mining law 2021 | laws and regulations | zimbabwe | iclg

mining law 2021 | laws and regulations | zimbabwe | iclg

ICLG - Mining Laws and Regulations - Zimbabwe covers common issues in mining laws and regulations including the acquisition of rights, ownership requirements and restrictions, processing, transfer and encumbrance, environmental aspects, native title and land rights in 15 jurisdictions.

The Mines and Minerals Act, the Minerals Corporation of Zimbabwe Act [Chapter 21:04], the Gold Trade Act [Chapter 21:03], the Precious Stones Act [Chapter 21:06], the Chamber of Mines of Zimbabwe Incorporation (Private) Act [Chapter 21:02], the Base Minerals Export Control Act [Chapter 21:01] and the Environmental Management Act, establish a number of bodies and functionaries administering various aspect of the mining industry. These include:

There has been a push in Parliament to have the Mines and Minerals Act amended to take into account the challenges that have been identified in the existing Act. It is anticipated that once the drafting of the legislation is finalised, a bill will be presented before Parliament for debate. The form and nature of the amendments are still not known but it is anticipated that one of the major issues to be addressed relates to the porous nature of the registration of mining titles, which has resulted in several disputes between miners, especially those involved in gold mining.

The mining industry is eagerly awaiting the proposed amendments, as the process has been in the pipeline for many years now. The mining industry is generally agreed that the changes to the mining law regime are overdue.

There is no legislation that deals with this in Zimbabwe. The Ministry of Mines and Mining Development and the geological department may, however, make available information that may be required for one to have an understanding of the geology of Zimbabwe.

Rights to conduct exploration are conferred by a prospecting licence/licences upon payment of the appropriate fee prescribed in respect of each such licence to the Mining Commissioner. Prospecting licences are issued to permanent residents of Zimbabwe. The holder can exercise these rights or appoint an agent to exercise them on his behalf. The prospecting licence is valid for two years. The prospectors licence itself is valid for five years. Both are renewable. The licence confers the right of prospecting and searching for any minerals, mineral oils and natural gases on land open to prospecting, but not of removing or disposing of any mineral discovered, save for the bona fide purpose of having it assayed or of determining the nature thereof or with the permission in writing of the Mining Commissioner and pegging. The licence entitles the holder to prospect, peg and register claims in terms of the Act. A registered claim is a mining location where mining activities can take place.

An exclusive prospecting order confers exclusive rights to prospect for specified minerals in any identified location within Zimbabwe. Exclusive prospective orders are issued for a maximum of six years, being renewable for a period of three years.

In order to conduct mining operations, one needs to have a registered mining claim(s), a special grant issued for mining purposes, a mining lease or a special mining lease. For ease of administration, the holder of a registered mining location or of contiguous registered mining locations can apply to be issued with a mining lease. A mining lease and a special grant generally confer longer-term rights which are renewable in terms of the Act.

The Mines and Minerals Act provides for different procedures for certain types of minerals and different types of land. The mining of coal, mineral oils, natural gas and nuclear energy source minerals have rules that are different from other minerals in terms of the acquisition of the rights. Depending on the type of land, the Mines and Minerals Act provides for different procedures for the acquisition of the mining rights. For instance, with land that is privately owned and is less than 100 hectares, the written consent of the owner or the occupier is required before one can exercise any rights conferred under a prospecting licence, special grant or exclusive prospecting order.

Different rules apply to the mining of natural oil and gas. According to section 299 of the Mines and Minerals Act, any person wishing to mine for oil or gas has to apply for a special lease, which is granted only by the President or a Minister authorised by the President to do so.

The amendment to the Indigenisation and Economic Empowerment Act in 2018 allowed foreign entities to own 100% mining rights except for platinum and diamond mining. A recent development saw the government authorising a foreign investor in the diamond mining sector to own more than 49% in the diamond company. The legislation to give effect to this has, however, not been put in place. It does appear, though, that the law and practice in the diamond and platinum sectors are not in tandem with other sectors. In all other sectors, foreign entities and individuals can own mining rights.

When any registered mining location or any interest therein is sold or otherwise alienated, the seller or person who so alienates shall notify the Commissioner of the transaction within 60 days of the date of the transaction. The seller shall provide the following information to the Mining Commissioner:

The agreement should be registered with the Mining Commissioner. Transfer duty is payable by the purchaser on the sale at a fee prescribed by Parliament. This duty should be paid within six months. If payment is partly in cash and partly in shares of a company, the nominal value of the shares shall be used. In the case where payment is contingent upon some future event, the purchaser shall give security to the satisfaction of the Mining Commissioner that he will pay the transfer duty at a fixed rate when the consideration becomes due.

Transfers can only be made to permanent residents of Zimbabwe. In the case where transfer is to be made to non-residents, the Mining Commissioner has to receive assurance from the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe that all exchange control requirements have been fully complied with. On receipt of the fee, the Mining Commissioner will then issue the new owner with a new certificate of registration.

The policy on indigenous ownership in the mining sector is being scrapped in order to attract investment in the mining sector. It has already been confined to the diamond and platinum sectors since March 2018.

This is not provided for in the legislation, but the government can participate in mining activities through the Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation and through joint ventures. In diamond mining, it is actively involved through the Zimbabwe Consolidated Diamond Company.

Beneficiation is encouraged and the government has imposed taxes on the export of certain unbeneficiated minerals such as diamonds, platinum and lithium. This is aimed at pushing the mining industry players to invest in beneficiation.

According to the Minerals Marketing Corporation of Zimbabwe Act, no person other than the Corporation shall export any mineral from Zimbabwe except in terms of a contract negotiated by the Corporation on behalf of the seller, or when authorised to do so by the Corporation subject to such terms and conditions as the Corporation may impose. A commission is payable to the Corporation for its services promulgated by the Minister of Mines and Mining Development from time to time in statutory instruments.

The transfer of mineral rights is restricted in the circumstances referred to above. The consent of the relevant officials is required, and, in some cases, a transfer is not possible as the rights are characterised as personal to the holder.

Yes. However, as mentioned above, the consent of the Mining Commissioners or the Minister is required before this can be done. Where the approval of the Minister or government is required to alienate mining rights, the use of the rights as security to raise capital becomes substantially reduced. The use of mining rights as security is, however, not popular with financial institutions at the moment.

This is possible. The Mines and Minerals Act recognises the existence of partnerships that are capable of acquiring mining rights in equal and undivided shares. These are called mining syndicates in the Mines and Minerals Act.

Yes. This is possible to the extent that the secondary mineral is not coal, gas or oil, which require a special lease. The secondary mineral would require to be declared. If the secondary mineral becomes dominant, one would be expected to make an application to convert the block to that of the mineral now predominantly being mined.

The holder of the rights is entitled to exercise rights over residue deposits on the land concerned for so long as one continues to hold the rights over the area, with the exception of coal, oil and gas, which require a special lease.

In terms of section 324 of the Mines and Minerals Act, the President may, on the recommendation of the Mining Affairs Board, order the expropriation of a mining location on the grounds that it is not being worked at all or is not being adequately worked and developed. The owner of the mine would be given a right to make representations to the Mining Affairs Board before a recommendation is made to the President for expropriation. After expropriation, the Mining Affairs Board may dispose of same; and the proceeds thereof, less the costs of conducting the sale, would be given to the owner.

The President may also, in terms of section 398 of the Mines and Minerals Act, at any time, for the utilisation of any mining location for a purpose beneficial to the public generally, or to any section thereof, acquire either the whole or any portion of such mining location, or limit the rights enjoyed by the owner thereof under this Act. The process for the acquisition would have to be followed.

Section 97 of the Environmental Management Act lists mining activities as some of the projects that cannot be done without the Environmental Management Agency having approved the environmental impact assessment report and issued a certificate. The Environmental Impact Assessment Certificate is key to the commencement of mining activities. In addition, the following authorisations would also be required, depending on the operation:

One has to include in the environmental impact assessment plan details of how the storage of tailings and other waste products will be handled, prior to the approval of the plan and issuance of the certificate. The proposals shall ensure that this is done in an environmentally friendly manner. Also included in the plan would be a decommissioning plan outlining how the area will be rehabilitated and returned to its original state. Unless the Environmental Management Agency is satisfied, the plan will not be approved, and no certificate will be issued in order for mining activities to commence.

The local authorities in both the rural and urban areas have control over the activities within their areas of jurisdiction and are, subject to the provisions of the Regional, Town and Country Planning Act, Urban Councils Act and Rural District Councils Act, entitled to impose certain requirements on the exercise of such rights. For instance, a Rural District Council is required to consent to the exercise of any right under a prospecting licence or exclusive prospecting order in a communal area.

The same rules that apply to privately owned land which is occupied or being used would generally apply in rural areas. Such rights cannot be exercised on cultivated fields in communal areas and, in cases where an occupier of communal land holds less than 100 hectares, his written consent is required before such rights can be exercised.

Yes. The Mining (Management & Safety) Regulations S.I. 109 of 1990, and the Mining (Health & Sanitation) Regulations S.I. 185 of 1995 impose obligations on employers, managers and employees in relation to safety. In addition, the Collective Bargaining Agreement for the Mining Industry imposes, in section 30 thereof, the minimum protective clothing that must be given to the employees in a mining operation.

The mining industry is a strategic sector in our economy. The sector was accordingly classified as an essential service and miners were allowed to go back to work in the early stages of the lockdown subject to complying with the COVID-19 Regulations. The industry was therefore able to commence operations after a few weeks of being closed due to the lockdown.

There is a system of appeals depending on the nature of the decision made. Anyone aggrieved by the decision of the Provincial Mining Director is entitled to appeal against such decision to the High Court. In some cases, for instance, in relation to decisions made in terms of section 50 of the Mines and Minerals Act, an appeal lies to the Minister of Mines and Mineral Development. Where the Mining Commissioner has decided the matter as the Mining Commissioners Court, an appeal lies with the High Court and thereafter with the Supreme Court. Some decisions made by the Mining Affairs Board are the subject of an appeal to the Administrative Court. In all mining disputes, the High Court of Zimbabwe enjoys original civil jurisdiction unless the parties have agreed to have such disputes referred to the Mining Commissioners court.

The Constitution of Zimbabwe protects the right to property. It guarantees the right of every person to acquire, hold, occupy, use, transfer, hypothecate, lease or dispose of all forms of property, either individually or in association with others. Property is defined to include any right in property.

The Constitution also deals with environmental rights and provides that every person has the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being, to have the environment protected against pollution and to secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources while promoting economic and social development. The constitutionally protected environmental rights would serve to ensure that mining operations are conducted in a manner that does not affect the rights of other citizens.

Zimbabwe signed a number of bilateral treaties with other countries for the protection of investments from such countries. These treaties would therefore form part of the government-to-government commitments to protecting investments.

Yes. There are local laws that would need to be taken into account depending on the location of the mine. The Rural District Councils Act [Chapter 29:13] allows rural district councils to charge land development levies on mining location in their locality. Mining operations would therefore be expected to comply with the local by-laws of the local authorities.

Yes. There are a number of circumstances under which the State will be entitled to do this. Principally, where there is no compliance with the conditions set out in a special grant or mining lease, the Mining Commissioner of the Mining Affairs may take action to cancel.

If a Mining Commissioner has reason to believe that the holder of a registered mining location is using wasteful mining methods or metallurgical processes, he shall inspect the registered mining location forthwith and report to the Board accordingly, which can cancel such mining rights.

5 gold extraction methods to improve your recovery rate | fote machinery

5 gold extraction methods to improve your recovery rate | fote machinery

The crushing and screening stage in the industry is mainly composed of three-stage and a closed-circuit process. Gold ores need to go through coarse, medium, and fine crushing processes to be minimized into smaller pieces. The screening equipment is used to sieving the smaller gold ores into the proper size for the next steps.

The grinding operation usually adopts one or two ball mills with types of lattice and overflow. The second stage grinding operation forms a closed circuit with a spiral classifier or a hydro cyclone to ensure the grinding fineness.

Since traditional ball milling equipment appears some shortcomings such as fast wear and large energy consumption, many manufacturers adopt new wear-resisting rubber lining boards, sliding bearing to improve a mill operation efficiency and prolong a machine's service life.

The beneficiation stage is a crucial part of gold extraction during the whole gold ore processing plant. Placer gold mine and rock gold mine are most widely processed to extract gold concentration.

The gold slurry process of the carbon slurry method (CIP and CIL) is to put activated carbon into cyanide ore slurry, adsorb dissolved gold on activated carbon, and finally to extract gold from activated carbon.

Equipment required for carbon slurry gold mining process: Leaching mixing tank, activated carbon screen, Two-layer (three-layer) washing and thickening machine, fast desorption electrolysis system with high-efficiency and low-consumption, high-frequency dewatering screen.

It means that by ion exchange resin, gold also can be extracted from ore pulp. Like carbon, the process makes gold absorbed onto solid spherical polystyrene resin beads instead of activated carbon grains.

According to different physical and chemical properties of different types of gold ores, flotation separation utilizes various reagents to make the gold attached to the bubbles then scraping these gold particles from blades to get the concentrate.

A jigger is one of the main pieces of equipment in the gravity separation process. The jigging process mixes gold ore particles of different specific gravity together, then stratifying these particles. The minerals with small specific gravity will be on the upper layer while the minerals with large specific gravity will be on the lower layer.

A shaking table is used to process gold ores in the horizontal medium flow. The motor drives the surface of the shaker to perform the longitudinal reciprocating motion, as well as the differential motion of the washing stream and the surface of the bed. Gold ore particles are stratified perpendicular to the surface of the bed, then being separated parallel to the surface of the bed in reciprocating motion which allows gold ores with different particle sizes to be discharged from different parts to achieve separation.

It adopts lope water flow to achieve separation. With the effect of the combined force of water flow, mineral gravity, the friction created by the bottom of the tank, and ore particles, the gold ore particles will settle in different areas of the tank. The ore particles with small specific gravity will flow away with the water, while ore particles with larger specific gravity would stay.

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Henan Fote Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. (FTM) has more than 40-year experience in the design of gold mining equipment processes. Its beneficiation equipment and plants sales to many countries including Tanzania, India, South Africa, the United Kingdom and other regions. According to the actual needs of customers, all machines can be customized here.

As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.

Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.

the beneficiation techniques for 5 types of iron ores in vietnam | hxjq

the beneficiation techniques for 5 types of iron ores in vietnam | hxjq

In the past decades, infrastructure construction has promoted the development of steel and played a huge role in economic take-off in Vietnam. However, limited by the beneficiation techniques and processes, the production of steel can't satisfy the requirements of construction.

Most of the iron mines are located in the northern regions and all are distributed in the coastal areas. Vietnam's iron ore has an outstanding advantage of high grade which can save a lot of beneficiation processes and bring more development value.

In general, the crushing process consumes about 8% to 10% of the whole energy consumption, and grinding process accounts for about 45% to 55% as well, among which the power cost, and the costs of mill's balls and liner accounts for 90% of the beneficiation fees.

According to the above table, it can be seen that continuous grinding low-intensity magnetic separation high-intensity magnetic separation anionic reverse flotation process can achieve the highest iron recycling rate.

Process one requires fine grinding, which makes the ore ground to the particle size of all the basic monomers for separation by continuous grinding, preventing re-grinding of the stage grinding process and saving more energy.

At the same time, with the increase of mining depth, the FeO content in ore changes greatly. Because high-intensity magnetic separation and anionic reverse flotation have strong adaptability to the fluctuation of FeO content, the whole process can adapt to the change of FeO content to the maximum extent.

At present, the most advanced beneficiation technique of siderite is bulk flotation, which can highly improve the recycling rate of iron and get some copper concentrates and sulfur concentrates, and the detailed process is as follows:

Theoretically, being rich in crystal water, limonite has a low grade. The iron concentrates can hardly be reached up to 60% according to physical dressing. Meanwhile, limonite is easy to be sliming and seriously loses, which results in a lower recycling rate of iron.

Limonite is crushed into the size of 3 mm and sent to the ball mill for grinding into 200 mesh, setting the pulp density of 50% to 60%. After screening by the high-frequency screen of 200 mesh, the pulp density is adjusted into 20% to 25%, and the larger iron particles are sent back to the ball mill for further grinding.

Add about 100g to 200g of inhibitor and 100g-150g collector into the adjusted pulp, stir for 2 to 3 minutes, and take reversely flotation for 10-12 minutes at normal temperature and PH=7 to obtain high-grade limonite concentrates.

Sulfur and phosphorus associated with iron ore is more harmful to iron ore' applications, and when processing and smelting iron ore, sulfur and phosphorus are more difficult to remove. When there is a certain amount of sulfur and phosphorus in the iron and steel, it will seriously damage the mechanical properties of steel products.

The experiment shows that the highest grade of iron concentrate can be obtained by the process of stage grinding high-gradient strong magnetic separation discarding tails flotation to remove phosphorus reverse flotation.

Vietnam's iron ore is widely distributed and abundant in reserves, but the comprehensive processing technology and economic level are relatively lower, resulting in the low utilization rate of iron ore resources, and even a large number of iron minerals are not developed.

Choosing suitable ore processing technology and special production equipment can not only give full play to the advantages of iron ore resources, but also be able to deeply explore the value of different grades of iron ore.

With more than 40 years of development, Hongxing Mining Machinery as a professional processing equipment manufacturer produces various mining machines by mature advanced technology. And all the machines' quality can be guaranteed.

All the dressing equipment adopts innovative technology and improves the backward equipment to reduce the energy consumption in the production process. The equipment is made of new wear-resistant material, which can effectively extend the service life of the equipment and save production resources.

graphite (c) - classifications, properties & applications

graphite (c) - classifications, properties & applications

The term graphite is derived from the Greek word graphein, which means to write. The material is typically grayish-black in color, opaque, and has a radiant black sheen. Graphite is a distinct material as it displays the properties of both a metal and a non-metal.

Although graphite is flexible, it is not elastic and has high electrical and thermal conductivity. It is also chemically inert and highly refractory. Since graphite displays low adsorption of X-rays and neutrons, it is very valuable in nuclear applications.

This uncommon combination of properties is due to graphites crystalline structure. The carbon atoms are set hexagonally in a planar condensed ring system. The layers are stacked parallel to each other. The atoms within the rings are bonded covalently, while the layers are loosely linked together by van der Waals forces. Graphite has a high degree of anisotropy, which is caused by two types of bonding acting in different crystallographic directions.

For example, graphites ability to develop a solid film lubricant is the outcome of these two contrasting chemical bonds. As weak Van der Waals forces control the bonding between each layer, they can slide against one another, making graphite an ideal lubricant. In 2000, worldwide graphite production was estimated to be about 602,000 tons, with China as the largest producer followed by India, Mexico, Brazil, and the Czech Republic.

Natural graphite is a mineral composed of graphitic carbon. It varies considerably in crystallinity. Most of the commercial (natural) graphites are mined, and typically contain other minerals. After graphite is mined, it usually requires a considerable amount of mineral processing like froth flotation to concentrate the graphite.

It is said that crystalline vein graphite came from crude oil deposits that have transformed into graphite through time, temperature, and pressure. Vein graphite fissures typically measure between 1 cm and 1 m in thickness and usually have a purity of more than 90%.

Amorphous graphite is the least graphitic among the natural graphites. However, the term amorphous is incorrect as the material is still crystalline. Amorphous graphite can be found as minute particles in beds of mesomorphic rocks such as coal, slate, or shale deposits. The graphite content varies from 25% to 85% according to the geological environment.

Flake graphite can be found in metamorphic rocks evenly spread through the body of the ore or in concentrated lens-shaped pockets. The range of carbon concentrations varies from 5% to 40%. Graphite flake can be found as a lamella or scaly form in specific metamorphic rocks such as limestone, gneisses, and schists.

Froth flotation is used to extract flake graphite. Floated graphite has 80%90% graphite content. Over 98% of flake graphite is made using chemical beneficiation processes. Flake graphite can be found in numerous places worldwide.

Synthetic graphite can be produced from coke and pitch. Although this graphite is not as crystalline as natural graphite, it is likely to have higher purity. There are basically two types of synthetic graphite. One is electrographite, pure carbon produced from coal tar pitch and calcined petroleum coke in an electric furnace. The second is synthetic graphite, produced by heating calcined petroleum pitch to 2800 C.

Synthetic graphite contains mainly graphitic carbon that has been attained by graphitization, heat treatment of non-graphitic carbon, or chemical vapor deposition from hydrocarbons at temperatures over 2100 K.

On account of its high-temperature stability and chemical inertness, graphite is the perfect candidate for refractory material. It is used in the production of refractory bricks as well as Mag-carbon refractory bricks (Mg-C). In addition, graphite is used to produce crucibles, ladles, and molds for holding molten metals. Moreover, graphite is one of the most basic materials used in the production of functional refractories for the continuous casting of steel.

Here, graphite flake is mixed with alumina and zirconia, and then isostatically pressed to create components like stopper rods, subentry nozzles, and ladle shrouds used for regulating the flow of molten steel and also for safeguarding against oxidation. This type of material could also be used as protection for pyrometers.

In the production of iron, graphite blocks are used to produce a portion of the lining of the blast furnace. Their structural strength at high temperature, thermal shock resistance, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and good chemical resistance are highly important in this application.

In the chemical sector, graphite is employed in many high-temperature applications, like in the production of phosphorus and calcium carbide in arc furnaces. Graphite is used as an anode in specific aqueous electrolytic processes such as the production of halogens (chlorine and fluorine).

Large amounts of high-purity electrographite are used for producing moderator rods and reflector components in nuclear reactors. The suitability of electrographite comes from its low absorption of neutrons, high thermal conductivity, and high strength at higher temperatures.

Graphite is widely used as an engineering material across a variety of applications such as piston rings, thrust bearings, journal bearings, and vanes. Carbon-based seals are used in the fuel pumps and shafts of several aircraft jet engines.

AZoM speaks to David Moulton, UK Managing Director at Camfil, about the company's air filtration solutions and how they help to provide a safer working environment for those in theconstruction industry.

copper ore beneficiation technology

copper ore beneficiation technology

In modern industry and daily life, copper has a wide range of application and demand. It has an important and irreplaceable position in electric, marine, aviation, communication, petrochemicals, household appliances, high-energy physics, metallurgy,

In modern industry and daily life, copper has a wide range of application and demand. It has an important and irreplaceable position in electric, marine, aviation, communication, petrochemicals, household appliances, high-energy physics, metallurgy, etc.

Composition of cooper ore is very complex, including chalcocite, chalcopyrite, azurite, tetrahedrite, malachite, etc. Different beneficiation process is designed according to different ore. Even if the same type of ore in different mining plant, the beneficiation process is also different. According to the properties of different ore, we will choose suitable beneficiation process.

Generally use relatively simple process, after a period ofgrinding, fineness -200 mesh occupy about 50% to 70%, once roughing, two or three times selected, one or two times scavenging. Such as disseminated copper minerals has relatively small size, consider to adopt the stagegrinding and separation processes. Processing bornite concentrator, mostly coarse concentrate regrinding - a selection of stage grinding and separation processes, and its essence is mixed -flotationprocess. First by a coarse grinding, roughing, scavenging, and then rough concentrate regrinding recleaner get high-grade copper concentrate and concentrate. Rough grinding -200 mesh about 45% to 50% and then pulverized -200 mesh occupy about 90% to 95%.

Dense copper ore chalcopyrite and pyrite as tight symbiosis, pyrite is often secondary copper-activated pyrite content is high, difficult to suppress, sorting difficult. Sorting process requires both get copper concentrate and concentrate. Typically election of copper tailings is pyrite concentrate. Dense copper ore processing, often using two stages of grinding or grinding, fine grinding fineness requirements.

Weakly magnetic minerals beneficiation, for example: hematite, limonite, ilmenite, wolframite, tantalum, niobium, etc.. Non-metallic minerals deironing, purification, for example: quartz, feldspar, nepheline, fluorite, sillimanite, spodumene,kaolin.

Mining ores first by thejaw crusherfor preliminary broken, in broken to a reasonable fineness through ascension machine, after to mine machine uniform intoball mill, ball mill by crushing, grinding of ore.

After grindingball millof ore materials into the next procedure and: grading. Hierachial machine with different proportion of solid particles in the liquid and the speed of the precipitation different principle of minerals, the mixture to wash, grading. After a wash and classification of the mineral mixture after magnetic separation unit.

Because of various minerals than magnetized coefficient of different magnetic force and, by mechanical force will mixture of magnetic material separated. After magnetic separators preliminary after the separation in mineral grains was sent into the flotation machine, according to different mineral properties of different drugs, make to the minerals and other material separation open.

what are the quartz mining processes? - xinhai

what are the quartz mining processes? - xinhai

Quartz stone, also known as silica sand, is a common non-metallic material, which can be made into high-purity quartz sand after separation and purification, widely used in glass, ceramics, metallurgy, casting and refractories and other industries. So, what are the common quartz mining processes at present?

Usually, there are iron oxide, clay, mica, organic impurities, etc., in the quartz stone except for SiO2. The purpose of the quartz mining process is to remove a small amount or trace impurities in quartz stone, then obtain the refined quartz stone. At present, the common quartz mining processes mainly include the physical quartz mining process and the chemical quartz mining process. Among them, the physical quartz mining process includes washing, classifying and desliming process, scrubbing process, magnetic separation process and flotation process. The chemical quartz mining process is the acid leaching process.

The grade of SiO2 in the quartz stone is reduced with the thinner of quartz grain size, while the grade of mineral impurities (such as iron and aluminum impurities) is increased, this kind of phenomenon is especially obvious in the quartz stone containing a lot of the clay minerals. Therefore, the spiral washing machine, drum sieve, hydrocyclone, desliming bucket and hydraulic classifier are often used to the water concentration of quartz stone, it is very necessary to carry out the classification and desliming in the quartz processing plant. As a pretreatment method before the ore separation, the washing, classifying and desliming are applied earlier and widely in the quartz washing plant, but this quartz mining process doesn't have the obvious removal effect for the thin-film iron and adhesive impurity minerals on the surface of quartz stone.

Scrubbing process is mainly to remove the thin film iron, bond and muddy impurity mineral on the surface of quartz stone with the help of mechanical force and the grinding force among sand particles, and further wipe up the non-monolithic mineral aggregation, and then achieve the further quartz processing effect through the classification operation.

At present, the quartz stone scrubbing process mainly includes rod friction washing and mechanical scrubbing. For the mechanical scrubbing method, the factors affecting the scrubbing effect are mainly the structural characteristics and configuration form of the mineral scrubber, followed by technological factors (scrubbing time and scrubbing concentration).

The study shows that the scrubbing concentration of quartz stone shall be between 50% and 60%, but it also increases the difficulty of quartz processing to some extent. In principle, the scrubbing time shall be based on the requirements of preliminary product quality, not too long. Too long scrubbing time will increase the equipment wear, improve energy consumption, and increase the cost of beneficiation. For some quartz minerals, the mechanical scrubbing and wiping effect are not ideal, adding the reagents when necessary can increase the electrical repulsion on the surface of impurity minerals and quartz particles, enhance the separation effect between impurity minerals and quartz particles.

The magnetic separation process can remove the weakly magnetic impurity minerals as possible, such as hematite, limonite and biotite, etc. High-intensity magnetic separation usually adopts the wet high-intensity magnetic separator or high gradient magnetic separator. Generally speaking, the wet high-intensity magnetic separator (large than 10000 Oe) can deal with the quartz containing the weakly magnetic impurity minerals (such as limonite, hematite and biotite). It is better to use a weak magnetic separator or a medium magnetic separator to separate the quartz containing the strong magnetic impurity minerals (magnetite).

The studies show that the frequency of magnetic separation and magnetic field strength has an important effect on the iron removal effect of the magnetic separation process. With the increase of magnetic separation times, the iron content is gradually decreased. Under a certain magnetic field strength, most of the iron can be removed, while the iron removal rate has a little change even if the magnetic field strength is larger than the certain limit. In addition, the finer the particle size of quartz sand, the better the iron removal effect. The reason is that the fine quartz sand contains a high amount of iron impurity minerals. When there are more impurity minerals in the quartz sand, it is impossible to purify the quartz sand into high purity sand only by scrubbing, desliming and magnetic separation.

The flotation process is mainly to remove the non-magnetic associated impurities in quartz sand, such as feldspar, mica. The quartz sand flotation process mainly includes fluorine flotation and fluorine-free flotation process. Among them, the fluoride flotation process is carried out in the acidic pH range with the cationic collector and hydrofluoric acid activator. But the fluorine-containing wastewater causes serious environmental pollution, which needs to be discharged after treatment. The fluorine-free flotation process is to take advantage of the differences in quartz and feldspar structure, rationally mix the ratio and dosage of anion and anion mixed collector, and make use of their different Zeta potentials to preferentially float the feldspar and achieve the separation.

The acids commonly used in the acid leaching process mainly include sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid, the reducing agents mainly include sulfurous acid and its salts. The study shows that these acids have a good removal effect on the non-metallic impurities of quartz mineral. But the acid type and concentration have a significant effect on the different metal impurity. Generally, a variety of dilute acid has a significant effect on the removal of Fe and Al, while the relatively concentrated sulfuric acid and aqua regia or HF are often used in the removal of Ti and Cr. The mixed acid composed of the above acids is usually used for the acid leaching removal of impurity minerals. Since the HF has the dissolution effect on the quartz, the HF concentration is generally not more than 10%. In addition to the acid concentration, the acid amount, leaching time, temperature and slurry agitation can also affect the effect of acid leaching effect of quartz. The control of various factors shall be determined based on the final grade requirements of quartz, like reduce the concentration, temperature and dosage of acid as far as possible, decrease the time of acid leaching, so as to realize the quartz processing at a lower cost.

Due to the different amount, type and occurrence of impurities contained in quartz sand and different product quality requirements, a single quartz mining process may not be able to achieve the purpose of quartz sand purification, and sometimes the several quartz mining processes are required to form a combined beneficiation process. The common quartz mining processes are as follows:

In the weathering sedimentary and mineralization process of quartz sand, a large number of clayey minerals and iron form the cementation or adhesion minerals on the surface of the quartz. It is a common quartz mining process to adopt the scrubbing-classifying- desliming process to remove clay impurity minerals, argillaceous iron, and some thin-film iron. This quartz mining process is generally used as a pretreatment process before raw ore separation, which can effectively remove the argillaceous impurities.

Generally, the common impurity minerals in the quartz (such as the limonite, tourmaline, hematite and biotite and other weakly magnetic minerals, magnetite and other strongly magnetic minerals) can only be removed by a magnetic separation process. In the actual production, the wet strong magnetic separator with 13000 Oe of magnetic field strength is mostly used for separation.

After the washing, magnetic separation and flotation separation of raw ore, the impurity mineral particles with low occurrence (including monomer, aggregate) are basically cleared, the silica purity can generally reach 99.5%-99.9%, basically can meet the majority of industrial requirements of quartz sand. However, in order to obtain the ultra-high purity quartz, the impurities continuously adhere to the surface of quartz particles in the form of spots and inclusions must be treated with acid leaching. The mixed acid leaching with different concentrations and matching must be carried out according to the different requirements of impurity minerals (Fe, AL, Ti, Cr) in the different industries. The high purity quartz with silica content of 99.99% or more can be obtained by the rod milling washing - desliming - magnetic separation - flotation - acid leaching process.

By improving the structure of existing mineral scrubber, optimizing the technical parameters, add reagents for high-efficiency and strong scrubbing classifying and desliming can remove more than 80% of impurity iron and aluminum ore. The magnetic separation process is mainly to remove the iron-contained impurity minerals. Through this quartz mining process, the high-quality refined quartz sand (silicon dioxide 99.8%, iron oxide 0.023%, aluminum oxide 0.05%, titanium dioxide 0.02%) can be obtained, which has reached the requirements of primary optical glass sand, and the yield of fine quartz sand is as high as 73%, while the yield of rod friction washing is only 49%. After further flotation and acid leaching process, the high-purity quartz (silica 99.9%, ferric oxide 0.005%, aluminum oxide 0.05%, titanium dioxide 0.02%) can be obtained. This quartz mining process overcomes the shortcomings of secondary contamination of iron caused by rod friction washing and low yield.

In the practice, the selection of the quartz mining processes and flows is often determined based on the nature of quartz stone, conditions of the quartz processing plant, investment budget. It is suggested to choose a single or joint quartz mining process through the mineral processing test report, thus striving for the ideal technical and economic benefits.

copper beneficiation process,copper refining process,copper production process-beijing hot mining tech co ltd

copper beneficiation process,copper refining process,copper production process-beijing hot mining tech co ltd

In modern industry and daily life, copper has a wide range of application and demand. It has an important and irreplaceable position in electric, marine, aviation, communication, petrochemicals, household appliances, high-energy physics, metallurgy, etc.

Composition of cooper ore is very complex, including chalcocite, chalcopyrite, azurite, tetrahedrite, malachite, etc. Different beneficiation process is designed according to different ore. Even if the same type of ore in different mining plant, the beneficiation process is also different. According to the properties of different ore, we will choose suitable beneficiation process.

Generally use relatively simple process, after a period of grinding, fineness -200 mesh occupy about 50% to 70%, once roughing, two or three times selected, one or two times scavenging. Such as disseminated copper minerals has relatively small size, consider to adopt the stage grinding and separation processes. Processing bornite concentrator, mostly coarse concentrate regrinding - a selection of stage grinding and separation processes, and its essence is mixed - flotation process. First by a coarse grinding, roughing, scavenging, and then rough concentrate regrinding recleaner get high-grade copper concentrate and concentrate. Rough grinding -200 mesh about 45% to 50% and then pulverized -200 mesh occupy about 90% to 95%.

Dense copper ore chalcopyrite and pyrite as tight symbiosis, pyrite is often secondary copper-activated pyrite content is high, difficult to suppress, sorting difficult. Sorting process requires both get copper concentrate and concentrate. Typically election of copper tailings is pyrite concentrate. Dense copper ore processing, often using two stages of grinding or grinding, fine grinding fineness requirements.

Weakly magnetic minerals beneficiation, for example: hematite, limonite, ilmenite, wolframite, tantalum, niobium, etc.. Non-metallic minerals deironing, purification, for example: quartz, feldspar, nepheline, fluorite, sillimanite, spodumene, kaolin.

Mining ores first by the jaw crusher for preliminary broken, in broken to a reasonable fineness through ascension machine, after to mine machine uniform into ball mill, ball mill by crushing, grinding of ore.

After grinding ball mill of ore materials into the next procedure and: grading. Hierachial machine with different proportion of solid particles in the liquid and the speed of the precipitation different principle of minerals, the mixture to wash, grading. After a wash and classification of the mineral mixture after magnetic separation unit.

Because of various minerals than magnetized coefficient of different magnetic force and, by mechanical force will mixture of magnetic material separated. After magnetic separators preliminary after the separation in mineral grains was sent into the flotation machine, according to different mineral properties of different drugs, make to the minerals and other material separation open.

gold beneficiation guide,processes in rock gold mines,mining module plant | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

gold beneficiation guide,processes in rock gold mines,mining module plant | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

Gold mines refer to gold mines or gold ore. Gold mines refer to places where gold ore is obtained through mining operations, and gold ore refers to mineral aggregates that have a certain gold content and can be used by industry. The gold obtained by its selection is a rare, precious and stable metal, and it has always been a symbol of wealth and status.

Placer gold mines and rock gold mines are two types of gold mines that are often processed by concentrators. Among them, placer gold mines are pretreated, deslimed and washed, and then re-selected to obtain gold-bearing coarse gold mines, while rock gold mines are The gold particles are dissociated by crushing and grinding, and then sorting is achieved through a certain gold ore dressing process. The commonly used beneficiation processes in rock gold mines are: single amalgamation process, amalgamation-gravity combined process, gravity separation (mercury amalgamation)-cyanidation combined process, single flotation process, amalgamation-flotation combined process, all mud cyanide Chemical process, flotation-reselection combined process, heap leaching gold extraction, etc.

Usually the gold ore content is low, the Khenpo has a fine particle size, and the composition is complex. The commonly used crushing and screening process in the industry is mainly a three-stage one closed-circuit process, that is, the minerals are crushed to the appropriate particle size through coarse crushing, medium crushing, fine crushing, and screening.

The grinding operation of rock gold mine usually adopts one-stage or grid-type ball mill + overflow-type ball mill for two-stage grinding. The second stage of grinding operation and spiral classifier or hydrocyclone form a closed loop to ensure the fineness of grinding. In view of the shortcomings of traditional mills such as fast wear and high energy consumption, large mining machine manufacturers such as Shishi have carried out a series of transformations on the ball mill, such as adopting new wear-resistant rubber liners, changing the rolling bearings to sliding bearings, and making the mill larger. , While improving the operation rate of the mill, it also extends the service life of the equipment and creates economic benefits for the enterprise.

The gold ore beneficiation stage is divided into two types, one is the beneficiation of placer gold ore and the other is the beneficiation of rock gold ore. Placer gold mines contain high content of gold concentrate and mostly exist in the form of sand particles. Therefore, the gravity separation process is often used in the separation. After pretreatment, desliming and washing, the gravity separation method can directly obtain coarse gold ore particles .

Rock gold mines mainly choose suitable gold separation processes according to the composition and composition of the ore. The three commonly used gold separation processes are: cyanidation gold separation technology, flotation gold technology, and gravity separation gold technology.

The cyanidation gold selection process can be divided into stirring cyanidation and percolation cyanidation. Stirring cyanidation is used to treat heavy separation and amalgamation of tailings and flotation gold-bearing concentrates, or for all slime cyanidation; and percolation cyanidation is used to treat flotation tailings and low-grade gold-bearing ore Heap leaching and so on.

Stirring cyanidation gold extraction process mainly includes two types of gold extraction process, one is the so-called cyanide-zinc replacement process (CCD method and CCF method) that recovers gold through continuous countercurrent washing and replacement of precipitation with zinc powder (wire); The other is a non-filtering cyanide carbon slurry process (CIP method and CIL method) that uses activated carbon to directly absorb and recover gold from cyanide pulp without filtering and washing.

The gold selection process by carbon slurry method (CIP method and CIL method) is to put activated carbon into the cyanide slurry, adsorb the dissolved gold on the activated carbon, and then extract gold from the activated carbon, mainly including leaching raw material preparation, stirring leaching and countercurrent Carbon adsorption, gold-loaded carbon desorption, electrowinning electrolysis, smelting ingot making, carbon regeneration and other operations.

The percolation cyanide method is also one of the cyanide leaching processes. It is based on the cyanide solution penetrating through the ore layer to leaching the gold from the gold-bearing ore. It is suitable for placers and loose porous materials.

The percolation cyanide leaching method has two processes: pool leaching and heap leaching. The cyanide leaching solution is percolated and then treated with activated carbon adsorption or zinc powder (silk) replacement.

The percolation leaching is generally carried out in the percolation leaching tank, and the leaching tank usually uses a wooden tank, an iron tank tank or a cement tank. The bottom of the pool is horizontal or slightly inclined, round, rectangular or square. The pool is equipped with a false bottom made of a perforated acid-resistant plate, and the false bottom is covered with a filter cloth, and the filter cloth is covered with a grid with wooden or corrosion-resistant metal strips. When leaching, the ore is loaded in the pool, the leaching agent is added to the top of the pool, and the leaching liquid flows out from the lower part of the false bottom. The false bottom is used to filter and support ore.

Heap leaching is mainly to transfer the mined ore to a pre-prepared storage yard for pile, or directly on the piled waste rock or low-grade ore, spray or infiltrate with the cyanide leaching solution, so that the solution is produced through the ore Infiltration and leaching, the leaching solution is repeatedly circulated, spraying the ore pile repeatedly, and then collecting the leaching solution, and then using activated carbon adsorption or zinc replacement, the lean solution is returned to the heap leaching operation for recycling.

Compared with the carbon paste method, the resin method has the advantages of large adsorption capacity, good resin abrasion resistance, no fear of organic contamination, loose desorption conditions, and simple regeneration.

For the flotation of gold ore containing a single gold mineral, with a relatively uniform particle size and a relatively coarse particle size, a one-stage grinding and flotation process is usually used.

For gold ore with uneven distribution of coarse and fine grains, mercury plates are usually placed in the grinding and classification circuit before flotation or re-selection equipment is used to pre-recover particulate gold. The above two processes are mostly used in gold concentrators.

For gold mines with complex ore properties, the flotation process is also more complicated. For example, the stage grinding stage separation process and the mud sand separation process are all applied in practice.

Gravity separation is one of the commonly used methods for gold ore beneficiation. It mainly uses different proportions of materials and different sedimentation speeds in the medium to carry out layer separation. In placer gold mines, gold mostly exists in the form of single natural gold, which has a large difference in density with gangue. The reselection method is both effective and economical.

There are many kinds of gravity separation methods, such as jig gravity separation, shaking table gravity separation, chute gravity separation, spiral gravity separation, centrifugal gravity separation and wind gravity separation. In gold ore beneficiation, the common gravity separation methods mainly include There are three methods of gold selection by jig, gold selection by shaker and gold selection by chute.

These three gold selection methods are only used for gold ore with monomer dissociation (placer gold ore). For vein gold minerals, the gravity separation process is rarely used alone, and it is generally combined with other processes to form a combined process, such as the heavy-float combined gold extraction process. The heavy selection is used to assist the extraction of gold, and the jigging machine, The spiral chute cooperates with the shaker to first recover the easily dissociated coarse particles of gold, creating better separation conditions for subsequent flotation and cyanidation processes, and ultimately can effectively improve the gold mine index and the total gold recovery rate.

Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.

beneficiation process and separation method,crushing grinding screening and classification | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

beneficiation process and separation method,crushing grinding screening and classification | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

The process of breaking the ore blocks with a particle size of 500-1500mm from the mine to a particle size of 5-25mm. The methods include crushing, crushing, chopping, etc., generally in three stages: coarse crushing, medium crushing, and fine crushing.

The particle size of the immersion dye in the ore of the beneficiation machinery and the separation method used are determined. Commonly used grinding equipments include rod mills, ball mills, self-grinding machines and semi-self-grinding machines. High energy consumption for grinding operations, usually about half of the total energy consumption for beneficiation

According to the size of the sieve surface, the material is divided into different particle size levels called sieving, which is often used to process materials with coarser particle size. According to the different sedimentation speed of particles in the medium (usually water), the materials are divided into different grades of equal reduction, called classification, and used for materials with smaller particle sizes. Screening and grading are to separate materials of suitable particle size during the crushing process, or divide the materials into different particle size levels for selection.

In order to avoid clogging of the crushing and screening equipment by the mud in the mud-containing mineral raw materials, ore washing is required. If the raw materials contain soluble useful or harmful ingredients, they must also be washed. Ore washing can be carried out in a scrubbing machine or in a screening and grading equipment.

After the crushing operation, the mineral raw materials enter the sorting operation to separate useful minerals from gangue, or separate useful minerals from each other. This is the main part of beneficiation. The sorting operations include heavy sorting, flotation,

In the medium (mainly water) flow, the difference in the specific gravity of the mineral raw material particles is used for classification. The suitable particle size range for re-election is wide, from a few hundred millimeters to less than one millimeter, with low beneficiation cost and less environmental pollution. Where the particle size of the mineral is within the above range and the specific gravity difference between the components is large, gravity selection is the most suitable. Sometimes, reselection (mainly heavy medium selection, jig selection, etc.) can be used to pre-select to remove part of the waste rock, and then use other methods to reduce the cost of mineral processing.

Use the difference of water wettability (hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity) on the surface of various mineral raw materials to distinguish. Usually refers to froth flotation. There are few natural hydrophobic minerals. Collectors are often added to the ore slurry to enhance the hydrophobicity of the minerals to be floated; various regulators are added to improve selectivity; foaming agents are added and aerated to generate bubbles to make hydrophobic The mineral particles are attached to the bubbles and float up and separate. Flotation can usually process materials smaller than 0.2-0.3mm. In principle, it can select various mineral raw materials. It is a widely used method. Flotation can also be used to separate smelting intermediate products, ions in solution, and treat wastewater.

Make use of the different magnetic properties of mineral particles to distinguish in a non-uniform magnetic field. Strong magnetic minerals (magnetite and pyrrhotite, etc.) are separated by a weak magnetic field magnetic separator; weak magnetic minerals (hematite, siderite, ilmenite, wolframite, etc.) are separated by a strong magnetic field magnetic separator Sorting. The structure of magnetic separator includes drum type, belt type, rotating ring type, disc type, induction roller type and so on. Magnetic pulleys are used to pre-select massive strong magnetic ore. The main development trend of magnetic separation is to solve the problem of recovery of fine-grained weakly magnetic minerals.

Use the difference in electrical properties of mineral particles to select in a high-voltage electric field. Mainly used to sort conductor, semiconductor and non-conductor minerals. According to the electric field, the electric separator can be divided into electrostatic concentrator, corona concentrator and composite electric field electric separator; according to the charging method of ore particles, it can be divided into contact electrified separator, corona electrified separator and friction electrified separator. The electrical separator has a narrow processing particle size range, low processing capacity, and raw materials need to be dried, so the application is limited; but the cost is not high, the separation effect is good, and the pollution is low; it is mainly used for the selection of coarse concentrates, such as separation white Tungsten ore, cassiterite, zircon, rutile, ilmenite, tantalum niobium, monazite, etc. Electric separation is also used for classification and dust removal of mineral raw materials. The development trend of electrical separation is to develop equipment with large processing capacity and high efficiency in selecting fine-grained materials.

Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.

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