft vary with the size and depth of the shaft; nature of the rock (the ease with which it can be drilled and broken, and the nature and amount of support required); amount of water that
The effect of most of these factors upon costs is self-evident, but effect of the rate of sinking is not so apparent. There is probably a certain rate of sinking that will vary somewhat with each job, which will result in the lowest cost per foot of shaft and below or above which this cost will increase.
If the exigencies of the case require the greatest possible speed in sinking, certain economies otherwise possible cannot be achieved. Speed work requires a high degree of organization and a routine, which, if temporarily interrupted, may disrupt the operations for some time; extra labor not normally required may be employed as an insurance against interruptions, which obviously adds to the cost. Furthermore, crowding the bottom of a shaft with a large crew does not make for economy.
A striking example of economy by slow-speed sinking is afforded by the experience at the Burra-Burra mine in Tennessee, where the three-compartment McPherson shaft was sunk 6 feet 7 inches by 16 feet inside the timbers. By sinking at a leisurely rate averaging a little over 2 feet per day, a saving of $50 per foot was made as compared to previous higher-speed sinking. During a typical 25-day working month when an advance of 57 feet was made, costs per foot were as follows:
No time was lost from powder sickness or bad air, since 8 hours elapsed between blasting and resumption of work in the bottom of the shaft. In earlier work higher costs were attributable to (a) large force of men in shaft, (b) unpleasant working conditions, (c) greater hazards, and (d) periodic upsets in organization.
Cost estimation errors are common in a variety of projects. Recent studies have shown the cost of machinery can represent 20 to 35 percent of a processing and manufacturing projects total cost. The estimated costs for new plants and particularly new pump installations are very uncertain and have increased in recent years. The following concepts minimize the cost of pump installations: Maximizing the extent of manufacturing and installation in the shop environment Simplifying a pump packages transportation and installation Providing modularized components that are easy to change Reducing on-site personnel supports and encouraging unmanned operation Eliminating as many standby pumps as possible Very limited literature is available on pump cost estimation. This column will focus on the cost estimation of the pump installations in different projects. Pump Installation Cost Estimate Historical data could inform pump installation cost estimation models within certain limits. Results have shown a large cost difference between different regions. The economies of concentration play an important role in cost. Cost studies have indicated that pump installation cost components usually have economies that are to scale to pump unit capacity and pump train size. The cost estimation of a pump unit or installation in a plant cannot be fully accurate, with the exception of the material cost, particularly the cost of a pump package. This cost can be estimated from the pump packages vendor, and the cost of materials could be obtained from suppliers. However, other cost estimations are relatively inaccurate. Labor costs have much larger cost overruns compared to other cost components. The following estimation concept can be employed for a pump unit or installation: (Pump Unit Cost) = A (Pump Package Cost) + B The factor A is assigned for all auxiliaries and accessories required for each pump package such as the foundation, civil works, piping and additional steel structures for each pump package. This factor is usually between 1.3 and 2.5. The pump package cost includes all skid-mounted facilities such as the driver and lubrication oil system. The factor B is assigned for all auxiliaries and accessories required for each pump unit, such as unit piping, unit utilities, protection systems, unit pit/drain, unit electrical facilities, safety equipment, unit steel structures and unit civil works. Because the cost underestimating error is generally larger than the overestimating error, proper safety margins for factors A and B are always encouraged. The cost is also a function of the project size or the pump system capacity. A proper set of factors should be developed for a defined range of the pump unit size and capacity for a region. Environmental conditionssoil, terrain, cost of living, population density, economies of scale, noise limits, applicable codes and distances from pump suppliescould affect the installation cost estimation and should be considered when the cost factors are estimated. Other Costs Studies on recent pump installations have shown that the cost of civil works (site developments, foundations and others) are about 9 to 20 percent of the total cost. They have also shown that the cost of installation can be approximately 7 to 11 percent of the total cost. The required man-hours for the installation and commissioning of pumps can vary significantly. For packaged pumps, the following indications should be noted: For large pump packages (more than 1 megawatt (MW)), the installation and commiss-ioning man-hours could be between 300 and 900 hours. For small pump packages (less than 1 MW), the installation and commissioning man-hours could be between 100 and 300 hours. Case Study The first case study is presented for a 6 MW pumping unit. The costs of electric motor-driven pump packages are obtained in millions of U.S. dollars (MUSD): A 3 MW pump package: 0.9 MUSD A 1.5 MW pump package: 0.6 MUSD A 0.8 MW pump package: 0.45 MUSD The factor A is estimated at 1.67 for these pump packages. The factor B is estimated at 1.5 MUSD for a 6 MW pump unit. Table 1 compares the cost of these different options. Table 1. Costs of different pump arrangement options (Article graphics courtesy of the author.) As shown, smaller pumps considerably increase costs. A greater number of smaller pumps is more expensive than using a single large pump. The second case study is presented for small pump installations. The following two options are considered: Option 1: A 320 kW pump, $52,000 Option 2: A 200 kW pump, $42,000 The factor A is estimated at 1.49 for these small pump packages. The factor B is estimated at $45,000 for Option 1 and $34,000 for Option 2. Table 2 shows the cost analysis for two options of small pumps. Table 2. Cost analysis for two options of small pumps Based on Table 2, only about 20 percent total installed cost reduction could be expected for a pump 38 percent smaller in size. Large pumps have economies of scale and low unit cost. In other words, unit costs of pump installations usually decrease as pump size increases.
Cost estimation errors are common in a variety of projects. Recent studies have shown the cost of machinery can represent 20 to 35 percent of a processing and manufacturing projects total cost. The estimated costs for new plants and particularly new pump installations are very uncertain and have increased in recent years.
The economies of concentration play an important role in cost. Cost studies have indicated that pump installation cost components usually have economies that are to scale to pump unit capacity and pump train size.
The cost estimation of a pump unit or installation in a plant cannot be fully accurate, with the exception of the material cost, particularly the cost of a pump package. This cost can be estimated from the pump packages vendor, and the cost of materials could be obtained from suppliers. However, other cost estimations are relatively inaccurate. Labor costs have much larger cost overruns compared to other cost components.
The factor A is assigned for all auxiliaries and accessories required for each pump package such as the foundation, civil works, piping and additional steel structures for each pump package. This factor is usually between 1.3 and 2.5. The pump package cost includes all skid-mounted facilities such as the driver and lubrication oil system.
The factor B is assigned for all auxiliaries and accessories required for each pump unit, such as unit piping, unit utilities, protection systems, unit pit/drain, unit electrical facilities, safety equipment, unit steel structures and unit civil works.
Environmental conditionssoil, terrain, cost of living, population density, economies of scale, noise limits, applicable codes and distances from pump suppliescould affect the installation cost estimation and should be considered when the cost factors are estimated.
Studies on recent pump installations have shown that the cost of civil works (site developments, foundations and others) are about 9 to 20 percent of the total cost. They have also shown that the cost of installation can be approximately 7 to 11 percent of the total cost.
Based on Table 2, only about 20 percent total installed cost reduction could be expected for a pump 38 percent smaller in size. Large pumps have economies of scale and low unit cost. In other words, unit costs of pump installations usually decrease as pump size increases.
Amin Almasi is a rotating machine consultant in Australia. He is a chartered professional engineer of Engineers Australia (MIEAust CPEng Mechanical) and IMechE (CEng MIMechE) and a Registered Professional Engineer in Queensland. He specializes in rotating machinesincluding centrifugal, screw and reciprocating compressors; gas turbines; steam turbines; engine pumps; subsea and offshore rotating machines; LNG units; condition monitoring; and reliability. Almasi is an active member of Engineers Australia, IMechE, ASME, Vibration Institute, SPE, IEEE and IDGTE. He has written more than 80 papers and articles dealing with rotating equipment, condition monitoring, offshore and subsea equipment, and reliability. Almasi may be reached at [email protected] or +61 (0)7 3319 3902.
As the price of bitcoin has soared, so too has theenergy and computing power required to mine it. The world's most popular cryptocurrency by market cap is now most often mined by collectives or large-scale operations running multiple rigs. (See also:GPU Usage in Cryptocurrency Mining.)
Many individual miners have found that the cost of building a computing rig powerful enough to keep up in the process is simply unfeasible. Nonetheless, some areas have emerged as mining hubs for various cryptocurrencies, thanks in large part to available space and the cost of electricity.
Elitefixtures.com conducted the study, basing its calculations on average electricity rates for 115 countries sourced from government data, as well as on estimates of the amount of time it would take to mine for a single BTC based on difficulty levels during January of 2018. The results showed that, depending upon where the mining happened, the total cost of mining for one bitcoin might vary dramatically.
At the lower end of the spectrum were countries like Trinidad and Tobago ($1,190 to mine one BTC), Kuwait ($1,983), Belarus ($2,177), and Bangladesh ($2,379). Given that the price of bitcoin was significantly higher than this rate throughout January of 2018, one might expect to be able to earn a profit off of bitcoin mining in countries such as these.
At the opposite end of the spectrum were countries like Belgium ($13,482), Cook Islands ($15,861), Marshall Islands ($14,751), and South Korea ($26,170). The United States was $4,758, the U.K. was $8,402, and cryptocurrency mining hub China was just $3,172.
Many island nations have a high cost associated with mining for bitcoin, likely because of associated high costs of electricity in those areas. South Korea is the country with the highest cost, however. The cheapest country for mining BTC was Venezuela (just $531 per coin).
The United States is the 41st-cheapest country for bitcoin mining, falling just behind Russia. However, within the United States, the price associated with mining varies from state to state. Louisiana is the cheapest state, with a cost of $3,224. Hawaii, on the other hand, has a cost of $9,483 per coin.
In sum, the report shows that there are areas of the world that are absolutely favorable for mining bitcoin, as well as other areas where the practice is likely not sustainable at all. (See also:Do Bitcoin Mining Energy Costs Influence Its Price?)
Investing incryptocurrenciesand Initial Coin Offerings ("ICOs") is highly risky and speculative, and this article is not a recommendation byInvestopediaor the writer to invest in cryptocurrenciesor ICOs. Since each individual's situation is unique, a qualified professional should always be consulted before making any financial decisions.Investopedia makes no representations or warranties as to the accuracy or timeliness of the information contained herein. As of the date this article was written, the author owns bitcoin and ripple.
Today's home appliances are great time-savers and include high-tech features that also can save you money. Did you know that using a dishwasher is more energy efficient that washing your dishes by hand? Using an Energy Star-certified machine can actually save you close to 5,000 gallons of water a year and reduce your annual electric bills by $40.
Of course, if you buy something new for your kitchen or laundry room, you'll probably need to know, "How much does it cost to install appliances?" We've put together the average cost of professional installation of major home appliances like a refrigerator, oven, dishwasher, washer and dryer, so you'll know exactly what you'll need to budget.
Your refrigerator is the focal point of your kitchen and making sure all those specialty features are connected properly will probably be a high priority. How much does it cost to install a refrigerator? According to Fixr.com, it can run anywhere between $116 to a whopping $3,900, plus the cost of the refrigerator. Generally the size of the fridge doesn't affect the cost of installation but the location, extra features, electrical and plumbing connection requirements can add up.
Expect to pay an additional $30 to $40 per floor to take it to a second- or third-floor. Want one included in your outdoor kitchen? Throw in an extra $150 without a water line. No electrical outlet nearby? The average cost for an electrician to run one ranges from $220-$750 each.
Most refrigerators aren't complete without a built-in water filtration system and ice maker. You'll need to budget $45-$65 per hour for a plumber for an average cost between $65-$130 to run the water line.
Cooking at home has never been easier than with today's variety of ovens. The average cost to install a free-standing oven in place of an old one is about $162 and a new installation can run around $200. The experts at Fixr.com indicate that changing the utility source such as electric to gas will bump up the fees by $180 for an electrician and $200 for a plumber to run a gas line.
You can expect a significant up-charge for installing built-in or wall ovens as they each require specially cut counters, cabinets or wall openings. A drop-in oven cut can cost an extra $100-$200. Add $200 to $225 to hang your oven on the wall. A cabinet to conceal a wall oven can impact your budget by as much as $1,000 to $5,000 depending on size, wood species, door style and finish.
Dishwashers are a convenience you won't want to live without, so if your machine needs replacement, plan on spending an average of $325-$450 to install a new one. If the majority of work is already done with hook-ups in place, a plumber will be able to complete the job in about an hour at $45-$65. However, if you need new pipes the installation cost will increase by $90 to $195 for two to three hours of work.
An electrician will charge between $65-$85 per hour to rewire or install a grounded electrical outlet. Additional labor considerations may be needed to change the cabinetry for a better fit. Carpentry charges at a rate of $70 per hour should be added. Plan on one to two hours to do the job.
Washing machines have changed dramatically in recent years. High-efficiency, front-load and stackable models may require modifications to your existing plumbing and electrical hookups, adding more expense to the installation process. Improvenet.com calculates the average washer installation costs between $100 and $200.
If you need to retrofit the space to fit your new machine, increase the cost by $350 to $600. Don't forget that if you need to move electrical or plumbing lines, the price can jump as high as $2,000. Note that high-tech models with digital components may need special electrical connections like 4-prong GFCI outlets.
Installing a new dryer will cost around $396 and include connection to the utility source (electric or gas) as well as the vent system. Fixr.com indicates that most electric dryers need a 240V electrical outlet. If a new electric panel is required, it could cost an additional $300-$800 depending on distance to the laundry room.
While gas dryers are more economical in the long run, if you need a new gas line run, a plumber will charge between $150 and $1,000 to put one in. Most dryers don't come with an electrical cord. You'll need to check your outlet to determine if you need a three-pronged cord for $29 or a four-pronged cord for $24.
If you're ready to install a new kitchen or laundry room appliance, Puls is available to help with our handyman services. Our skilled technicians are prepared to provide fast, professional, and convenient installation of your refrigerator, oven, dishwasher, washer or dryer on your timetable.
Low, affordable rates and comprehensive estimates are provided before we start the job so you can stay within your budget. Schedule an appointment with Puls at a time that works for you and we'll be theresame-day services are often available too.
Today's appliances are so reliable that you rarely think about them until there's a problem. Of course, with summer fast approaching, lifestyle changes can impact how you use your appliances and may put them at risk for breakdowns.
When you fire up the barbecue this summer, youll want to devote your attention to getting the perfect sear on that steak or grilling those veggies to smoky perfection -- not to mention spending a little time with your guests. Constantly answering the door or having to make a last-minute supermarket run can certainly make hosting a strain (and may possibly even risk your reputation as pitmaster).
Global have grown to become a truly integrated surface mining company; operating, maintaining, rebuilding, servicing, and now vending surface miners, parts and equipment. A number of new and second-hand machines have been procured for rebuilding, and reselling. The Company is committed to creating a larger surface miner market across Australia and is dedicated to reducing costs, continuing to drive the economics behind surface miner implementation.
Global have acquired and rebuilt a number of surface miners including Wirtgen 2500s and Wirtgen 4200s that are currently available for client procurement. Packages are available for Global to provide machinery, spares, operations, training and maintenance, to ensure your surface mining project operates at the lowest possible cost.
We can also supply you with used ASIC units to make it a fully turnkey solution as well. Many savvy miners are buying ASICs (ie) used S9sor S17 miners at below market rates and are able to make a profit in the recent bear/bull market runs.
100% managed solution for clients who want to mine without the operational obstacles and challenges (buying containers, miners, hosting, downtime, miner issues, etc.). Instead of buying and hosting miners, you purchase guaranteed Terahash (Th) for 36 months. Pricing and availability change often. Please contact us for an updated brochure along with an introduction to the supplier.
For clients interested in Immersion cooling mining containers, we have a USA based suppliers that design fully turnkey immersion cooling mining solutions inside ISO shipping containers. Clients provide the miners, electricity, water and Internet. Both single and two phase coolant options are available within these mining container solutions. In Q2 of 2021, we expect to offer a fully turnkey immersion cooled solution for clients with 1MW+ of ASIC miners. Please contact us for more details.
For clients looking for 2MW+ of power along with Bitcoin mining containers, we have a vendor with a new electro magnetic generator solution (clean and renewable power) with pricing that starts at 1 cents kwh for a minimum of 2MW. Initial investment is steep ($10m+) but it is approved for governmental and local clean energy rebates along with financing options. If you would like to learn more about this new technology, they require an NDA to learn more. Please contact us for more details.
Larger mining clients with ASIC or GPU units should consider a miner container solution. Containers offers the ultimate in flexibility along with all the correct environmental elements to keep your miners cool and up and running. Mining containers are equipped with start of the art cooling, networking and fire suppression systems. In todays fast paced Crypto market, there are many container options available.
1) Host company provides the container and you supply the miners. They charge you a monthly fee to rent rack space, power, cooling and Internet bandwidth. In BC, Canada, we have a miner container host that charges per miner. The following are standard ASIC all in (power, space cooling & bandwidth) USD rates as of Q1 2021 S19 $140, S17 $120, etc. Other ASIC options and pricing is available upon request.
2) Client purchases container and the host provides the power, land and Internet connection. Client provides the miners and can manage the miners themselves or have the host handle that task. We have options in North America & Europe starting at 3-5.5 per KWH. This option is usually geared towards clients with over 300 ASIC or GPU rigs.
3) Host Provides the container, land and power and Internet connection (miners can be provided as an option as well). For this option, we have hosts all over the World who will provide a fully turn-key managed solution starting at 4. This has been a really popular option for investors and fund managers who want to invest in Crypto but want a 100% hands off solution. Unmanaged options are available as well at cheaper all in rates.
Terms 50% deposit, 50% upon post completion inspection. Installation services available. Standard power hookup, 208v 3ph 3 wire. Can be modified to work with 480y277, 600v, 416y240, 380v, and a variety of other voltages. Transformers may be required at an additional cost.
Bitcoin is something that, unless youve been living in a bunker somewhere, you will have heard much about. Its a cryptocurrency, one of the first, and the most well-known example. A cryptocurrency is a non-physical, digital currency that is not regulated by a central bank. It is a currency where balances are kept on a public ledger transparent and accessible to all and are verified by a massive amount of computing power. Sounds complicated? Well, it is. The currency is secured by a technology known as a blockchain, these are simply a record of transactions that a.
For this reason, it is advantageous to have the hardware to get as much as possible out of your mining operation. This is where a bitcoin mining rig comes into its own, you can get more done and, most importantly, make a bigger profit.
Put simply a Bitcoin mining rig is a dedicated computer system designed to be solely used to solve the mathematical puzzles that unlock new Bitcoin. These problems are designed into the Bitcoin system to provide security for every transaction that passes through, and by rewarding users with Bitcoin for processing such transactions, a completely user-regulated platform exists. The more computing power you dedicate to this, the more Bitcoin you can mine, and so having a dedicated machine allows maximum returns.
It is a matter of simple cost-benefit analyses. If you consider Bitcoin mining as a money-making exercise, then it should be planned as such, and that means business planning. Yes, you could set this up a lot cheaper, but would that give you the maximum return on your investment? Consider the cost of building this rig as a start-up cost of a small business. Look at how much you can make mining using bitcoin mining rig, and its clear to see its a much more crowded market than in the early days, as new Bitcoins are released on the network every 10 minutes, and the more of a share you can get the better.
A big and important question. How expensive a bitcoin mining rig is going to be is a bit like a how long is a piece of string type of question. Of course, you will not want to be under-resourced, but there will also be a point of diminishing returns if you continue to throw endless resources at it. You could spend thousands of dollars or even some for under a thousand. You can decide to have it mining Bitcoins some of the time and other uses as well, even different cryptocurrencies, to split your risk. The machine itself will be powerful and will have a decent sell-on value, or can be re-assigned as a gaming PC or other use later on.
Lots of hardware is the short answer, but choosing how to set it up can be a skilled task that is hard to master and can be done in many different configurations. As with building any PC project, you can find endless debate on the best way to achieve this and, of course, there are no right answers, but there are some wrong ones. One accepted norm is that even though no graphics are being used a bank of graphics cards is often the best way to achieve phenomenal processing power.
The graphic card choice is not an area you want to be cutting corners on, consider something like the Nvidias GTX 1000 series GPUs, they are extremely powerful and are very small so that you can even use them in laptops these days (not that wed advise building a bitcoin mining rig in a laptop case). The argument is that with GPUs you can access increased power at a lower cost than building the rig another way, and keeping on top of cost is key, as we know.
How much money will it make is perhaps not the question in its fullest form? How much money will it make for the number of hours you have to put in is a more relevant question? Its probably not likely that in the current climate you are going to make a full-time living by mining Bitcoin, but it can be a good side-earner.
Mining is not the only way to make money from cryptocurrency, if we look at our guide on how to make money in college, we can see that you can buy and sell Bitcoin or offer an exchange service on your website. The excellent thing about mining though is you can let the machine sit and do its a thing while you get on with other tasks if you have other ways of making money, then the mining can be a free, second income.
There are issues with Bitcoin mining. It is becoming more difficult to yield high results in terms of monetary value as more people have got into the game as the years have gone by. This means you need to invest more time or more computing power into mining a single coin, clearly making it a less profitable business than in the past. If you are using a bitcoin mining rig, the value of the PC components you have installed will decline over time, making the resell value less as well.
Often it is asked about the legality of cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin? If you are looking for a short answer, then basically, they are legal in most places. You will not get into any trouble with the law, end up in court or risk prison time by mining, using, or trading in Bitcoin.
The complication comes in that Bitcoin, although not illegal to trade in, is not considered legal tender, meaning it is classed as a possession rather than as a currency. Does this make any real difference? Probably not, but it is prudent to remember this as it will mean that the law will apply differently to instances where national currencies are involved.
Rather than build a bitcoin mining rig, you could opt to buy a ready-made one. There are advantages of this, if you are not as technically minded, then someone else does all the electronics for you. You also have the peace of mind that you can complain and get redress if it doesnt work. The downside is cost, as getting someone else to put this together will have a cost attached to it.
As we have stressed through this whole article, you should assess the benefit of this extra expense with the impact it will have on the profitability of your venture. You may also find that a professionally built rig might attract a higher resale value if you choose to cease operations.
There is one alternative to buying or building a Bitcoin mining rig we can borrow processing power on a cloud platform. The advantages of this approach are considerable, there is no investment in overheads, and we need no space to operate. You only pay for the resources you are using, and this makes the operation more easily scalable if you need to increase operations or scale them back. Providing you choose a good operator, you should have uninterrupted run-time and access to technical support in the event of problems.Get in Touch with Mechanic