all mobile blasting - mining technology | mining news and views updated daily

all mobile blasting - mining technology | mining news and views updated daily

All Mobile Blasting supplies fully mobile and dustless wet abrasive blasting services for a wide range of industrial sectors such as mining, general servicing, and road surface maintenance. Its systems are designed to remove paint, liquid and powder coatings from an array of surfaces. Mobile blasting solutions for mining applications The mobile sandblasting machine by All Mobile Blasting can be towed anywhere and use any fine, insoluble abrasive that sinks in water. With no risk of warping or pivoting when blasting, the All Mobile Blaster offers a faster, safer and highly effective service.

Its systems are designed to remove paint, liquid and powder coatings from an array of surfaces. Mobile blasting solutions for mining applications The mobile sandblasting machine by All Mobile Blasting can be towed anywhere and use any fine, insoluble abrasive that sinks in water. With no risk of warping or pivoting when blasting, the All Mobile Blaster offers a faster, safer and highly effective service.

The mobile sandblasting machine by All Mobile Blasting can be towed anywhere and use any fine, insoluble abrasive that sinks in water. With no risk of warping or pivoting when blasting, the All Mobile Blaster offers a faster, safer and highly effective service.

All Mobile Blasting works with a wide range of abrasive media, but recycled bottle glass is recommended because it is clean, reliable, highly effective, eco-friendly and biodegradable. It is also more aggressive compared to alternate abrasives, so can remove tougher coatings faster and more effectively, and can be used on a wide range of surfaces. Recycled bottle glass is chemically inert and non-toxic, making it safe to work with, and leaves no discolouration, residues, odour, embedding or ferrous contamination. Versatile dustless blasting systems The versatile Dustless Blaster can be used on such a wide range of surfaces to remove challenging coatings. The companys All Mobile Blaster removes paint, rust, mill scale, barnacles, concrete (exposed aggregate), mortar, powder coatings, rubber, and concrete. It also eliminates industrial adhesives from a wide range of surfaces such as metals, bricks, concrete, asphalt, fibreglass and glass. Rust inhibitors for surface preparation A rust inhibitor is used during the blasting process on metals to ensure a clean, decontaminated, chloride-free surface that is ready to paint. Minimal dust is created during blasting because the abrasive is confined in the water and grounded on impact, which removes dust clouds and excessive mess. Industrial blasting, primer and paint services Mobile Blasting performs blast, primer and paint services on a wide range of land and sea vehicles, including boats, motorcycles and heavy-diesel machinery. In addition, the company offers graffiti removal services, taking paint off brickwork, concrete preparation, and swimming pool restoration. Mobile Blasting also stocks Rapidhold rust inhibitors. About Mobile Blasting Mobile Blasting is a family owned and operated business located in the northern suburbs of Perth, Australia. It recently incorporated a new concept called dustless blasting. A fully mobile, wet abrasive system, dustless blasting specialises in industrial cleaning and restoration services, guaranteeing a hassle-free, insurable media blast that is both clean and environmentally friendly. The companys priming and painting services are available in its warehouse in Wangara. Press Releases All Mobile Blastings CompAIR Named Perths Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting Unit All Mobile Blasting's CompAIR unit has been named Perth's Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting... Company Links www.allmobileblasting.com.au

It is also more aggressive compared to alternate abrasives, so can remove tougher coatings faster and more effectively, and can be used on a wide range of surfaces. Recycled bottle glass is chemically inert and non-toxic, making it safe to work with, and leaves no discolouration, residues, odour, embedding or ferrous contamination. Versatile dustless blasting systems The versatile Dustless Blaster can be used on such a wide range of surfaces to remove challenging coatings. The companys All Mobile Blaster removes paint, rust, mill scale, barnacles, concrete (exposed aggregate), mortar, powder coatings, rubber, and concrete. It also eliminates industrial adhesives from a wide range of surfaces such as metals, bricks, concrete, asphalt, fibreglass and glass. Rust inhibitors for surface preparation A rust inhibitor is used during the blasting process on metals to ensure a clean, decontaminated, chloride-free surface that is ready to paint. Minimal dust is created during blasting because the abrasive is confined in the water and grounded on impact, which removes dust clouds and excessive mess. Industrial blasting, primer and paint services Mobile Blasting performs blast, primer and paint services on a wide range of land and sea vehicles, including boats, motorcycles and heavy-diesel machinery. In addition, the company offers graffiti removal services, taking paint off brickwork, concrete preparation, and swimming pool restoration. Mobile Blasting also stocks Rapidhold rust inhibitors. About Mobile Blasting Mobile Blasting is a family owned and operated business located in the northern suburbs of Perth, Australia. It recently incorporated a new concept called dustless blasting. A fully mobile, wet abrasive system, dustless blasting specialises in industrial cleaning and restoration services, guaranteeing a hassle-free, insurable media blast that is both clean and environmentally friendly. The companys priming and painting services are available in its warehouse in Wangara. Press Releases All Mobile Blastings CompAIR Named Perths Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting Unit All Mobile Blasting's CompAIR unit has been named Perth's Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting... Company Links www.allmobileblasting.com.au

Recycled bottle glass is chemically inert and non-toxic, making it safe to work with, and leaves no discolouration, residues, odour, embedding or ferrous contamination. Versatile dustless blasting systems The versatile Dustless Blaster can be used on such a wide range of surfaces to remove challenging coatings. The companys All Mobile Blaster removes paint, rust, mill scale, barnacles, concrete (exposed aggregate), mortar, powder coatings, rubber, and concrete. It also eliminates industrial adhesives from a wide range of surfaces such as metals, bricks, concrete, asphalt, fibreglass and glass. Rust inhibitors for surface preparation A rust inhibitor is used during the blasting process on metals to ensure a clean, decontaminated, chloride-free surface that is ready to paint. Minimal dust is created during blasting because the abrasive is confined in the water and grounded on impact, which removes dust clouds and excessive mess. Industrial blasting, primer and paint services Mobile Blasting performs blast, primer and paint services on a wide range of land and sea vehicles, including boats, motorcycles and heavy-diesel machinery. In addition, the company offers graffiti removal services, taking paint off brickwork, concrete preparation, and swimming pool restoration. Mobile Blasting also stocks Rapidhold rust inhibitors. About Mobile Blasting Mobile Blasting is a family owned and operated business located in the northern suburbs of Perth, Australia. It recently incorporated a new concept called dustless blasting. A fully mobile, wet abrasive system, dustless blasting specialises in industrial cleaning and restoration services, guaranteeing a hassle-free, insurable media blast that is both clean and environmentally friendly. The companys priming and painting services are available in its warehouse in Wangara. Press Releases All Mobile Blastings CompAIR Named Perths Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting Unit All Mobile Blasting's CompAIR unit has been named Perth's Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting... Company Links www.allmobileblasting.com.au

The versatile Dustless Blaster can be used on such a wide range of surfaces to remove challenging coatings. The companys All Mobile Blaster removes paint, rust, mill scale, barnacles, concrete (exposed aggregate), mortar, powder coatings, rubber, and concrete. It also eliminates industrial adhesives from a wide range of surfaces such as metals, bricks, concrete, asphalt, fibreglass and glass. Rust inhibitors for surface preparation A rust inhibitor is used during the blasting process on metals to ensure a clean, decontaminated, chloride-free surface that is ready to paint. Minimal dust is created during blasting because the abrasive is confined in the water and grounded on impact, which removes dust clouds and excessive mess. Industrial blasting, primer and paint services Mobile Blasting performs blast, primer and paint services on a wide range of land and sea vehicles, including boats, motorcycles and heavy-diesel machinery. In addition, the company offers graffiti removal services, taking paint off brickwork, concrete preparation, and swimming pool restoration. Mobile Blasting also stocks Rapidhold rust inhibitors. About Mobile Blasting Mobile Blasting is a family owned and operated business located in the northern suburbs of Perth, Australia. It recently incorporated a new concept called dustless blasting. A fully mobile, wet abrasive system, dustless blasting specialises in industrial cleaning and restoration services, guaranteeing a hassle-free, insurable media blast that is both clean and environmentally friendly. The companys priming and painting services are available in its warehouse in Wangara. Press Releases All Mobile Blastings CompAIR Named Perths Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting Unit All Mobile Blasting's CompAIR unit has been named Perth's Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting... Company Links www.allmobileblasting.com.au

The companys All Mobile Blaster removes paint, rust, mill scale, barnacles, concrete (exposed aggregate), mortar, powder coatings, rubber, and concrete. It also eliminates industrial adhesives from a wide range of surfaces such as metals, bricks, concrete, asphalt, fibreglass and glass. Rust inhibitors for surface preparation A rust inhibitor is used during the blasting process on metals to ensure a clean, decontaminated, chloride-free surface that is ready to paint. Minimal dust is created during blasting because the abrasive is confined in the water and grounded on impact, which removes dust clouds and excessive mess. Industrial blasting, primer and paint services Mobile Blasting performs blast, primer and paint services on a wide range of land and sea vehicles, including boats, motorcycles and heavy-diesel machinery. In addition, the company offers graffiti removal services, taking paint off brickwork, concrete preparation, and swimming pool restoration. Mobile Blasting also stocks Rapidhold rust inhibitors. About Mobile Blasting Mobile Blasting is a family owned and operated business located in the northern suburbs of Perth, Australia. It recently incorporated a new concept called dustless blasting. A fully mobile, wet abrasive system, dustless blasting specialises in industrial cleaning and restoration services, guaranteeing a hassle-free, insurable media blast that is both clean and environmentally friendly. The companys priming and painting services are available in its warehouse in Wangara. Press Releases All Mobile Blastings CompAIR Named Perths Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting Unit All Mobile Blasting's CompAIR unit has been named Perth's Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting... Company Links www.allmobileblasting.com.au

A rust inhibitor is used during the blasting process on metals to ensure a clean, decontaminated, chloride-free surface that is ready to paint. Minimal dust is created during blasting because the abrasive is confined in the water and grounded on impact, which removes dust clouds and excessive mess. Industrial blasting, primer and paint services Mobile Blasting performs blast, primer and paint services on a wide range of land and sea vehicles, including boats, motorcycles and heavy-diesel machinery. In addition, the company offers graffiti removal services, taking paint off brickwork, concrete preparation, and swimming pool restoration. Mobile Blasting also stocks Rapidhold rust inhibitors. About Mobile Blasting Mobile Blasting is a family owned and operated business located in the northern suburbs of Perth, Australia. It recently incorporated a new concept called dustless blasting. A fully mobile, wet abrasive system, dustless blasting specialises in industrial cleaning and restoration services, guaranteeing a hassle-free, insurable media blast that is both clean and environmentally friendly. The companys priming and painting services are available in its warehouse in Wangara. Press Releases All Mobile Blastings CompAIR Named Perths Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting Unit All Mobile Blasting's CompAIR unit has been named Perth's Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting... Company Links www.allmobileblasting.com.au

Minimal dust is created during blasting because the abrasive is confined in the water and grounded on impact, which removes dust clouds and excessive mess. Industrial blasting, primer and paint services Mobile Blasting performs blast, primer and paint services on a wide range of land and sea vehicles, including boats, motorcycles and heavy-diesel machinery. In addition, the company offers graffiti removal services, taking paint off brickwork, concrete preparation, and swimming pool restoration. Mobile Blasting also stocks Rapidhold rust inhibitors. About Mobile Blasting Mobile Blasting is a family owned and operated business located in the northern suburbs of Perth, Australia. It recently incorporated a new concept called dustless blasting. A fully mobile, wet abrasive system, dustless blasting specialises in industrial cleaning and restoration services, guaranteeing a hassle-free, insurable media blast that is both clean and environmentally friendly. The companys priming and painting services are available in its warehouse in Wangara. Press Releases All Mobile Blastings CompAIR Named Perths Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting Unit All Mobile Blasting's CompAIR unit has been named Perth's Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting... Company Links www.allmobileblasting.com.au

Mobile Blasting performs blast, primer and paint services on a wide range of land and sea vehicles, including boats, motorcycles and heavy-diesel machinery. In addition, the company offers graffiti removal services, taking paint off brickwork, concrete preparation, and swimming pool restoration. Mobile Blasting also stocks Rapidhold rust inhibitors. About Mobile Blasting Mobile Blasting is a family owned and operated business located in the northern suburbs of Perth, Australia. It recently incorporated a new concept called dustless blasting. A fully mobile, wet abrasive system, dustless blasting specialises in industrial cleaning and restoration services, guaranteeing a hassle-free, insurable media blast that is both clean and environmentally friendly. The companys priming and painting services are available in its warehouse in Wangara. Press Releases All Mobile Blastings CompAIR Named Perths Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting Unit All Mobile Blasting's CompAIR unit has been named Perth's Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting... Company Links www.allmobileblasting.com.au

In addition, the company offers graffiti removal services, taking paint off brickwork, concrete preparation, and swimming pool restoration. Mobile Blasting also stocks Rapidhold rust inhibitors. About Mobile Blasting Mobile Blasting is a family owned and operated business located in the northern suburbs of Perth, Australia. It recently incorporated a new concept called dustless blasting. A fully mobile, wet abrasive system, dustless blasting specialises in industrial cleaning and restoration services, guaranteeing a hassle-free, insurable media blast that is both clean and environmentally friendly. The companys priming and painting services are available in its warehouse in Wangara. Press Releases All Mobile Blastings CompAIR Named Perths Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting Unit All Mobile Blasting's CompAIR unit has been named Perth's Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting... Company Links www.allmobileblasting.com.au

Mobile Blasting also stocks Rapidhold rust inhibitors. About Mobile Blasting Mobile Blasting is a family owned and operated business located in the northern suburbs of Perth, Australia. It recently incorporated a new concept called dustless blasting. A fully mobile, wet abrasive system, dustless blasting specialises in industrial cleaning and restoration services, guaranteeing a hassle-free, insurable media blast that is both clean and environmentally friendly. The companys priming and painting services are available in its warehouse in Wangara. Press Releases All Mobile Blastings CompAIR Named Perths Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting Unit All Mobile Blasting's CompAIR unit has been named Perth's Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting... Company Links www.allmobileblasting.com.au

Mobile Blasting is a family owned and operated business located in the northern suburbs of Perth, Australia. It recently incorporated a new concept called dustless blasting. A fully mobile, wet abrasive system, dustless blasting specialises in industrial cleaning and restoration services, guaranteeing a hassle-free, insurable media blast that is both clean and environmentally friendly. The companys priming and painting services are available in its warehouse in Wangara. Press Releases All Mobile Blastings CompAIR Named Perths Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting Unit All Mobile Blasting's CompAIR unit has been named Perth's Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting... Company Links www.allmobileblasting.com.au

A fully mobile, wet abrasive system, dustless blasting specialises in industrial cleaning and restoration services, guaranteeing a hassle-free, insurable media blast that is both clean and environmentally friendly. The companys priming and painting services are available in its warehouse in Wangara. Press Releases All Mobile Blastings CompAIR Named Perths Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting Unit All Mobile Blasting's CompAIR unit has been named Perth's Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting... Company Links www.allmobileblasting.com.au

The companys priming and painting services are available in its warehouse in Wangara. Press Releases All Mobile Blastings CompAIR Named Perths Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting Unit All Mobile Blasting's CompAIR unit has been named Perth's Best Mobile Blasting and Spray Painting... Company Links www.allmobileblasting.com.au

blasting methods in mining and quarrying grt review

blasting methods in mining and quarrying grt review

Blasting is the breaking of rock masses using explosives to obtain the fragments and separate rock materials for further processing. There is always a need to have effective free face for blasting. In essence blasting is done to blast overburden, ore deposit and coal seams so that the power requirement for excavators to extract the materials becomes less. It also reduces clearing time of materials and decreases operation costs. Blasting operations involve (1) setting up a drill pattern (2) drilling blast holes (3) placing explosives in the blast holes (4) detonating the explosives (5) getting rid of the fragmented material (6) secondary blasting if there is overburden. Different blasting methods in mining are used to fragment bulk rock masses into loose forms, primarily using explosives. The explosives are used to produce a volume of rapidly expanding gas that exerts sudden pressure on its surroundings and break the mass into pieces. Selection of explosives factors in critical diameter, hydrostatic pressure, temperature and shelf life amongst many others. An optimum blast is associated with the most efficient use of blasting energy in the rock-breaking process. Regardless of the blasting method chosen, a good blast design and proper execution are essential for a successful mining operation. Key factors affecting blast design are:

The major method adopted in mining is controlled blasting. It is a method of blasting for the purpose of reducing the amount of over break and to control the ground vibrations. There are different types of controlled blasting methods. Pre-Splitting is an old but highly recognised method with is done to create a fracture plane beyond which the radial cracks from blasting cannot travel. It involves loading a single row of holes that have been drilled along a desired highwall crest or excavation line. Pre-splitting reduces the crushing effect around the borehole and are shot before the main production shot. The idea is to minimize or eliminate overbreak from the primary blast and to produce a smooth rock wall. Other methods include smooth blasting also known as contour or perimeter blasting. It is used for underground mines and muffle blasting as a solution to prevent fly-rock from damaging human habitants and structures. The term smooth blasting refers to lightly loaded holes that have been drilled along excavation limits and are shot after the main excavation is removed. Such holes are shot instantly or with little delay. They leave a smooth wall with minimum overbreak. Cushion blasting method or trim blasting method is similar to smooth blasting. In this method, the holes are shot after the main production shot. Cushion blasting involves backfilling the entire borehole with crushed stone to cushion the shock from the finished wall. Next, we discuss blasting patterns in depth.

There are three major types of standard blast patterns. These are square grid, rectangular grid and staggered patterns. In staggered pattern the alignments are diagonal. First row blast holes and third row blast holes are in alignment. The drill holes may be vertical, inclined or horizontal. In opencast mines, both vertical and inclined holes are parallel to the bench face. For staggered patterns, the row of the holes may be a single row blasting pattern or a multiple-row blasting pattern. In single row blasting, the fragmentation is low and the explosive consumption may be more than multi-row blasting. Preference is usually for multi-row blasting pattern. The blast timing and triggering sequence plays a dominant role. It is called a delay pattern or firing sequence. The delay patterns, and variation of the hole array are set to fit natural excavation requirements. This allows for an efficient use of the explosive energy in the blast. The types of blast patterns are for different blast designs which depend on the kind of the rock materials. The alternate delay pattern is used for softer rocks. The consecutive short delay pattern is used for rocks with medium hardness and the short delay firing with a cut is used for hard rocks.

Bench blasting is a common technique used in open-pit mines. It is blasting in a vertical or sub-vertical hole or a row of holes towards a free vertical surface. More than one row of holes can be blasted in the same round. A time delay in the detonation between the rows creates new free surfaces for each row. There are three methods in the process. These are short-hole blasting, long-hole bench blasting and ring drilling and blasting methods. Short-hole blasting is usually limited to drilling rounds of 1.2 m to 5.0 m length and hole diameters of up to 43 mm. Cut and fill and room and pillar underground mining methods commonly utilize short-hole blasting. The long-hole bench blasting is similar to bench blasting in open pits, using long holes drilled downward either parallel to each other or in slight rings to cover the stope area. Initiation of the blast is with a booster down the hole. Ring drilling and blasting is done from a series of sub level drifts developed in the ore body. The drill pattern is designed to cover off the extent of the ore in the stope. This type of blasting will cause the ore to swell by 30% and this must be allowed for when blasting otherwise the blast may freeze.

Integration of all factors is key to achieving good fragmentation. It considers the internal environment, external environment, drill pattern, loading and haulage of the fragmented ore materials. The internal environment is set to achieve minimum wall damage. Externally you want to obtain minimum fly rock, noise, air blast and ground vibration. Drilling should be done in a specified drill pattern. Finally, loading and haulage is much easier if good fragmentation occurred. This makes pile shape much accessible and diggability much more effective. Planning is a must to achieve success in the implementation of any blasting method in mining. A good blast design will produce good result as is evident in the release of broken rock masses. In summing up we cement the discussion with mention of why blasting is performed. The main technical objective of blasting are to excavate a planned volume of rock within defined boundaries, to achieve acceptable fragmentation and to avoid scattering broken rock. Finally, it is critical to avoid overbreak in order to develop neat and stable excavations.

blasting | britannica

blasting | britannica

Blasting, process of reducing a solid body, such as rock, to fragments by using an explosive. Conventional blasting operations include (1) drilling holes, (2) placing a charge and detonator in each hole, (3) detonating the charge, and (4) clearing away the broken material.

Upon detonation, the chemical energy in the explosive is liberated, and the compact explosive becomes transformed into a glowing gas with an enormous pressure. In a densely packed hole this pressure can exceed 100,000 atmospheres. The high pressure shatters the area adjacent to the drill hole and exposes the rock beyond to very high stresses and strains that cause cracks to form. Under the influence of the gas pressure, the cracks extend, and the rock in front of the drill hole yields and moves forward. If the distance of the hole to the closest surface is not too great, the rock in front of the hole will break free.

Holes are so placed as to require a minimum quantity of explosive per volume of rock broken (called the powder factor). Most blast-hole patterns are based on the fact that fragmentation is most uniform if the exploding charge is within a particular distance from an exposed face of the rock. To break up a large body of rock, charges are placed in a series of holes drilled so that, as the holes nearest the exposed surface are fired, the blasts create new exposed faces at the proper distances from the next set of holes, in which firing of the charges is slightly delayed. The holes are fired in a predetermined order, at intervals of only thousandths of a second.

drilling and blasting in underground mining - grt review

drilling and blasting in underground mining - grt review

Why is drilling and blasting used in underground mining? It is performed on confirmation of economic value in mineral deposits present in the rock masses that hold the deposits of interest, and the geotechnical nature of the parent rock. As a process it is a technique which follows a sequence of (1) setting up a blast pattern (2) drilling a blast hole into the rock surface (3) packing it with explosives (4) detonating it to achieve different rock fragments. Blasthole drilling is one of the most important operations from a cost and its influence on the performance of the crusher, mill and concentrator post blasting. Good drilling accuracy enables efficient controlled blasting operations. Different blasting techniques are used in underground mining. Smooth blasting is popular, and it comes in a variant of double smooth blasting as well. Drilling costs are generally the same for the two types of smooth wall blasting but the fractured area in the remaining rock is greater in smooth blasting as compared to double smooth blasting. This lowers reinforcement costs for double smooth blasting by 50%. Deviation of holes drilled for blasting purposes can affect production costs in certain mining operations. Therefore, it is key to give priority to invest in long hole drilling accuracy.

The initial form of blasting is known as primary blasting. The reduction of oversize boulders after primary blasting is known as secondary blasting. Drilling and blasting operations have a reliable measure of the effect of improvement in drilling precision based on the reduction in need to perform secondary blasting. This article will discuss drilling and blasting in underground mining operations focusing on smooth wall blasting operations, safety and environmental concerns and best industry practice in underground mining dust and gas control.

Drilling in underground mining is very diverse but used for two main purposes. Firstly for exploration which aims to obtain very detailed information about the formations below ground surface. Secondly for production to facilitate the labors of ore extraction. Smooth wall blasting is the most commonly used technique in underground mining and it was developed in Sweden. The smooth wall line is composed around the final excavation line underground where the holes are lightly loaded to reduce the amount of overbreak. The explosives are also decoupled from the sides of the borehole. The final feature of smooth wall blasting is that the smooth wall holes are initiated after the primary blast. Smooth wall blasting will allow blast damage to extend beyond the smooth wall line before they are initiated. The most damaged rock will be removed from the final excavation line and result in a smooth profile for the perimeter. The smooth wall technique also involves more perimeter drill holes when compared to conventional underground methods. Drilling costs have the greatest impact on the economics of blasting operation. Smooth wall blasting is known to have performance issues in weak rock formations. If the rock mass is too weak to support itself, the smooth wall blast will not eliminate the need for additional support. Drilling accuracy is a paramount concern with smooth wall blasting. Due to additional challenges of drilling and blasting in an underground heading, drill accuracy is critical to the success of a smooth wall blast. When the smooth wall holes cannot all be fired on a single delay, the relief is limited to the arch and partially down the rib because of the muckpile. Therefore, smooth blasting results will degrade further down the rib of the excavation line, which may cause safety concerns in larger entries.

Drill and blast design is an important part of the mine planning and management, with major impact on safety and efficiency. Underground mines usually have designated primary times daily. Primary blasting is carried out in both development and stoping. Working safety in underground mining is related to blast operations, rock conditions and mining methods. The potential for roof problems, rock spalling, rock bursts, rock falls and brow damage is rife. It is a common problem that rock blasting in underground mines makes local underground water contaminated. The problem stems from two reasons. Firstly in multi-hole blasting, the explosives in one or more holes is not detonated. The undetonated explosive will partly go into the local underground water system and partly be transported to mineral processing plants together with the ores. When an upward hole is charged, for instance in a sublevel ring, the explosive sinks in boreholes and then falls to the floor during and after charging. This frequently happens in production charging, especially when emulsion is pumped into a wet hole. Guided by the need to increase ore recovery through reduction of resource loss in mining operations, safety in underground mining is non-negotiable and should not happen at the expense of mine workers. To increase profit in the mining process the worker safety and health should complement the economic gains from underground mining operations.

Every drill and blast operations generates dust. The amount of dust generated in these operations is a cause for great concern. Dust is a health hazard and more importantly dust kills. Exposure to dust from drilling should be separated out from blasting operations, as drilling will see more workers exposed to dust. Although a violent blast may produce more than the normal amount of dust, blasting is a relatively infrequent operation, and exposure can be managed by allowing an appropriate amount of time for the dust to settle, be suppressed or to be expelled before miners enter the blast area. Additionally, the total amount of dust produced in a day is less compared to the overall dust produced from other frequent operations such as loading, hauling, crushing and processing. Operationally, well-controlled blasts create little or no dust. Provision of dust palliatives in the drilling process is then best industry practice to eliminate dust when workers are exposed to it. GRTs 12X technology is an innovative example of a product developed to manage drilling dust at the source.

The use of explosives in blasting poses danger of toxic gases. The most common are carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen. Blast fumes are quickly diluted to below toxic levels by the ventilation systems in underground mines. Therefore it is very important to use well calculated blasting agent mixtures, store blasting agents properly to avoid deterioration, use of non-water resistant products in wet blastholes and have enough confinement for efficient detonation.

Drilling and blasting in underground mining is very important to achieve the intended exploration benefits. A proper plan must be set up which takes into account the rock formation properties as obtained from geological investigations. The drilling pattern chosen should suit the intended blasting operations to achieve minimal overburden at the primary blasting level. The need for secondary blasting to remove overburden should be minimal if the drilling patterns are set up properly. Finally, the economic value of drilling and blasting operations should not happen at the expense of worker safety and health. It is important to implement industry best practice to ensure dust and gas produced from drilling and blasting do not pose any health hazards to the mine workers. GRT takes an no compromise stance to saving lives and its sole mandate is to offer solutions at the apex of solving any dust related problem arising from drilling and blasting activities before it takes place.

the benefits of emulsion pumping technology in blasting

the benefits of emulsion pumping technology in blasting

Years of innovation and experience in the underground space have now positioned BME part of the JSE-listed Omnia Group as an important player in mines where low-profile, bord-and-pillar mining methods are employed.

As a blasting and explosives leader in the opencast mining sector for decades, BME has steadily moved into underground mining with a range of innovations based on its tried-and-tested products, services, and technologies. According to Neil Alberts, International Underground Business Manager for BME, the company has seen its participation grow in a number of commodity segments including platinum.

The low-profile platinum operations are particularly well-suited for the application of our emulsion pump technology, said Alberts. Our versatile emulsion charging units can be custom-built to fit carriers from low-profile or high-profile from any of the suppliers or manufacturers in South Africa.

He highlighted that emulsion pumping technology for underground operations has been an important focus for the company, as the safety, reliability and cost-effectiveness of emulsion explosives represent the future of South African mining. What makes the BME mobile pump system so unique, he said, is its ease of use with its compact design taking up less than half the space of other pumping configurations in the market.

This is the result of our prolonged investment in research and development, to design and commercialise versatile solutions that can be applied across all underground mining methodologies, he said. The three-in-one design with its double-pumping system gives the BME pump its own emulsion chamber, sensitizer chamber and water chamber reducing costs and raising reliability. Competitor systems tend to require three to four separate pumps to deliver the same duty.

These advances mean that charging times can be reduced by 30% or more, raising the number of faces that can be charged for blasting within a single shift an important driver of overall mining efficiency.

A particularly significant benefit for bord-and-pillar platinum mines is the pumps variable density capability, said Alberts. This assists mines in achieving smooth-wall blasting conditions and reducing fall-of-ground hazards through giving the operator the ability to choose between two different blasting densities.

Low emulsion density can help to reduce over-break and optimise hanging wall and side wall strata control, while the pre-set high-density function allows for maximum face advance, he said. Previously, mines would have to apply different types of explosives to achieve this level of strata control, but now the BME pump technology provides the same functionality on one emulsion charging unit.

State-of-the-art control and reporting systems on the BME emulsion charger are customisable to specific mine requirements and give users immediate control over crucial variables like powder factor. This is vital when operational adjustments need to be made in response to inevitable changes in mining conditions over time.

Augmenting BMEs offerings is its BLASTMAP Underground software for tunnelling operations and shaft designs, allowing the blaster to interact with 2D and 3D views of complex designs to manage burden size, drilling angle, dimensional compliance, and other factors.

The companys AXXIS Centralised Blasting System (CBS), designed to allow simultaneous underground blasts to be initiated from surface, is based on its well-proven AXXIS GII detonator. Including a centralised control box on surface and centralised blasting boxes underground, the system can accommodate up to 100 detonators per blasting box. The AXXIS CBS can even be used to initiate non-electric detonators where mines are still using shock-tube technology.

The user interface records a wide range of valuable information on each blast, storing data in a single source of truth format for accurate and safe retrieval, said Alberts. It monitors constantly whether the system is in stand-by or blasting mode and tracks key indicators of the systems health immediately reporting any detected fault.

He emphasised that as mines increasingly integrate their systems for real-time digital monitoring BMEs technology gives management the capability to log into blast planning activity at any time from a computer, tablet, or smartphone. In addition to the safety and efficiency of BMEs blasting systems, management is therefore also equipped with the information it needs for quicker and better decision-making.

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