mining buildings, mining camps & warehouses - sprung

mining buildings, mining camps & warehouses - sprung

Sprung is about building relationships with people who value a faster and better way to build: rapid construction, total design flexibility, unrivaled performance and durability, and lower overall costs.

Sprung is the inventor of the stressed membrane structure, an engineered clearspan building alternative. With over 12,000 structures erected in 100 countries worldwide, Sprung has the experience and knowledge ready to assist professionals.

Sprung is about building relationships with people who value a faster and better way to build: rapid construction, total design flexibility, unrivaled performance and durability, and lower overall costs.

Sprung is the inventor of the stressed membrane structure, an engineered clearspan building alternative. With over 12,000 structures erected in 100 countries worldwide, Sprung has the experience and knowledge ready to assist professionals.

Sprung structures are ideal for mining camp and mining processing facilities in remote locations, underrigid timelinesor with limited foundation requirements. Sprungs mining buildings can be set up immediately and are designed to last for the entire life of a mine. Our optional premium insulation package provides comfortable, liveable spaces for a wide variety of mining infrastructure. Despite being engineered as permanent structures, Sprungs relocatable andmodular designand its ability to be crane-lifted into place allows it to adapt to virtually any mining facility application, including mine production enclosures, ancillary buildings, mining processing facilities, haul truck maintenance facilities and much more. Contact Sprung to get a quote on new mining buildings.

Many in the mining industry have made Sprung their choice for a wide variety of structures, including mining processing facilities and mining camp buildings. Sprung structures were used for mining equipment housing for the Resolution Copper Mine, as mine production enclosures at Ekati Diamond Mine, as haul truck maintenance facilities for EPSA Caserones in the rugged Andes mountains, as mining processing facilities for Lapraries Horn RiverBC mining operations, and as mining camp facilities and bulk mine storage at Kennecotts Bingham Canyon Mine.

From facilities for haul truck maintenance to innovative mining camp buildings, Sprung has the right solution for your next project. Contact your Sprung representative for more information about our mining building options.

hammer crusher for crushing limestone,cement,coal mining-organic fertilizer machine manufacturer/supplier

hammer crusher for crushing limestone,cement,coal mining-organic fertilizer machine manufacturer/supplier

1.Hammer crusher raw material dealing:Coal, salt, Bai Ya, plaster, brick and tile, limestone, etc 2.Hammer crusher application:organic fertilizer production line,Mining, cement, coal, metallurgy, building material, highway, burning and other industries to finely. 3.Capacity:10-23t/h 4.Hammer crusher advantages:Advanced structure. Hammer crusher bearing box are all made of steel, each axle box with four screws;Strong applicability,high grinding efficiency;uniformly discharging, fine. Hammer crusheradopts two stage rotor, make final products more uniform, more exquisite.

Hammer crusher motor drives the rotor for high-speed rotation, uniform material into the crusher chamber, the impact of high-speed rotary hammer, cut the material to tear caused material to be broken, at the same time, the material itself from the material gravity speed rotation of the hammer toward the body frame bezel, the screen bars, mesh size larger than the material retained on the sieve continue to be hit and grinding hammer until crushed to the desired particle size of the material outside the machine finally discharged through the sieve . This hammer crusher machine is a large-scale organicfertilizer production in the pulverized product of choice.

Hammer crusher mainly by the impact of action to crush material. Material into the hammer crusher, suffered the impact of high-speed rotary hammer, obtained from the kinetic energy of the hammer Crusher hammer at a high speed toward the frame body from the baffle, screen bars, at the same time material collide with each other has been repeatedly broken, the larger materials in the screen bar again by the impact hammer, grinding, squeezing and crushing,To obtain a product of desired particle size.

henan mining machinery and equipment manufacturer - coal mining organization chart

henan mining machinery and equipment manufacturer - coal mining organization chart

Current and historical Coal prices and Coal price charts on InvestmentMinechart of account for mining company - BINQ Mining. chart of accounts mining company OneMine Mining and TITLE: Organizing The Project Management Team : SUMMARY ...

Ore beneficiation equipment, sand making equipment, crushing equipment and powder grinding equipment, which are widely used in various industries such as metallurgy, mine, chemistry, building material, coal, refractory and ceramics.

petroleum and coal production businesses for sale | buy petroleum and coal production businesses at bizquest

petroleum and coal production businesses for sale | buy petroleum and coal production businesses at bizquest

This company provides heating and air conditioning repairs and installations along with seasonal oil delivery service. It is located in Mercer County, New Jersey, and is very well known in the area. The company's outstanding reputation is enviable in the Mercer area. Nevertheless, the undeniable ability for growth is the most significant factor. With only a minor relocation of the office, the company's revenue has doubled in the last year. We expect it to triple by next year, consecutively. We highly encourage you to rent the same space that the office is currently located at which is on the main road with extreme visibility and parking.More info

The Ravenscroft Hydro power plant was built in 1983 and went on line January 1984 under contract to Idaho Power. We have a new 20 year contract with Idaho Power as of May 2019.The original project consisted of 3 generators/turbines of varying sizes to accommodate fluctuations in water flow and optimize production. Geographically located about 2 miles to the NE of the old Tuttle township it sits on the bank of the Malad River upstream before the river makes it`s dramatic drop at Malad Gorge. The hydro site is accessed via Shoestring Rd. which ties into I-84 at Tuttle Exit #147.The project was designed for a base capacity of 3,209,000 kWh/year. With the addition of the 4th turbine theMore info

LOW RISK OIL AND GAS PROJECT:Investors receive 100% of the working interest/revunue for the life of the well with no carried working interest, 80% net revenue!The wells are already producing 20-25BOPD and 175MCFG that revenue will go out immediately. The first revenue disbursement is in JUNE if invest in May. Project located in Anderson and Henderson Counties, Texas. The project consists of seven (7) Producing Oil & Gas Wells, and three (3) permitted and working Salt Water Injection wells. The wells are produced from multiple formations and can produce significant quantities of oil and natural gas for the next 15 to 20 years.The completion is on a Turnkey basis. There will be no CashMore info

Over 30% Gross Profit MarginPrivately Owned and Engineered Solar and Insulation Products15 years harnessing solar power and 25 years manufacturing energy efficient productsOperations can be moved to any locationMore info

Share Sale.Precision Proving Ltd. offers on-site Meter Proving services of liquids and sales meters. These include: Coriolis, P.D., Turbine and Vortex. Our meter provers are equipped with Coriolis densitometers reading live density. Rosemount Smart transmitters for pressure and temperature. All this information, along with meter pulses, is automatically fed into our proving computer rather than had written therefore eliminating the human error factor.Also our meter proving services come with 20 years of experience. So you can be rest assured your meters are accurate.We have four trucks that service Central and Northern Alberta and BC.Meter proving is regulated by the AER and is practicallyMore info

Oil & Gas Drilling ProspectKMK Oil & Gas, Inc. (KMK) - Business Holdings for Sale (Marion Co., TX)Asking Price - $4,250,000.00 (price reduced from $5.0 Million)Additional Leasing Expense - $625,000.00 (leasing additional acreage)Total Amount - $4,875,000.00This is an "Oil & Gas Drilling Prospect" in NE Texas (Marion Co., TX) and the Sales Offering consists of the following;There are 1,450 Net Mineral Acres (NMA) involved in this "Oil & Gas Drilling Prospect" with all lease acreage combined in one Lease Block (13 Least Tracts). There are four to six shallow oil & gas producing formations between the depths of 5,000' to 7,500' but the main and most prolific zones are the four deeper oil & gasMore info

We are a petroleum construction company operating out of the Raleigh area for 18 years. We install and maintain fueling systems for retail and commercial fueling sites. Project examples include convenience store fueling systems, marina fueling systems, tank burial and removal, and lubrication systems. We have an established customer base across North and South Carolina. We currently focus on the construction side of the business and have had a steady income from this focus for 18 years. Currently we are holding contracts through 3rd quarter, 2021. There is potential in the petroleum industry to become a petroleum equipment distributor as well. Our company has a strong reputation for industryMore info

The company is an essential business serving as a fuel service contractor and distributor for point-of-sale and dispenser systems within the fuel station market in Arkansas. A second related entity offers subscription based point-of-sale systems and firewall services.KEY ASPECTS: Reputable business with excellent customer service Constant regulatory changes provide a continual revenue stream from the sale of equipment and software upgrades Experienced and committed management with over 90 years of combined fuel station market experience Compound annual growth rate of 9.6% of gross profit from 2017-2020 Focus on helping clients minimize environmental impactOPPORTUNITIES: GainMore info

The company designs manufactures, refurbishes and repairs equipment critical to operations within the oil and gas industry. These include cementers, frac pumps, blenders, and any type of stimulation equipment.Key Aspects Strong revenue growth even through a down economy Compound annual growth rate of 28.7% from 2017 to 2019 in adjusted EBITDA Established client base of large oil and gas exploration businesses with global operations Assembles equipment for use in all environmental conditions Assembles equipment for both on-and off-shore operations Employee base with over 100 years of combined experience in the oil and gas industry.Opportunities Add to engineering and sales in order toMore info

Based in the Southeast, Project Jet Stream is a fuel services company focused specifically on fuel additives and biocides.Jet Stream has developed mobile filtration and additive injection units for the U.S. military, commercial applications, and petroleum interests abroad. Additionally, the Company supplies patented fuel sampling and analysis equipment, as well as consultative and training services. The company has a diversified portfolio of products and a large, fragmented customer base.More info

Romania Oil & Gas Deal Est. 3600 Boe/D $15MExcellent oil & gas deal to drill 4 development wells: 5500 BOE/Day peak production and 1.3 million BOE/Year on average for the first 3 years.Guaranteed 25% ROI. Investor Return not dependent on commodity price or production profileManagement team consist of American professionals with backgrounds in world class projects with majors and super-majors spanning the US and many international countries.Romania is a European Union (EU) member country with a mature and highly attractive oil & gas market. Romanian fiscal terms and other regulations are considered to be one of the best and investor friendly in the world. Romania is at the top in onshoreMore info

Its rare for a long-time profitable, Northern-state fuel business like this one to be available for purchase. Inquire right away, this opportunity wont last long!The business services 2,200 customers, selling over 1,000,000 gallons of propane annually! Seven well-maintained trucks/vehicles are included in the purchase.Propane is a recession-resistant, essential business with a bright future! It is a low carbon, clean-burning energy source that emits almost no air pollutants, and it is eco-friendly when compared to other fuels. Propane has a low carbon content, producing minimal emissions.An owner who plans to live locally and manage this business is an ideal fit, however, an existingMore info

Texas-based Company manufactures and distributes proprietary, proven, high-quality environmentally-friendly specialty industrial chemical products: cleaners, degreasers, natural solvents, degassers, detergents, locomotive cleaners, spill response, dishwasher cleaners, glass cleaners (lab glass & window cleaners), and others. The Company supports long-term blue-chip oil & gas customers along with many other industries. Principal customers include Oil & Gas, Petrochemical and Chemical, Rail, Emergency Spill Response, and Industrial Cleaning Companies, and direct sale to end customers. Applications include cleaning industrial equipment, tank cleaning, degassing plants, cleaning locomotives, andMore info

Total Investment : 1,500,000 Net Profit before Taxes / Royalties : 182,000 FIXED FOR 20 YEARS 10 YEARS RENEWAL!TOTAL ROI OVER 20 YEARS = 3,640,000 EUR+ADDITIONAL 10 YEARS = 1,820,000 EUR----TOTAL ROI OVER 30 YEARS = 5,460,000 EUR0,165* per kW for 20 years!*Fixed Rate per Year for 20 Years = 20 Years Agreement with the Public/Private Company Enel S.p.A. Enel S.p.A. is an Italian multinational manufacturer and distributor of electricity and gas, it is the 84th largest company in the world by revenue, with 74.64 billion in 2019.STRENGTHS Constant flow. Simplicity of plant engineering and construction; Minimum vital outflow guaranteed and unaltered by the intervention; LandscapeMore info

For decades, this locally-owned propane retailer has established excellent customer loyalty throughout its service area.The Seller owns the office and bulk plant facility, which is located on a busy highway with easy access. Seller will lease or sell the real estate to Buyer.Customers can drive-up to the business dock for filling of smaller, portable tanks. Four well-maintained delivery trucks are included in the purchase. Due to having a large holding capacity in their storage tanks, the business was one of the few Texas propane suppliers that didnt run out of propane for its customers during Februarys record cold blast.Sales volume and cash flow numbers are an average from the past 3More info

Archer County Oil Deal $400k Estimated 40-50 BOPDGreat opportunity to get into the coming oil boom.. 75% working interest.. Estimated oil production of 40-50 BOPD after workovers.. Operator will stay on.. Estimated ROI 18 months.200 acres with great upside potential; multiple pay zones, behind pipe, and room to drill.Contact Robert 888-639-6776More info

The company provides specialty welding and cladding services primarily for clients operating in the oil and gas industry. The company currently has over 70 welding procedures, many with multiple Procedure Qualification Records (PQR).Key Aspects Large market-share captured in niche industry with high barriers to entry Excellent reputation for high quality and efficient workmanship Experienced, skilled and highly-motivated management and staff Owns eight specialty welding machines Effective management of materials and laborOpportunities Expand operations within the Permian Basin by opening a new location in Western Texas or New Mexico Increase current facility's capacity to include pipeMore info

Archer County Oil Deal Est. 10-12 BOPD $75k50% working interest, 81.25% NRIRework program with estimated production 10-12 BOPD. Great upside potential!Exceptional Price: $75,000Contact: Robert 888-639-6776More info

D-1019 provides trucking services to support oilfield production in near major U.S. oil fields. They also provide support for well maintenance and general hauling services. The Company has longstanding relationships with major oil production companies as well as a Tier 1 Preference partner, allowing them to work on area Indian reservations.D-1019s performance has fluctuated with oil markets. 2019 was highly successful since they were able to charge higher prices and achieve considerably higher margins. The Company has managed to remain profitable in 2020 and is seeing business pick up through the end of the year. They have recently expanded their trucking services and are seeing thatMore info

Texas Oil Development Estimated 100-150 BOPD $2MExcellent Texas Edwards Lime Oil Development offering an estimated oil production of 100-150 BOPD.Caldwell County, Texas, Fentress Project | Estimated ROI 18 months.Exceptional Opportunity: $2,000,000.Contact: Robert 888-639-6776More info

The company is both a manufacturer and distributor for the patented seismoelectric instruments used for oil, gas, and groundwater exploration. This technology is used to quantify oil, gas, and groundwater reserves prior to drilling.Key Aspects Holds patent on propriety oil and water exploration technology Companys systems have an overall success rate that far exceeds other geophysical systems used for groundwater and hydrocarbon exploration The machinery is user friendly; it does not require experience in geology or geophysics to successfully operate the system Attempting to reduplicate this system would be cost prohibitive as well as likely result in the violation of existing patentsMore info

NOTE: This company is for those who are willing to take this company to the next level.LA Solar Systems, INC. is for sale with over 20 years of experience with great online ratings, Company has not been active for few years due to covid19, aging and cash flow reasons, I am willing to be as a RMO for a year or so and I carry Electrical and Solar License 841332 from state of California since 2004, I will teach and train from sales to installation until company is flourishing on its own, there are couple of more company that i have as well and called "Solar Inspection Group" Inspection and Troubleshooting of Solar System and LA EV ChargersMore info

Situated in and servicing Central Florida, this listing offers whole-house solar systems to power homes, pool solar, battery back-up, attic fans and more; cultivating a track record of quality since inception in 1999. As incoming opportunities thrive among the clean energy field within their service radius, companys top systems provide a range from electric (75%), pool heating (20%), to upkeep and hot water (7%). Assisted by a service manager and a team of six nonunion employees with proper experience, the buyer can benefit from a flexible transition, for either one year or an extended period. Potential to increase revenue with an additional salesperson is a direct benefit from their largeMore info

This is a thriving and profitable fuel delivery business we have been doing for 14 years!! Well established with great customers !! We have 2 beautiful Kenworth trucks. One is a 2018 and the other is a 2020 both automatics with two pockets !! We also have a large truck garage and office with a potential rental unit on it as well. Will sell with the business or lease just the truck garage and office !! Sales are around 425 thousand to 450 thousand gallons per year and could easily be expanded to many more ! The reason we are selling is we are going to retire ! The sale price is for the two trucks and business . The garage and office space could be purchased with a additional charge .More info

Tap into the market of bio-based jet fuel and exceed the expectations set by the government while earning a higher return per gallon. E can produce military grade jet fuel that can also be used for commercial purposes as well with results that will outperform several other types of biojet fuel. The process of manufacturing the fuels are designed to be developed in a relatively large plant. The Native American communities have expressed an interest in forming Native-owned companies to develop or co-develop bio-fuel technologies on the tribal land, which can potentially provide tax benefits and preferential treatment with the respect to government contracts in addition to research andMore info

Oil Exploration Companies Need: Elimination for Gas Flaring at N. Dakotas Bakken Field via on-Site Conversion to Byproducts. The Benefit to Oil Explorers: Accelerate by more than 50% Oil Production while reducing pollution.Est. Market Value of Extracted Byproducts is over $10 Billion/year for about 20% of Bakkens producing wells (see Exhibit A).Information About Adverse Impact of the Gas Flaring Need in the Bakken Field: There are about 15,000 oil wells and they are producing only 25% to 30% of the production capacity due to lack of adequate removal of gas. Currently mobile on-site units are able to remove up to 30% of liquid by-products.The producers have to flare the gas so thatMore info

Strong regional wood pellets manufacturing plant serving the Northeast US. Plant facilities are mostly NEW with recent remodel.Asking price INCLUDES $2.9M real estate and $5.5M in other physical assets.An additional 53 acres of real estate is available for $1.2M.More info

This acquisition pays for itself with one (1) project. A single project can cover the cost of the purchase of this company making it a truly unique opportunity. Exceptional out-of-the-box, multi-user project commissioning softwareTRIDENT is enterprise-level commissioning software which was designed and built by engineers who have spent decades working in projects and operations. It has enjoyed a 100% repeat customer record and can be populated and ready to use within days. While it has been used on a large number of projects within the upstream oil and gas arena, its clientele spans multiple industries including copper mine and fertilizer plant commissioning. This versatility of revenueMore info

Texas Oil Deal $85k100% W.I. located in Brown County, Texas3 Contiguous Leases615 Acres (+/-)77-80% NRI7 wells, 1 disposalNew electric panels, lines, injection pump, transfer pumps & floats, gas sales meters, etc.120 (+/-) bbls oil on hand in tanksEstimating 7-10 bbls/day when operationalExceptional Price: $85KContact Robert 888-639-6776More info

Valuable commerical property in downtown Shreveport, LA. Current tenants include; oil & gas company, healthcare office, real estate offices, a bank and engineering company. 4 tenants have been leasing for more than 20 years. Other long term leases in place.Licensed by the Louisiana Real Estate Commission.Agent is sponsored by Coldwell Banker Group One Realty. 2120 Cypress St., West Monroe, LA. 71291. 318-362-0007Licensed in Louisiana. Each office is independently owned and operated.More info


Servicing a 50 mile radius in Pennsylvania, this well-established company is an authorized fluid power distributor providing hydraulic components such as pumps, valves, motors, fittings, cylinders, hoses, adapters, and other accessories. With dozens of manufacturers in their product line, they offer standard and custom components and assemblies to meet specific customer requirements. Their 3,480 square foot, leased industrial warehouse facility features 1,100-sq.ft. of office space, 400-sq.ft. shop space, and 1980 sq. ft. of storage. Besides maintaining a website and some social media presence, marketing efforts rely mostly on a proven-effective referral source system that is backed by theirMore info

For over 35 years, this family-owned, and operated business has been using cutting-edge welding technology to join and fabricate components used in some of the harshest service environments in the oil and gas industry, worldwide. They have cultivated a reputation for remarkable workmanship and excellent customer service while continuing to look for and integrate innovative practices that allow for increased productivity and quality. Whether it is high-pressure chrome-moly butt welds for sub-sea chokes, duplex piping to carry brackish water in SAGD oil production, internal nickel cladding on pump manifolds for wear resistance in fracking applications or government procured R&D welding, theMore info

CY 2019: $12M+ in sales, after a down 2020 due to Covid 2021 looks to be even stronger! $1.5M in EBITDA, and $1.5 M+ in free cash flow. A great sports team, like a great business, wins year in and year out by anticipating and adjusting to whatever the competition, E&P customers, or the O&G market throws at them.Over their long history of service to multiple O&G customers, this business has continued to grow and make money. They have done this while building a solid reputation as the go-to team for exceptional execution at a fair price, in the ever-changing regional, North-American, and global O&G markets. Key employees have developed trust-based personal relationships with everyone fromMore info

Heres a business that services a 14-county area, yet can be managed from a remote office location! Experienced drivers, a fleet of trucks, and two bulk storage plants are in place and ready to go. The company sells and delivers gasoline, diesel fuel, and propane to rural farmers, ranchers, and residences. Regardless of the market prices, Seller maintains a fixed gross dollar profit to keep cash flow consistent, with many possibilities for expansion. A substantial increase of new bulk propane customers are expected in the coming months and years due to weak competitive conditions. The current owners have lined up potential acquisitions of local competitors if desired by buyer to quicklyMore info

Business OverviewSales and services companies with expertise in, tubular slotting and perforating services of completion liners, oil, and gas specialty pipe, fishing tools, water well pipe, with specialized rental, sales and services of fluid transfer, mixing and processing equipment with additional design support. The Company primarily serves customers in oil and gas-related industries located in the Southeast (56% of 2019 revenue), Other US Regions (29%), and Other Countries (15%).The Company operates from a 20,000 square foot office and warehouse facility that includes a three-acre yard. The employee base consists of 13 full-time and 1 part-time non-union professionals. HighlightedMore info

A dealer of recyclable materials since 1939 in a 500 sqm plant near Barcelona. The plant is optional for sale also, but not included in the price. This company facilitates the recovery of paper, cardboard, metals, wood pallets and plastic and has a steady income from the providers and from the buyers. Due to urgent health issues the owner has to sell immediately. FFE is all included. Machinery, Vehicles all included. The shredder company , Capital Business Solutions listing # 3678, is for sale together. All machinery, some new, and vehicles are included, in addition to the stock. Apart from the sales, this company also gets paid by the Government every month guaranteeing a steady revenue.More info

Heres a business with good cash flow and targeted industries. Easy transition from your corporate job in to a business which essentially redistributes and re-packages in smaller amounts a cleaning acid for oil well piping. Can also haul truckloads of the chemical. Add to your existing trucking business with brokered loads, large mark-up and re-packaging of cleaning chemicals.In business since 1984, the owner is wanting to move on to other business ventures. This business will transport in truckloads or in drums, a chemical cleaning agent to use in the oil and gas field. Growth opportunity in water treatment plants and fracking. Great mark-up of the resale of the chemical. ExistingMore info

With nearly $3.5M in assets, this company offers over a dozen services throughout seven states! The certified team of 30-40 highly skilled employees uses their expertise to provide pipe welding, millwrighting, plant maintenance, mechanical work, air & asbestos work, instrument installation, confined space rescue, hydro blasting, excavating, and demolition. Assets include over $1.5M in equipment comprised of welding machines, a plasma table, mobile trailer, oxygen equipment, grinding equipment, mechanical tools, and hand tools, along with $1.3M in vehicles and $620,500 in inventory. The owner currently manages financial oversight and does not do labor. Most of the work is in a four-stateMore info

20+ years established global climate change non-profit for sale. Global Warming Initiatives (GWI) Mission: Turning energy efficiency and environmental performance into a corporate asset while reducing global warming. After 34 years of working for IBMs facilities engineering department, the Seller was asked by North Carolinas governor to head up an initiative to measure the states greenhouse gases. The initiative was born out of a combined DOE/EPA grant. The grant required the auditing of various manufacturing facilities to identify their carbon emissions. This reporting was submitted on a YOY basis to the DOE and served as a baseline for any mandatory reporting that may come. TheMore info

The opportunity is ownership in an oil and gas operation consisting of six existing wells. Currently one well is producing four barrels per week, and has for over thirty years. There is an existing certified injection well for disposal or fracturing. Owner needs capital to service the four existing wells to determine their viability and to drill two additional wells. Investor will own 25% of the company including mineral rights, equipment, and all future benefits of the operation. The loan will be repaid at 75% of profit until loan is repaid, and then revert back to 25% membership interest in all future profits.More info

This is complete business operation built to service the oil and gas industry in Oklahoma, Colorado and West Texas. The facilities sit on over 12 acres and include a 1500 square foot office suite, A 9,000 square foot shop building with a wash bay and crew office plus a 1,000 square foot storage facility. Use the property in your own business or keep it as a income property.More info

Ground Floor opportunity to be a part of the Solar revolution and renewable energies!This Company designs and manufactures high-quality solar lighting products with no compromise in performance compared to grid-connected systems and the longest life LED lighting products available on the market. The Aesthetics of their designs are off the charts. They also have been able to incorporate cameras with facial recognition and ports for recharging cell phones and laptops into the designs of their products.This companies products use cutting edge solar technology and custom engineered power storage making them both reliable and efficient year-round from urban to rural parks, walkways, home andMore info

coal mining | definition, history, types, & facts | britannica

coal mining | definition, history, types, & facts | britannica

Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel on Earth. Its predominant use has always been for producing heat energy. It was the basic energy source that fueled the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, and the industrial growth of that era in turn supported the large-scale exploitation of coal deposits. Since the mid-20th century, coal has yielded its place to petroleum and natural gas as the principal energy supplier of the world. The mining of coal from surface and underground deposits today is a highly productive, mechanized operation.

There is archaeological evidence that coal was burned in funeral pyres during the Bronze Age, 3,000 to 4,000 years ago, in Wales. Aristotle mentions coal (combustible bodies) in his Meteorologica, and his pupil Theophrastus also records its use. The Romans in Britain burned coal before 400ce; cinders have been found among the ruins of Roman villas and towns and along the Roman wall, especially in Northumberland, near the outcrop of coal seams. The Hopi Indians of what is now the southwestern United States mined coal by picking and scraping and used it for heating, cooking, and in ceremonial chambers as early as the 12th century ce; in the 14th century they used it industrially in pottery making. Marco Polo reports its use as widespread in 13th-century China. The Domesday Book (1086), which recorded everything of economic value in England, does not mention coal. Londons first coal arrived by sea in 1228, from the areas of Fife and Northumberland, where lumps broken from submarine outcroppings and washed ashore by wave action were gathered by women and children. Thereafter, the name sea coal was applied to all bituminous coal in England. Later in the century, monks began to mine outcroppings in the north of England.

Except for the Chinese, who may have mined coal underground, all the early coal seams were worked from the surface, in fully exposed outcroppings. In the later Middle Ages, however, exhaustion of outcrop coal in many places forced a change from surface to underground, or shaft, mining. Early shaft mines were little more than wells widened as much as miners dared in the face of danger of collapse. Shafts were sunk on high ground, with aditsnear-horizontal tunnelsfor drainage driven into the side of the hill. In England some shallow mine shafts were exhausted as early as the 14th century, making it necessary to go deeper and expand mining at the shaft bottoms. These remained small operations; a record of 1684 shows 70 mines near Bristol, employing 123 workers. Greater depth created many problems. First, water could no longer simply be drained away. Crude methods were devised to lift it to the surface. A bucket-and-chain device was first powered by men and later by horses; a continuous belt of circular plates was drawn up through a pipe. Windmills were used for pumps. But shafts had to be restricted to depths of 90 to 105 metres (300 to 350 feet) and a mining radius of 180 metres. It was not until 1710 that the water problem was eased by Thomas Newcomens steam atmospheric engine, which supplied a cheap and reliable power source for a vertical reciprocating lift pump.

Raising the coal itself was another problem. Manpower, operating a windlass, was replaced by horsepower; and, as the shafts went deeper, more horses were added. At Whitehaven in 1801, coal was hoisted 180 metres by four horses at the rate of 4244 metric tons (4648 tons) in nine hours. The introduction of the steam engine to hoist coal was a major turning point for the industry. Small steam-powered windlasses were successfully tried out about 1770. About 1840 the first cage was used to hoist the loaded car; and from 1840 onward advances in coal-mining techniques were rapid.

The presence of noxious and flammable gases caused miners to recognize the critical importance of ventilation in coal mines from the earliest days. Natural ventilation was afforded by level drainage tunnels driven from the sloping surface to connect with the shaft. Surface stacks above the shaft increased the efficiency of ventilation; their use continued in small mines until the early 20th century. The most reliable method, before the introduction of fans, was the use of a furnace at the shaft bottom or on the surface. Despite the hazard of fire and explosion, there were still a large number of furnaces operating, at least in nongassy mines, in the early 20th century.

Open-flame illumination, however, was a much more common cause of explosions until the introduction of the Davy safety lamp (about 1815), in which the flame is enclosed in a double layer of wire gauze that prevents ignition of flammable gases in the air of the mine. Presence of strong air currents, however, made even the Davy lamp unsafe.

Rotary ventilating fans were introduced in mines in the 18th century. Originally of wood and powered by steam, they were improved throughout the 19th and 20th centuries by the introduction of steel blades, electric power, and aerodynamically efficient shapes for the blades.

Early European miners wedged coal out of the seam or broke it loose with a pick. After explosives were introduced, it was still necessary to undercut the coal seam with hand tools. The advent of steam, compressed air, and electricity brought relief from this hard, dangerous work. In 1868, after almost 100 years of trial and error, a commercially successful revolving-wheel cutter for undercutting the coal seam was introduced in England. This first powered cutting tool was soon improved by introduction of compressed air as a power source in place of steam. Later, electricity was used. The longwall cutter was introduced in 1891. Originally driven by compressed air and later electrified, it could begin at one end of a long face (the vertical, exposed cross section of a seam of coal) and cut continuously to the other.

The conventional mining techniques described above, made up of the cyclic operations of cutting, drilling, blasting, and loading, developed in association with room-and-pillar mining. The oldest of the basic underground methods, room-and-pillar mining grew naturally out of the need to recover more coal as mining operations became deeper and more expensive. During the late 1940s, conventional techniques began to be replaced by single machines, known as continuous miners, that broke off the coal from the seam and transferred it back to the haulage system. The Joy Ripper (1948) was the first continuous miner applicable to the room-and-pillar method.

The other principal method of modern mining, longwall mining, had been introduced as early as the 17th century and had found general use by the 19th century, but it had long been less productive than room-and-pillar mining. This began to change in the 1940s, when a continuous system involving the plow was developed by Wilhelm Loebbe of Germany. Pulled across the face of the coal and guided by a pipe on the face side of a segmented conveyor, the plow carved a gash off the bottom of the seam. The conveyor snaked against the face behind the advancing plow to catch the coal that chipped off from above the gash. Substantially reducing the labour required at the coal face (except that needed to install roof support), the Loebbe system quickly became popular in Germany, France, and the Low Countries.

The plow itself had limited application in British mines, but the power-advanced segmented conveyor became a fundamental part of equipment there, and in 1952 a simple continuous machine called the shearer was introduced. Pulled along the face astride the conveyor, the shearer bore a series of disks fitted with picks on their perimeters and mounted on a shaft perpendicular to the face. The revolving disks cut a slice from the coal face as the machine was pulled along, and a plow behind the machine cleaned up any coal that dropped between the face and the conveyor.

The technique of supporting the roof by rock bolting became common in the late 1940s and did much to provide an unobstructed working area for room-and-pillar mining, but it was a laborious and slow operation that prevented longwall mining from realizing its potential. In the late 1950s, however, powered, self-advancing roof supports were introduced by the British. Individually or in groups, these supports, attached to the conveyor, could be hydraulically lowered, advanced, and reset against the roof, thus providing a prop-free area for equipment (between the coal face and the first row of jacks) and a canopied pathway for miners (between the first and second rows of jacks).

In the first shaft mines, coal was loaded into baskets that were carried on the backs of men or women or loaded on wooden sledges or trams that were then pushed or hauled through the main haulage roadway to the shaft bottom to be hung on hoisting ropes or chains. In drift and slope mines, the coal was brought directly to the surface by these and similar methods. Sledges were pulled first by men and later by animals, including mules, horses, oxen, and even dogs and goats.

Steam locomotives designed by Richard Trevithick were used in the fields of South Wales and Tyne and later in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, but they created too much smoke. Compressed-air locomotives, which appeared in the 1880s, proved expensive to operate. Electric locomotives, introduced in 1887, rapidly became popular, but mules and horses were still working in some mines as late as the 1940s.

The loading by hand of broken coal into railcars was made obsolete early in the 20th century by mobile loaders. The Stanley Header, the first coal-loading machine used in the United States, was developed in England and tested in Colorado in 1888. Others were developed, but few progressed beyond the prototype stage until the Joy machine was introduced in 1914. Employing the gathering-arm principle, the Joy machine provided the pattern for future successful mobile loaders. After the introduction in 1938 of electric-powered, rubber-tired shuttle cars designed to carry coal from the loading machine to the elevator, mobile loading and haulage rapidly supplanted track haulage at the face of room-and-pillar mines.

In 1924 a conveyor belt was successfully used in an anthracite mine in central Pennsylvania to carry coal from a group of room conveyors to a string of cars at the mine entry. By the 1960s belts had almost completely replaced railcars for intermediate haulage.

The history of coal preparation begins in the 19th century, with the adaptation of mineral-processing methods used for enriching metallic ores from their associated impurities. In the early years, larger pieces of coal were simply handpicked from pieces composed predominantly of mineral matter. Washing with mechanical devices to separate the coal from associated rocks on the basis of their density differences began during the 1840s.

At first, coal preparation was necessitated by the demand for higher heating values; another demand was for such special purposes as metallurgical coke for steelmaking. In recent years, as concern has grown over the emission of sulfur dioxide in the flue gases of power plants, coal preparation has taken on greater importance as a measure to remove atmospheric pollutants.

environmental issues from coal mining and their solutions - sciencedirect

environmental issues from coal mining and their solutions - sciencedirect

The environmental challenges from coal mining include coal mine accidents, land subsidence, damage to the water environment, mining waste disposal and air pollution. These are either environmental pollution or landscape change. A conceptual framework for solving mine environmental issues is proposed. Clean processes, or remediation measures, are designed to address environmental pollution. Restoration measures are proposed to handle landscape change. The total methane drainage from 56 Chinese high methane concentration coal mines is about 101.94 million cubic meters. Of this methane, 19.32 million, 35.58 million and 6.97 million cubic meters are utilized for electricity generation, civil fuel supplies and other industrial purposes, respectively. About 39% of the methane is emitted into the atmosphere. The production of coal mining wastes can be decreased 10% by reuse of mining wastes as underground fills, or by using the waste as fuel for power plants or for raw material to make bricks or other infrastructure materials. The proper use of mined land must be decided in terms of local physical and socio-economical conditions. In European countries more than 50% of previously mined lands are reclaimed as forest or grass lands. However, in China more than 70% of the mined lands are reclaimed for agricultural purposes because the large population and a shortage of farmlands make this necessary. Reconstruction of rural communities or native residential improvement is one environmental problem arising from mining. We suggest two ways to reconstruct a farmer's house in China.

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