crushers - thyssenkrupp industries india

crushers - thyssenkrupp industries india

thyssenkrupp offers a wide range of crushers that are designed to take on any crushing job. Different types of crushers are used for crushing different types of materials - ranging from soft coal to very hard iron ore. Each type of crusher comes in various sizes, with selection dependent on the requirement of particular capacity, feed and crushed product size. They can be offered for stationary and mobile applications.

hammer crusher working principle | hammer crusher parts & design

hammer crusher working principle | hammer crusher parts & design

The hammer crusher is a type of ore crushing equipment. It can be used to crush medium-hard brittle materials with low water content, such as limestone, gypsum, slag, coke, coal, etc. It is widely used in cement manufacturing, chemical, electric power, metallurgy, and other industries.

Hammer crusher mainly breaks materials by the impact of hammers. The material entered into the working area of the crusher is crushed by high-speed hammers. The crushed material obtains kinetic energy from the hammers, and then it impacts on the crushing plate and grate screen at high speed and is broken for the second time. After that, the material smaller than the gap of the grate screen is discharged, and the material with larger particle size is bounced back to the lining plate and crushed by the additional impact of the hammers. The materials also impact each other during the whole crushing process in the crusher.

We take a 900 x 900mm single rotor, irreversible multi-row hinged hammer crusher as an example to introduce its structure and parts. This type of hammer crusher is commonly seen in cement plants and is suitable for crushing limestone, coal, and other medium hardness ores. It is mainly composed of a transmission device, rotor, lining plate, grate screen, and shell.

The shell is composed of the lower body, the upper rear cover, the left and the right side walls. Each part is connected by bolts. A feeding port is set on the upper part. The inner part of the shell is made of manganese steel, which can be replaced after being worn. The lower body is welded by steel plates in order to place the bearing to support the rotor on both sides of the lower body. A shaft seal device is arranged between the casing and the shaft to prevent ash leakage.

The rotor is composed of main shaft, hammer holder, and pin shaft. The hammer is suspended on the hammer holder in eight rows by the pin shaft. In order to prevent the axial movement of the hammer frame and the hammer head, both ends of the hammer frame are fixed with a compression disc and a lock nut. In addition, in order to make the rotor store a certain amount of kinetic energy in motion, flywheel or large pulley should be installed at one end of the main shaft.

The main shaft is the main part supporting the rotor, which needs to bear the mass and impact force from the rotor and hammer head in the process of operation, so its material must have high strength and toughness.

The hammer holder is used to hang the hammer heads. Although it does not directly participate in the process of crushing materials, it is still subject to the impact and friction of ore and wear, so it should be made of materials with good wear resistance.

The heavier the hammer, the more kinetic energy it possesses, and the higher the crushing efficiency. But heavy hammer also causes more damage to other parts and accelerate their wear process. The hammer weight should be able to balance the production efficiency and the wear rate.

The arrangement of grate bars of the hammer crusher is a circular arc that is perpendicular to the moving direction of hammerhead and has certain clearance with the rotary radius of rotor. The material smaller than the gap between grate bars can pass through the gap, and the material larger than the gap will be continuously impacted, ground and broken by the hammers until it can pass through the gap. Due to the impact of hard materials and metal blocks, the grate is easy to bend and break, so it needs to be inspected and replaced frequently.

The lining plate is installed inside the shell to protect it from the ore. The lining plate is cast by high manganese steel, the same material used for grate bar and hammer. The lining plate can be replaced when it is seriously worn to ensure product quality.

AGICO is a cement plant contractor focusing on cement equipment manufacturing. We supply clients with single rotor hammer crushers and installation surport. Please feel free to contact with us using the form below.

cement manufacturing technologies - dsmac

cement manufacturing technologies - dsmac

Cement can be not only hardened in the air, but also better hardened in the water in which it will maintain and develop strength. So cement is kind of cementitious material which will be of stronger hardness in water. Cement mill is used for cement grinding. Cement crusher is applied for cement crushing. In cement mining, you need to choose suitable cement grinding mill and cement crusher.

All over the world, cement is one of the most important building materials. Whether for houses, bridges or tunnels. Join us for a short tour to experience how cement is made: starting with the extraction of raw materials and ending with the finished product.

Typically, cement raw materials crushing plant locations are based upon the availability of good quality limestone in the vicinity. The quarrying operations are done by the cement producer using the open cast mining process.

The quarried limestone is normally in the form of big boulders, ranging from a few inches to meters in size. These varying sizes of limestone need to be crushed to a size of about 10 mm in order to be prepared for finish-grinding.

There are many types of crushers can be used to primary crushing & secondary crushing, such as jaw crusher, impact crusher, hammer crusher, cone crusher. Hammer crusher is usually used for crushing limestone.

The desired raw mix of crushed raw material and the additional components required for the type of cement, e.g. silica sand and iron ore, is prepared using metering devices. Roller grinding mills and ball mills grind the mixture to a fine powder at the same time as drying it, before it is conveyed to the raw meal silos for further homogenisation.

In direct firing system, coal is milled on line and is directly fed to the kiln. Coal fineness has a direct relationship with its reactivity. Hence in the cement plant a special significance has been given to the grinding behavior of coal.

Coal crushing and grinding is the process of providing power for pre-heating and calcining cement raw materials . Ring hammer crusher is often used for crushing coal, while ball mill is used for grinding coal.

Limestone and others burned in the kiln are called clinkers. Clinkers are cooled and transported to the hopper. A feeder with draws clinkers from the hopper and sends them to the pre-grinding crusher, a vertical roll mill, where the clinkers are preliminarily crushed.

A stable grinding bed is usually easily obtained in raw material grinding in a vertical roller mill with a high efficiency separator. However, in cement grinding it becomes more difficult to form a stable grinding bed as:

During the final stage of portland cement production known as finish milling, the clinker is ground with other materials into a fine powder. Many plants use a roll crusher to achieve a preliminary size reduction of the clinker and gypsum.

These materials are then sent through ball or tube mills. The grinding process occurs in a closed system that divides the cement particles according to size. Material that has not been completely ground is sent through the system again.

A stable grinding bed is usually easily obtained in raw material grinding in a vertical roller mill with a high efficiency separator. However, in cement grinding it becomes more difficult to form a stable grinding bed as:

impact mill - alpa powder technology

impact mill - alpa powder technology

Raw material is evenly fed into grinding chamber by feeding system. The material is powdered under the action of strong collision, shearing, friction and other comprehensive forces between the grinding disc (rotor) and the teeth-like stator. Qualified powder enter the collector.

The raw material and the particle size, output, and application industry of the finished product determine the choice of equipment and process. As an expert, you will not be unfamiliar with this.If you have any questions, dont worry, please leave us a message, or Live Chat in the lower corner of this page, or contact us via our phone or email.

Impact mill, also known as impact grinder, impact pulverizer, impact microizer,impact hammer mill, impact crusher, impact Machine . It contains a wide variety of powder mill, such as: vibration mill, hammer mill, roller/rolling mill, Turbo Mill, Pin Mill, Wide cavity grinding, etc. Dynamic impact would occur when material is dropped into a chamber where it receives a pulverizing blow from a hammer, rotor or pin.

In the field of industrial applications, we can provide: crushing equipment,rotary impact crusher,horizontal impact crusher,vertical impact crusher,small impact crusher,jaw crusher,coal crusher,mini rock crusher,rock crushing machine,impact rock crusher,pellet mill, coal mill flour mill machine, pharmaceutical milling,hammer mill crusher,hammer mill rock crusher, etc. In the field of industrial applications, we can provide laboratory mill.

In the field of ultra-fine powder technology research and equipment, Germany and Japan started earlier. The well-known companies include Alpine, Hosokawa, Netzsch, and ecutec, etc. Thanks to the great achievements of Chinese 40 years of reform and opening up, China has the most complete, the most efficient industrial chain ecology requires all kinds of high-quality industrial powder materials. In the past 20 years, ALPA has continuously absorbed domestic and foreign experience, pioneering and enterprising, and has grown into the largest ultra-fine powder equipment manufacturer with the largest market share. Especially in the field of lithium new energy, medicine, food, non-metallic minerals, industrial solid waste and other fields have absolute advantages.

We are the leading rolling mill machine manufacturers in China. The automatic roller mills we produce include: vertical roller mill, electric rolling mill, steel rolling grinding mill, three roll mill, lab roller mill, grain roller mill, and the like.

roll crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

roll crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Roll crushers are generally not used as primary crushers for hard ores. Even for softer ores, such as chalcocite and chalcopyrite, they have been used as secondary crushers. Choke feeding is not advisable as it tends to produce particles of irregular size. Both open and closed circuit crushing is employed. For close circuit the product is screened with a mesh size much less than the set.

Figure6.4 is a typical set-up where ores crushed in primary and secondary crushers are further reduced in size by a rough roll crusher in an open circuit followed by finer size reduction in a closed circuit by a roll crusher. Such circuits are chosen as the feed size to standard roll crushers normally does not exceed 50mm.

A distinct class of roll crushers is referred to as sizers. These are more heavily constructed units with slower rotation, and direct drive of the rolls rather than belt drives. They have a lower profile, allowing material to be easily fed by loaders, and are a good choice for portable crushers at the mine that reduce the coal in size for conveying to the preparation plant. An example of these units is shown in Fig.9.4.

9.4. (a) Primary sizer with attached feeder. The large motors and gearboxes drive the relatively low-speed toothed rolls that break the coal. (b) Haulage truck dumping coal directly into the feed hopper for a primary sizer, which discharges onto a product belt. (c) Tertiary sizer for crushing coal to the desired size for a preparation plant.

Their lower speeds are claimed to reduce fines generation, while lending themselves to high throughput applications. Sizers can either have the rolls rotate towards each other to carry feed between the rolls to be broken, or can be constructed as tertiary sizers with the rolls rotating away from each other. With tertiary sizers, feed coal is added between the rolls, and much of the fine material falls through. The coarser material is then carried to the outside to be broken against fixed sizing combs. This design increases the capacity by producing two main product streams instead of one, and also minimizes overcrushing by removing a large fraction of the fines. Tertiary sizer capacities range from 440 tons/h (400 metric tons/h) for 2448 inch (61122cm) rolls producing a 2-inch (5cm) product, up to 3968 tons/h (3600 metric tons/h) for 2096 inch (51244cm) rolls producing a 10-inch (25cm) product (Alderman and Edmiston, 2010).

A typical coal handling package using sizers would comprise a dump pocket discharging to a primary sizer discharging to a product belt, as shown in Fig.9.4b. This product belt would then feed a secondary or tertiary sizer, such as is shown in Fig.9.4c, which may include intermediate screening to remove product prior to subsequent stages of breakage. Typical size ranges would start with run-of-mine coal feeding to the primary sizer at 2000mm, and reducing to 350mm. The secondary sizer would receive this coal and discharge at a nominal 125mm, followed by a tertiary sizer/screen combination to generate a 50mm topsize preparation plant feed (FLSmidth, 2011).

The intermediate crushing in the cut roll crusher is mainly used for the crushing of brittle materials like concrete and clay sintered bricks, along with the compression of rough materials like wood and fabric (to avoid being too small in size) after the coarse (primary) crushing. The selective crushing in this process is good for the separation of impurities. Impact crushers are commonly applied in intermediate crushing. However, when used in crushing of mixed C&D waste, the wood and fabric materials will be broken and mixed in recycled aggregate materials by the high-speed operating rotors and are difficult to be separated.

Although not widely used in the minerals industry, roll crushers can be effective in handling friable, sticky, frozen, and less abrasive feeds, such as limestone, coal, chalk, gypsum, phosphate, and soft iron ores.

Roll crusher operation is fairly straightforward: the standard spring rolls consist of two horizontal cylinders that revolve toward each other (Figure 6.14(a)). The gap (closest distance between the rolls) is determined by shims which cause the spring-loaded roll to be held back from the fixed roll. Unlike jaw and gyratory crushers, where reduction is progressive by repeated nipping action as the material passes down to the discharge, the crushing process in rolls is one of single pressure.

Roll crushers are also manufactured with only one rotating cylinder (Figure 6.14(b)), which revolves toward a fixed plate. Other roll crushers use three, four, or six cylinders, although machines with more than two rolls are rare today. In some crushers the diameters and speeds of the rolls may differ. The rolls may be gear driven, but this limits the distance adjustment between the rolls. Modern rolls are driven by V-belts from separate motors.

The disadvantage of roll crushers is that, in order for reasonable reduction ratios to be achieved, very large rolls are required in relation to the size of the feed particles. They therefore have the highest capital cost of all crushers for a given throughput and reduction ratio.

The action of a roll crusher, compared to the other crushers, is amenable to a level of analysis. Consider a spherical particle of radius r, being crushed by a pair of rolls of radius R, the gap between the rolls being 2a (Figure 6.15). If is the coefficient of friction between the rolls and the particle, is the angle formed by the tangents to the roll surfaces at their points of contact with the particle (the angle of nip), and C is the compressive force exerted by the rolls acting from the roll centers through the particle center, then for a particle to be just gripped by the rolls, equating vertically, we derive:

The coefficient of friction between steel and most ore particles is in the range 0.20.3, so that the value of the angle of nip should never exceed about 30, or the particle will slip. It should also be noted that the value of the coefficient of friction decreases with speed, so that the speed of the rolls depends on the angle of nip, and the type of material being crushed. The larger the angle of nip (i.e., the coarser the feed), the slower the peripheral speed needs to be to allow the particle to be nipped. For smaller angles of nip (finer feeds), the roll speed can be increased, thereby increasing the capacity. Peripheral speeds vary between about 1ms1 for small rolls, up to about 15ms1 for the largest sizes of 1,800mm diameter upwards.

Equation 6.6 can be used to determine the maximum size of rock gripped in relation to roll diameter and the reduction ratio (r/a) required. Table 6.1 gives example values for 1,000mm roll diameter where the angle of nip should be less than 20 in order for the particles to be gripped (in most practical cases the angle of nip should not exceed about 25).

Unless very large diameter rolls are used, the angle of nip limits the reduction ratio of the crusher, and since reduction ratios greater than 4:1 are rare, a flowsheet may require coarse crushing rolls to be followed by fine rolls.

Smooth-surfaced rolls are usually used for fine crushing, whereas coarse crushing is often performed in rolls having corrugated surfaces, or with stub teeth arranged to present a chequered surface pattern. Sledging or slugger rolls have a series of intermeshing teeth, or slugs, protruding from the roll surfaces. These dig into the rock so that the action is a combination of compression and ripping, and large pieces in relation to the roll diameter can be handled. Toothed crushing rolls (Figure 6.16) are typically used for coarse crushing of soft or sticky iron ores, friable limestone or coal, where rolls of ca. 1m diameter are used to crush material of top size of ca. 400mm.

Wear on the roll surfaces is high and they often have a manganese steel tire, which can be replaced when worn. The feed must be spread uniformly over the whole width of the rolls in order to give even wear. One simple method is to use a flat feed belt of the same width as the rolls.

Since there is no provision for the swelling of broken ore in the crushing chamber, roll crushers must be starvation fed if they are to be prevented from choking. Although the floating roll should only yield to an uncrushable body, choked crushing causes so much pressure that the springs are continually activated during crushing, and some oversize escapes. Rolls should therefore be used in closed circuit with screens. Choked crushing also causes inter-particle comminution, which leads to the production of material finer than the gap of the crusher.

The objective of sample preparation is to prepare test samples from a parent sample or individual primary increments, Fig.5.19 for analysis. Sample preparation includes all procedures that a sample is subjected to in order to produce a reduced mass of sample (analysis sample) that is representative of the parent sample and from which subsamples of relatively small mass can be used directly for analysis. Samples for general analysis (proximate, ultimate, calorific value, total sulphur, etc.) are typically milled samples with 95% passing 0.212mm. Standard AS4264.1 stipulates that the minimum mass required for general analysis is 30g.

However, some laboratory analyses will require larger sample masses. Some examples from AS 4264.1 include Hardgrove grindability index (AS 1038.20) which requires 1kg at 4.75mm top size, and total moisture (AS 1038.1 Method A and B) 300g at 4mm. However, the principles of preparing a representative analysis sample from the original coal sample are the same.

Taking the ash determination as an example: 1g of coal is used in a single ash determination, and that 1g has to be representative of the coal sample. At a top size of 0.212mm the sampling constant, Ks, for most coals will be very small and this constant combined with a 1g mass of coal enables the variance contribution from the IH of the analysis sample to be almost insignificant and therefore a high level of precision can be expected.

Apart from exploration samples, most samples received by laboratories are from mechanical sampling systems at coal handling facilities at mine sites, ports or power stations. In some areas where coal is being sold across land boarders such as the MongolianChinese border, most samples will be extracted directly from haulage trucks. Many samples, such as ship loading samples and some coal preparation plant samples, are produced by multistage mechanical sampling systems. Other samples may be produced from single-stage samplers. As a result, laboratories can receive samples in a wide range of conditions, most importantly sample mass, moisture content and particle size distributions. Sample preparation procedures have to be tailored to suit the samples and the proposed testing and analyses procedures that the sample has been collected for.

In some instances the particle size reduction may be omitted before sample subdivision, for example at the first stage after collection of the primary increment. However, generally before subdivision (subsampling) the particle size should be reduced.

In each case at every stage, the process recognises the relationships between the number of increments, sample mass and particle size to sampling variance, as each stage is a standalone sampling exercise.

Hammers mills comprise a set of swinging hammers attached to a rotating shaft (Fig.5.22). Typically, they are fed a 4mm top size coal to produce analysis samples with >95% passing 0.212mm. They have a device for feeding the coal into the mill. This is often a screw-type feeder. They also usually have a screen on the outlet to ensure that the entire sample achieves a specific top size. Hammer mills tend to generate excessive fines and should not be used in some instances, such as preparation of samples for petrographic analysis and Hardgrove grindability index determination.

Ring mills comprise a cylindrical canister and lid, a steel ring, and a smaller steel cylinder that fits inside the canister (Fig.5.23). The coal is placed in the canister with the ring and the cylinder, and the lid is attached. This is then placed in a jig that moves the canister in a circular motion. The movement of the various metal components within the canister crushes the coal. There is some concern that these mills can become heated and that this may affect the coal quality, particularly CSN values. This type of mill is particularly useful for crushing low mass samples as sample loss is kept to a minimum. Automated ring mills have been in use in laboratories handling large sample volumes to ensure consistent milling and improved productivity.

Roll crushers are comprised of two steel cylinders (Fig.5.24). The coal is crushed as it passes between the cylinders. This type of crusher is useful when preparing samples with a minimum of fines generation.

Incremental division is a manual method of subdivision that can provide precise subsamples. This method requires that the coal is well mixed prior to division. The coal is spread onto a flat surface in the form of a rectangle in a thickness approximately three times the nominal top size of the sample. A grid pattern is marked out on the sample (usually composed of at least 20 rectangles in a 54 grid) and a single increment is obtained from each square. The increment is removed from the sample using a suitable scoop and bump plate to prevent the increment from falling out of the scoop. Incremental division is used almost exclusively in obtaining the final (0.212mm) laboratory sample after the hammer mill operation, because of excessive dust losses by other methods.

Rotary sample division (rsd) is the most common method for subdivision of large samples in coal laboratories. The rotary sample divider (Fig.5.25) comprises a feed hopper, a device for feeding the coal at a constant rate (usually a vibratory feeder) and a number of sector-shaped canisters formed into a cylinder on a rotating platform. The uniform coal stream produces a falling stream of coal that is collected in the rotating canisters, dividing the sample into representative parts.

As the coal particles move through the feed hopper there is a high potential that some segregation and grouping will occur. To counter the effect that this may having on sample preparation variance it is advisable to ensure that each canister cuts the falling stream at least 20 times, i.e. there are at least twenty rotations of the turntable as the coal flows into the canisters. Additionally, it is a good practice to combine material collected in two or more canisters to form the divided increment or subsample. When doing so, canisters that are opposite each other in the rotary sample divider should be selected for recombination. The machine pictured in Fig.5.25 is set to divide a sample into eight divisions. If the requirement was to extract a quarter of the sample for analysis, two of the 1/8th divisions would be recombined.

Riffles (Fig.5.26) are less regularly used in laboratories. Riffles divide the coal into halves by allowing the coal to fall through a set of parallel slots of uniform width. Adjacent slots feed opposite containers. The width of the slots should be at least three times the nominal top size of the coal. There should be at least eight slots for each half of the riffle.

Fractional shovelling may be used for subsampling when a large rotary sample divider is not available. In this process, the coal is formed into a conical heap. Successive shovels of coal are removed from the base of the heap and are placed into daughter heaps. The shovels of coal should be allocated consecutively and systematically to each daughter heap.

Shredding rubber waste reduces the volume of used tires. Generally, the cost of shredding increases with the need to obtain pieces as small as possible. For grinding, rubber wastes are initially processed through mechanical cutters, roll crushers and screw shredders. To obtain finer particles, shear crushers and granulators are used. The final processing of rubber wastes is with high-temperature shredding equipment, such as rotary shredders, where degradation occurs during compression simultaneously with shear and wear (Mikulionok, 2015). In the initial phase, shredding rubber wastes results in dimensions of approximately 7.6210.16cm. These pieces are then placed in cutters that reduce the size to 0.630.63cm (Rafique, 2012).

Granulators are used in the second step of the recycling process, where pieces of waste tyres are grinded in the large-sized granulators to produce a large quantity of granules. The use of pulverises can reduce the rubber granulated material into fine powder. The rubber particles size can range from a few micrometres up to centimetres.

Rotary Breakers (Fig. 1). The rotary breaker serves two functionsnamely, reduction in top size of ROM and rejection of oversize rock. It is an autogenous size-reduction device in which the feed material acts as crushing media.

Roll Crusher. For a given reduction ratio, single-roll crushers are capable of reducing ROM material to a product with a top size in the range of 20018mm in a single pass, depending upon the top size of the feed coal. Double-roll crushers consist of two rolls that rotate in opposite directions. Normally, one roll is fixed while the other roll is movable against spring pressure. This permits the passage of tramp material without damage to the unit. The drive units are normally equipped with shear pins for overload protection.

Process is designed to reduce the size of large pieces with minimum production of dust. Two main types of breakers are used in Great Britain, viz. (a) Pick Breaker and (b) Bradford Breaker. Other crushers commonly used are jaw crushers, roll crushers, disc crushers, cone crushers and hammer crushers.

Pick breakerdesigned to imitate the action of miners' picks. Strong pick blades are mounted rigidly on a solid steel frame moving slowly up and down. Coal passes under the picks on a slowly moving horizontal plate conveyor belt. The amount of breakage is roughly controlled by the height to which picks are raisedupper limit is 0.5 m Typical performances: 450 ton/hr with a 2-m-wide machine. Size reduction from 500 mm to 300 mm. Several machines may be placed in series, with screens in between to remove fines. Main advantageminimum production of fines can be achieved. Fines production is controlled by the diameter and spacing of picks. Reduction in diameter and increase in spacing, decrease the proportion of fines.

Bradford breakerScreens break and removes large pieces of accidental material, e.g. pit props, chains or tramp iron, in one operation. Consists essentially of a massive cylindrical screen or Trommel, with fins fitted longitudinally inside the screen. These raise the lumps of coal as the cylinder rotates, until they fall, break, and are screened. Unbroken material passes out of the end of the cylinder. Production of fines is also small. Capacity of machine: up to 600 ton/hr.

Blake jaw crusher. Consists of a heavy corrugated crushing plate, mounted vertically in a hollow rectangular frame. A similar moving plate (moving jaw) is attached at a suitable angle to a swinging lever, arranged so that the reciprocating movement opens and closes the gap between the plates, the greater movement being at the top. The machine is available with top opening up to 2 2.7 m. Usual capacity up to 300 ton/hr. Horsepower required: up to 150.

Corrugated and toothed roll crushers. Two heavily toothed, or corrugated, cylindrical rollers (Fig. 10.1) are mounted horizontally and revolve in opposite directions. (Towards each other at the top side or nip, one being spring loaded.) Alternatively, a single roll may revolve against a breaker plate. Capacity of a 1.5 m-long machine with a 300 mm opening and roll speed 40 r.p.m. is about 350 ton/hr, with a power consumption of about 200 h.p. Best results are obtained by the use of several rolls in series, with screens between.

Run-of-mine coal produced by mechanized mining operations contains particles as small as fine powder and as large as several hundred millimeters. Particles too large to pass into the plant are crushed to an appropriate upper size or rejected where insufficient recoverable coal is present in the coarse size fractions. Rotary breakers, jaw crushers, roll crushers, or sizers are used to achieve particle size reduction. Crushing may also improve the cleanability of the coal by liberating impurities locked within composite particles (called middlings) containing both organic and inorganic matter. The crushed material is then segregated into groups having well-defined maximum and minimum sizes. The sizing is achieved using various types of equipment including screens, sieves, and classifying cyclones. Screens are typically employed for sizing coarser particles, while various combinations of fine coal sieves and classifying cyclones are used for sizing finer particles. Figure 2 shows the typical sizes of particles that can be produced by common types of industrial sizing equipment.

The sponge masses as produced by vacuum distillation have to be prepared before melting. The nine ton mass of sponge has to be crushed to about 12mm size pieces. The sponge in contact with retort wall and the push plates have a high likelihood of contamination with iron and nickel since these metals are soluble in titanium. The top of the mass may also have some contamination of iron and nickel from reaction with the radiation shield and substoichiometeric chlorides. To remove this contamination the outer skin of the sponge mass is removed by use of powered chisels. This material is downgraded from aerospace use and used in less critical applications. The sponge mass then is sliced radially to one to 5cm sections with a large guillotine or similar blade. The bottom section of the mass is removed first as this likely has the most amount of iron incorporated into the sponge. The sponge mass is removed from the working table, so this material can be segregated from the balance of the mass. At this point the mass is placed back on the table, sliced and then sent to a crushing circuit. Titanium sponge is malleable material, thus traditional mineral processing equipment such as roll or jaw crushers are not as effective as high shear shredding machines such as rotary shears or single rotor/anvil shears in preparing sponge with limited very fine particle generation.

Dust generation in the crushing process is a very important aspect of operation. Control of the dust by collection and washing of equipment on a periodic basis is very important to reduce the risks of fire in the processing of sponge. Care has to be taken to avoid working on equipment when dust present as titanium metal fires are difficult to extinguish; a class D extinguisher or rock salt are used to suppress the first. The high temperature of the fire and the low melting point of iron-titanium eutectic can result in melting of equipment, supports or piping in these plants if a fire does occur.

The core of the sponge mass has the lowest level of metal contamination. To harvest the material for applications that need low iron and low nickel levels, it is necessary to core the mass. This is done in several ways; the mass can be upended and the guillotine blade can be used to remove thick layers of outer skin, or chisels can be used to remove the outer layers. Control of the lot by separation during the crushing campaign is used to separate the high-purity products from the normal grades of sponge. Control of the nickel level in the magnesium used in the reduction is also important. Removal of as much stainless steel in piping, retorts and metal reservoirs is also important, as nickel in the magnesium will be incorporated into the sponge. Small concentrations of nickel in magnesium can take a long time to be purged from the process. Control of the quality of magnesium used for make up in the VDP process is as important, as some magnesium can be contaminated with nickel during production. Iron is not as significant an issue as its solubility in magnesium is low.

should i choose a roller mill or hammer mill grinder mixer? - art's way ag products

should i choose a roller mill or hammer mill grinder mixer? - art's way ag products

The Hammer Mill Grinder Mixer is perfect for farmers who are versatile. By simply changing the screen, you can easily create different grain sizes for different kinds of livestock. The Hammer Mill Grinders are perfect for the farmer who needs a high capacity of feed. Operating from high power, it creates a more consistent grind for improved feed rations. All farmers know time is of the essence, our Hammer Mill options can produce:

In contrast, the Roller Mill Grinder Mixer operates at a much slower speed than the Hammer Mill Grinder Mixer. This type of grinder produces a more consistent particle size with increased bulk. The variable parameters of the Roller Mill are feed rate, quality of feed, and power to the Roller Mill and roll spacing. The fixed parameters of the Roller Mill are roll corrugations (number per inch and profile), differential roll speeds and roll scrapers. This chart shows how much feed per hour you can expect to produce using the lower horsepower of the RollerMill options.

Arts Way offers both flat tooth grooves and sharp tooth grooves in the 5, 7, or 10 grooves per inch configurations. Flat tooth designs wear better than sharp tooth designs and creates less dust during processing. Sharp tooth designs offer higher capacity ratings than flat tooth designs. The trade-off between flat and sharp tooth designs is quality verses capacity. Flat tooth designs are mainly used for cracking, crimping or flaking grain. Sharp tooth designs are used primarily for grinding powder purposes. The picture below illustrates how different grooves work best for different feed inputs.

While the Roller Mill and Hammer Mill Grinder Mixer options are there to help you feed your livestock, they both come with different features to help you find what works best for your farming operation. Contact our Customer Service Center today at 712-864-3131 if you have any further questions!

hammermills versus roller mills | world-grain.com | november 03, 2010 10:10

hammermills versus roller mills | world-grain.com | november 03, 2010 10:10

This wasnt always the case. In the early days of compound feed milling, when raw materials were homegrown and power sources were either wind or water, the effort needed to grind or flake cereals into a form where animal uptake was optimized dictated that roller milling was a more economic and popular means of size reduction.

Thus, roller milling was the traditional method of preparing cereals and fodder for on-farm consumption by livestock. Today, millers have the option of using either method, or both, and there are many factors that impact their choice.

First, and in some peoples eyes the most important consideration, is power consumption per tonne of grinded product. In this case, I am referring to general processing of cereals and proteins, and my comments do not relate to the specialist grinding of micro-ingredients and high-fat raw materials, which both need careful and specific attention when being ground.

In recent years, hammermill diameters have gradually increased, which obviously allows for greater peripheral beater tip speed at lower revolutions. This has meant the impact effect on cereals at the outer extremities of the grinding chamber is increasingly severe. Consequently, power consumption levels in such hammermills have been reduced to a minimum. This is partly due to a combination of increased screen-hole diameter that complements the increased peripheral beater tip speed by accelerating the impact of individual particles between beater and screen.

This increased diameter of hammermill grinding chambers has led to the adoption of machines with greater throughput capacity, and there has been a progressive shift toward the adoption of post-grinding techniques in most mills built today. In this case, post grinding refers to the positioning of the hammermill after the blending stage as opposed to pre-grinding positioning, when hammermills are placed at the early stage in the mill flow, before ingredients are combined together.

There are distinct advantages to adopting the post-grind position for hammermills. Building layout is simplified, overall bulk ingredient storage capacity is reduced, and capital costs are thus minimized in new installations. There are some disadvantages, however, as millers are aware, particularly those who have been called out in the early hours of the morning when a hammermill has broken down and there has been no reserve of ground product for manufacture through the pellet mills while the hammermill is being repaired.

Essentially, hammermills rely on the impact of screens and beaters on the product being ground to reduce it to the desired granularity for incorporation into a balanced ration. Roller mills simply roll or crush product between two revolving cylinders. This latter process has the distinct advantage of requiring considerably less power, although it is not possible to achieve the fineness of final grind through a roller mill that can be achieved through a hammermill. In a hammermill, the screen-hole diameter controls the maximum finished particle size of any ground product. When using roller mills, there is no screen being used, and unless the product is sifted and the coarse fraction reprocessed, the resultant particle size is purely reliant on the millers skill in setting the roller mill effectively.

Roller mills, particularly single pass installations, require more care and attention than hammermills in order to achieve a consistent and accurate grind. Ensuring the feed is spread thinly across the face of the roller mills can present some problems as mechanical feed gates can easily become obstructed, impairing the smooth and regular flow of product into the nip of the roller mill. Variability of raw material also needs regular adjustments as opposed to the all-encompassing grinding nature of the hammermill.

The available capacity is also a major consideration when using roller mills as there is a need for machines of considerable size or number to achieve the similar capacity as that of hammermills in the same circumstances. There are other general considerations that may affect capacity such as the cleanliness of the grain and the presence of foreign objects that may restrict flow through the roller mill feed mechanisms.

However, there are some circumstances when roller mills have the edge and it is not completely desirable to reduce ingredients down to a very fine particle size. Ruminant animals prefer to consume flaked cereals, as do horses and outdoor pigs. In such instances, the roller mill comes very much to the fore, particularly where coarse or open rations are being produced and fed. In the case of beef lots, where the finished feed is not required to be pelleted for purposes of cost-effective transportation, the roller mill can be used quite effectively and can be a key part of reducing power consumption at the mill.

One advantage of using flaked cereals is that the ability to incorporate liquid ingredients into a ration is enhanced. The greater surface area presented by a flake allows for greater absorption of liquids. At the very least, it allows for coating of a greater surface area if absorption is not fully achievable with such ingredients as molasses and some fats and oils. In the brewing industry, a standard grist is required that has been proven to allow optimum application and absorption of enzymes into the mash stage of the process. This can only be achieved by the use of roller mills, often triple roller mills where product is ground twice to achieve the desired grist spectrum.

It should be stressed that the roller mill, when equipped with fluted or corrugated roll chills, can achieve a relatively fine grind, particularly when moisture content of cereals is optimized. The use of differential roll drive arrangements, which create a sheer effect between the chills, not only allows for a finer particle size output, but the sheering effect the roller mill has upon starch granules in cereals is advantageous to the nutritionist when compiling rations. This is especially true for young stock, such as baby piglets and veal calves, where the digestive tract is undeveloped and its sensitivity needs to be respected and treated kindly in early stage diets. The use of HTD belt drives to achieve differential roll speeds of up to 2.5:1 is now well proven, and as a result of such engineering technology there is little need for lubrication of the modern roller mill.

One of the biggest disadvantages of using roller mills is that when the roll chills become worn, replacing them with new chills and subsequently recorrugating the old chills is a major endeavor in terms of time and expense. The good news, however, is there are no screens that can burst or become damaged.

Another positive aspect of using roller mills is that they require little or no air flow to operate effectively due to the fact that, with the rollers being mounted horizontally, product passes through by gravity. Hammermills require a steady and balanced airflow in order to operate efficiently and to keep screens clear and unimpeded. The cost of moving that air, the capital cost of filters and fans, and the space requirement must all be borne in mind when drawing comparisons between grinding techniques.

Recent hammermill designs have been quite innovative, and we have seen the combination of roller mill and hammermill technologies begin to emerge. By using a roller mill, or adopting roller grinding principles as part of the feed mechanism on entry to the hammermill, the raw material is partially ground at that point, which then allows the hammers and screens in the grinding chamber of the hammermill to be fully effective, with often excellent grinding efficiency results.

Not only is a finer grind achievable with far less power consumption, but the control the miller has on the resultant particle size of the grinded ingredient is enhanced tremendously. By partial preparation of the product between the rollers in transit to the hammermill grinding chamber in such an arrangement, the best of both worlds is achieved.

As power consumption becomes increasingly important, you will likely see greater use of roller milling technology as part of overall grinding techniques. Rolls of up to eight inches in diameter are being adopted as feed mechanisms with differential drives and variable gap settings. Compared to conventional, straight forward hammermilling, these new hybrid arrangements can reduce power consumption by around 15%, which cannot be ignored in these stringent times.

The key to successful size reduction, however, is diligence and, as with all aspects of mill management, attention to detail is paramount. The daily walk around the mill, keenly observing minor daily changes in operations, will always prove to be the best defense against rising costs.

Jonathan Bradshaw is a consultant to the agribusiness and food processing industries, specializing in project management and bespoke training programs through his company, J.B. Bradshaw Ltd. He has extensive experience in flour and feed milling in Africa, the Americas, Europe and the Caribbean. He may be contacted at: [email protected]?.

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