The top five manganese mining countries in the world include South Africa, Australia, China, Gabon and Brazil. Historically, the demand for manganese has increased following the production of steel and it is expected that this will also be the case in the future.
The following figure shows the global output of different grades of manganese ore. Thelow-grade manganese ore accounts for a large proportion, so the manganese ore beneficiation technology, which is very important for low-grade manganese ore, will be introduced in the next part.
Low-grade manganese ore cannot be directly used in industrial production due to high impurity content, thus there is a need for a method of enriching low-grade manganese ore. Manganese ore processing plant is used to separate valuable minerals from impurity content by physical or chemical properties.
Based on these differences, the suitable processing plant for manganese ore is the mechanical selection (including washing, sieving, re-election, strong magnetic separation and flotation), as well as fire enrichment and chemical beneficiation.
There are many types and sizes of equipment in the whole manganese beneficiation process. The major equipment is as follows: vibrating feeder, PE jaw crusher, cone crusher, vibrating screen, pendulum feeder, ball mill, spiral classifier, high frequency sieve, magnetic separator, concentrator, filter, dryer, etc.
The general process of the manganese processing plant is like this: crushing process grinding process separation process, ie manganese ore vibration feeder jaw crusher cone crusher vibrating screen pendulum feeder ball mill spiral separator magnetic separator and so on.
Equipment Practical applications Jaw crusher Be used for primary crushing of manganese ore, which will be broken into particle size less than 35 mm Cone crusher Be used for secondary crushing of manganese ore to produce fine grade manganese to under 15 mm Ball mill Grind manganese ore into powder Spiral separator Granular grading of manganese ore slurry in metal beneficiation process below 0.075 mm Magnetic separator Separate the magnetic material in the mixture by magnetic force and mechanical force according to the difference in the specific magnetic coefficient of the mineral Spiral chute Sort manganese ore fines with a particle size of 0.3--0.02 mm
For the beneficiation of manganese carbonate ore, manganese oxide ore, mixed manganese ore and polymetallic manganese ore, Fote Heavy Machinery can produce jaw crushers, high-pressure roller mills, rod mills, ball mills, graders, etc for the production of coarse, medium and fine particles at home and abroad.
Our company can provide customers with complete beneficiation process plans and ore dressing experimental equipment in crushing, screening, drying, grinding, wet weak magnetic separation, wet magnetic separation, etc.
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1: feasibility and costing for setting up a beneficiation plant for manganese ore mine in Oman2: capacity is 10TPH or 5 TPH3: flowchart: primary jaw crusher to crush the boulders and a secondary crusher for making it into fine powder, then with 10tph magnetic separator
Ore beneficiation plant, also called ore extracting plant, separating plant, concentrating plant, refining plant, leaching plant, or mining plant, is the necessary part for every mining work of metallic ores.
For miners, they care about the cost and reliability of plant. Before describing the plant cost, lets see the manganese ore kinds first. According to the different kinds, FTM Machinery engineers adopt different ways.
Manganese oxide ore is mainly found on the mineral deposites by weathering, and some on sedimentary and hydrothermal deposits. There are three kinds of manganese oxide, respectively called psilomelane, pyrolusite and manganite, etc.
The extraction process of manganese oxide gives priority to gravity separation. Weathered manganese oxide often contains a lot of mud and powder, so its refining work adopts the washing and gravity separation way.
The raw ore are washed first to remove mud off, then some can be directly used as concentrates, some needs to be dressed again by jigger and shaking table. During the washing process, some ores may overflow and they need to be further recycled by the methods of gravity separation or strong magnetic separation.
In the ferric manganese oxides, limonite contains. It is hard to separate limonite with manganese by the ways of gravity separation, flotation separation or strong magnetic separation. We need to use the way of roasting-magnetic separation and it has already been used for industrial applications.
In the sedimentary carbonate manganese, the major ores are rhodochrosite, manganocalcite, manganese-bearing calcite and oligonite, etc and the gangue are silicates and carbonates, often accompanying with foreign matters like sulfur and iron elements.
Carbonate manganese ore mining process is rare to be found on mining area. But, it still exists. To process the sedimentary carbonate manganese ore, FTM engineers adopt the flotation separation, in order of carbonaceous shale, pyrite and manganese.
To the hydrothermal carbonate manganese ore accompanying with zinc and lead, engineers of FTM Machinery often adopt the method of flotation and strong magnetic separation. For some carbonate manganese with sulfur inside, engineers use the way of roasting to get rid of sulfur.
Elements like iron, sulfur or gangue in manganese oxide and carbonate manganese are hard to be extracted, since their size is very fine. Based on this situation, FTM engineers take the way of smelting.
In comparison with the one-time separation, magnetic separation is more effective in improving the recovery rate from 72.01% to 89.24%. Based on the experiments, FTM engineers design the manganese ore extracting plant as below.
The mined manganese ore is transported to field by trucks and the size is generally smaller than 350mm. Piled in the bin by loader, mined manganese ore are fed into jaw crusher by belt conveyor, then to vibrating screen for size screening with 0-10mm and >10mm.
To the ores with size of 0-10mm, they are conveyed to another bins, waiting for being dressed. For the remains with size larger than 10mm, they are conveyed back to jaw crusher for being crushed and screened again until the size meets the requirement for dressing work.
Through the hopper, 0-10mm crushed manganese ore enter into NO.1 magnetic separator and NO.2 magnetic separator. The extracted ore are transported to concentrates field by belt conveyor and the tailing is conveyed to NO.3 magnetic separator of DPMS-300mmX1800mm by belt conveyor for being extracted again. At last, concentrates are in concentrates field and tailing is in tailing field.
The price of manganese ore leaching(beneficiation) plant scope varies from 900-95000 us dollars. The price is affected by the following factors like mining situation, demands of customers, machine model, raw ore elements, etc. Leave your demands on our website for the detailed Price quotation.
For the washing of the manganese, spiral washer or log washer can be involved to remove mud or clay in the manganese ore. Spiral washer is suitable for manganese of -50mm while rotary screen is mainly for big manganese blocks.
After washing, crusher will be needed to make the manganese smaller. The crushed manganese has a large size range of 0-50mm. Of course, if the manganese grains are not liberated or dissociated from the gangue, the ore need further crushing or milling to be finer to liberate or dissociate the manganese granules from the impurities.
The core manganese beneficiation plant is mainly Gravity Separation and Intensive Magnetic Separation. This process of manganese ore beneficiation is fairly easy. Presently, gravity separation is simply right for sorting manganese with simple structure, and particularly manganese oxide with superior density. And the gravity separation machine is mainly manganese jig machine with washing-box. There are several models of manganese like LTA1010/2 sine wave jigging concentrators, 2LTC6109/8T trapezoidal jigging machine, AM30 manganese jig separator, and 2LTC912/4 manganese jig beneficiation plant. LTA1010/2, and 2LTC6109/8T trapezoidal jigging machines are for manganese ore of 0-8mm, AM30 manganese jig separators are mainly for manganese mineral of 8-25mm, and 2LTC912/4 manganese jig beneficiation plants are mainly for manganese of 25-50mm.
Manganese mineral is weakly magnetic minerals, and intensive magnetic separator might be used to get fine manganese granules for some fine inlay size or small density difference between manganese and gangue.
The problem involved in Manganese Ore Processing deals with the production of acceptable specification grades of manganese concentrates at a maximum recovery of the total manganese from ores having variable characteristics. The flowsheet provides for both gravity and flotation with a maximum recovery of the manganese values in a coarse size in the most economical manner by the use of jigs and tables. The coarse concentrate must be up to grade and is immediately acceptable to the steel industry. The fine concentrate produced by flotation is made available for nodulizing or sintering.
The present world situation and lack of high grade manganese ores in the western world has had a pronounced influence on the development and utilization of the lower grade manganese ores. The specification stipulated by the Federal Stockpiling program for manganese ores or concentrates requires a fairly high manganese content with minimum quantities of impurities.
The flowsheet incorporates a conventional multistage crushing plant with a grizzly or screen ahead ofboth the primary and secondary crushers. The mine run ore is dumped through a 10 grizzly into a coarse ore bin. The ore is discharged by a Apron Feeder to feed the primary Jaw Crusher. This crusher is equipped with a 2 opening shaking grizzly to remove the undersize material.
The secondary cone crusher is fed with the oversize product from a 3 x 6 Vibrating Screen. This is an example of standard practice of removing all particles as soon as they are reduced to the proper size at each crushing stage. This is important in order to prevent the production of excess fines so easily produced in crushing manganese ores.
Sampling at this point is done by means of Samplers. They cut an accurate sample and are inexpensive to operate and maintain. The material cut by the initial sampler is fed at a constant rate by means of a vibratory feeder to a set of rolls for further crushing prior to the final sample cut. This results in the most accurate sample possible.
Separate bins are provided to temporarily store the ore until the assays on each lot of ore are known. The mill feed can then be drawn from these bins for proper blending of various types and grades of ore as desired. Ore of different types and grades can also be drawn from these bins for stockpiling a supply of blended ore to provide a uniform ore for continuous mill operation.
The crushing and sampling plant is designed to operate on a one shift per day basis with a capacity of from 400 to 500 tons per shift. The excess crushing capacity is to allow for the stockpiling of excess available ore and to take care of the operation on one shift.
The mill feed, drawn from one or more bins, is sampled at the ore feeder discharge to obtain a composite sample for mill control. After elevating, a vibrating screen separates the feed into sizes best suited for the Improved Harz Type Jigs and Selective Mineral Jigs. The coarsest part of the feed goes to the Harz Type Jigs which produces a final concentrate and a tailing. The finer portion of the feed, usually -8 or -10 mesh passes to the Mineral Jig for the recovery of a final concentrate.
The tailings from the Harz Jig are ground in a Steel Head Rod Mill after being dewatered by means of a Crossflow Classifier. The rod grate type mill, equipped with a 10 mesh spiral screen, grinds the jig tailings to minus 10 mesh with a minimum quantity of slimes. The spiral screen removes any plus 10 mesh material which is returned to the classifier. The minus 10 mesh rod mill discharge is combined with the tailings from the Mineral Jig and are pumped to a Hydraulic Classifier for size separation for table fed. Each gravity concentration table treats a separate size range which allows most efficient results. The tables produce a final concentrate, a middling product, which is returned to the rod mill for further grinding, and a sand tailing. The table tailings are either further treated by flotation after regrinding, or are discarded, depending on the assay.
The jig and table circuit can save from 50 to 80% of the manganese, depending on the characteristics of the ore. The grade of the jig and table concentrates is from 44 to 46% metallic manganese. It is essential to recover as much manganese as possible in the gravity concentration section since its milling cost is muchlower than in the flotation treatment, and the simple operation is more positive. This demonstrates the principle of when mineral is free, remove it which is still good metallurgy. Some ores, however, can only be treated by flotation to a greater extent in order to make an overall economic recovery.
Types 1 and 2 ores require a prefloat treatmentto remove the calcite as a froth. The calcite must be removed ahead of the manganese since if left in the circuit it will float with the manganese, thereby giving a low grade manganese concentrate. Tailings from the calcite prefloat circuit are then further treated by flotation, floating the manganese as a concentrate.
Careful and complete conditioning is a very important step in manganese flotation. Here we use a Special Super-Agitator and Conditioner for the proper mixing of the reagents into the pulp plus Super Rougher cells as conditioners. This provides the intense mixing for proper flocculation so essential for manganese flotation. The amount of aeration is easily controlled during the conditioning.
A nodulizing or sintering step may be necessary for the further treatment of the flotation concentrates. This step produces nodules or a sinter product acceptable to industry and the grade of manganese is also materially increased by such treatment.
This flowsheet is designed to produce a maximum amount of the manganese in a coarse form which will be marketable without the further and high cost of nodulizing or sintering. The gravity concentration sections do this. Since the reagent costs for manganese flotation are high and in direct proportion to the amount of flotation concentrates produced, preceding flotation by gravity concentration results in maximum recovery with lowest cost.This flowsheet follows the fundamental rule of metallurgyrecover your mineral as soon as free and as coarse as possible.
As the problem involved stock piling of the minus 20-mesh material for selective flotation recovery under more favorable market conditions, the equipment selected at this stage consisted only of gravity concentration and sizing equipment to produce a partially- concentrated product which could be economically shipped to the purchaser.Atypical manganese oxide ore stipulated that it contain not more than 10% minus 20-mesh material.
Mine ore is dumped through an 8 Grizzly into a coarse ore bin provided with a rack and pinion gate for discharging the ore to the Apron Ore Feeder which is built to resist high abrasion and the stress of sudden impact. A feeder with 30 wide flights was chosen in this case and a sufficient length was recommended for the feeder to allow for a portion of it being used as a picking belt. The availability of low-cost labor makes it possible to discard considerable waste rock at this point.
Primary sizing is done by means of a 3x 5 Grizzly with 2 openings. This Grizzly could be made into the vibrating type if desired, obtaining its motion from the pitman of the crusher. Grizzly undersize passes to a conveyor and oversize to the primary crusher.
The single deck, 3x 6 Vibrating Screen removes the minus 3/8 product from the secondary crusher feed. The minus 2 plus 3/8 product is fed to the secondary crusher, the minus 3/8 screen undersize becoming part of the feed to the jigs.
Several excellent gyratory crushers are on the market. A 1-8 Traylor Gyratory Crusher unit was selected to reduce the minus 2 plus 3/8 feed to all minus 3/8- At this point in the flowsheet it would be possible to utilize crushing rolls which tend to produce slightly less fines than a gyratory crusher. However, due to the greater reduction ratio of the crusher and the difficulty in transporting crushing rolls to the millsite, the gyratory crusher was recommended.
Ratios of concentration as high as 97,000 to 1 have been made Ina Selective Mineral Jig. Far continuous discharge of preciousmetal concentrates, Dowsett Valves with locking arrangementmay be used on hutch discharges.
Two Duplex Selective Mineral Jigs concentrate the minus 6-mesh manganese ore. Tailings from these jigs are sent to waste. The high-grade product produced by the jigs selective action is sent to further screening.
As the market requires that not more than 10% of the shipping ore is minus 20-mesh, the selective jig concentrates are passed over a single-deck, 2x 4 Dillon Vibrating Screen, with 20-mesh screen cloth. The plus 20-mesh screen oversize becomes shipping ore and the minus 20-mesh manganese is stock piled for future marketing. Present briquetting costs do not permit this method of preparation for market at this time.
The minus 3/8 undersize from Screen No. 1, together with the minus 3/8 plus 6-mesh product from Screen No. 2 are concentrated by two 3-compartment, (Improved Harz Type) Jigs. Units with 3 compartments were chosen to give ample capacity to produce a high-grade manganese product. Tailings from these jigs go to waste and the concentrates become shipping ore.
This flowsheet is based upon the principle of recovering the mineral as soon as it is free from the gangue. This is essential in the treatment of manganese ores due to their tendency to slime readily. Note that both the motor horsepower provided for each machine and the actual horsepower required is shown. The motor horsepower figures are enclosed in circles and the horsepower-consumed figures are underlined.
The ordinary specifications for marketing manganese ore are as follows (dry ore basis): Mn, minimum.48.0 per cent Fe, maximum..6.0 per cent P, maximum..0.12 per cent Si02 + Al2O3, maximum11.00 per cent Non-ferrous impurities, maximum.1.00 per cent Size analysis shall show all minus 1 inch and not more than 25 per cent to pass a 20 mesh screen.
While managanese ore is not a non-metallic, the application of flotation to its beneficiation is similar to that used for the non-metallic ores. Non-metallic reagents are used to float non-metallic impurity minerals such ascalcite, and other non-metallic reagents can be used to concentrate the manganese mineral and reject silica and alumina minerals as a tailing. Manganese is a critical mineral in America and the development of new methods of beneficiation is highly desirable for our national defenses. While much investigational work has been carried out by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and others, there is still a need for more efficient reagents to make many ores economically amenable to the flotation process.
(1) Carbonate-Gangue OresThe carbonate gangue, such as calcite, is floated first with fatty acid, usingan alkaline pulp and a starch or yellow dextrine to inhibit the manganese oxide. The pulp is then acidified and the manganese oxide floated with an emulsion of crude Tall oil, and heavy fuel oil emulsified in hot water with petroleum acids such as Oronite wetting agent S or Oronite sulfonate L.
Manganese ore is widely used in steel, non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical, electronics, battery, agriculture, etc. industry. More than 90% of the worlds manganese is used in the steel industry. Global terrestrial manganese ore reserves are 6. 800 million tons (manganese metal), most of which is manganese oxide ore, with a production of 16 million tons (manganese metal) in 2017. spent catalyst could be a secondary recover resource of manganese. Chinas manganese ore resources are mainly manganese carbonate ore, and the average grade of ore is only 21. 4%. With the consumption of manganese ore resources, the grade of ore is gradually reduced, which is not only difficult to develop and utilize but also has a large amount of smelting wastewater and waste slag. Therefore, improving manganese resource utilization technology level is of great significance for realizing the conservation and utilization of manganese resources, protecting the ecological environment and promoting the sustainable development of the manganese industry.
The purpose of manganese ore beneficiation is to remove the slime, separate stone and mineral manganese, enrich the low-grade ore, improve the ore grade, reduce the energy and reagent consumption of the smelting process from the source, and then reduce the amount of smelting waste. The methods of mineral manganese processing mainly include washing, gravity separation, strong magnetic separation, flotation, fire enrichment and chemical beneficiation.
There is a large difference in density between useful minerals and gangue minerals, and the density of manganese oxide ore is 3.7 ~ 5g/cm3, the density of manganese carbonate ore is 3.3 to 3.8 g/cm3, the density of gangue minerals such as quartz and calcite is 2.6 to 2.9 g/cm3. The use of re-election technology can achieve the separation between useful manganese ore and gangue minerals, and achieve the purpose of enriching manganese ore to enhance ore grade. The gravity separator equipment mainly includes jig, shaker table and heavy medium hydro-cyclone. For the treatment of manganese ore, a jig and a shaker were used respectively, and the recovery rate of the MnO obtained by the re-selection of the jig was 51. 54%, the recovery rate of shaker gravity separation was 91. 11%
Manganese ore is mostly weakly magnetic. The specific magnetization coefficient of the manganese ore is up to 250106cm 3/g, the tungsten manganese iron ore is 66106 cm3/g, and the manganese carbonate ore is 125106 cm 3/g. Most of the gangue minerals are aluminosilicates, which are non-magnetic. Therefore, manganese ore enrichment can be achieved by strong magnetic separation. The magnetic separation of low-grade manganese ore was studied. After two-step magnetic separation with high magnetic field strength and low magnetic field strength, the ore grade was increased to 45. 8%. The main types of magnetic separators are the high-density magnetic separator, wet magnetic separator, dry magnetic separator.
Flotation is suitable for the treatment of fine-grained manganese ore. Ore size is an important indicator affecting the flotation effect. The development of flotation reagents is the key technology. Traditional flotation collectors mainly include oleic acid, oxidized paraffin soap, naphthenic acid and tart oil. flotation machine for sale.
The natural type of Australia manganese ore is mainly manganese oxide ore, which has two types: primary and oxidized. Manganese minerals mainly include pyrolusite, hard manganese ore, crypto-potassium-manganese ore, and a small amount of manganese earth, black manganese ore, manganese ore, strontium magnesium manganese ore, black zinc manganese ore, galvanized manganese ore and limonite. The gangue minerals are mainly quartz, followed by kaolin, sericite, opal, stone pulp, clay and so on. Australia manganese ore primary manganese ore is only found in sedimentary-reformed deposits, mainly composed of manganese carbonates, sulfides and silicates. The ore type is mainly composed of mixed primary manganese ore, and can be divided into sulphur manganese ore-manganese carbonate ore, sulphur manganese ore-manganese silicate-manganese carbonate ore. Manganese minerals are mainly rhombohedral, sulphur-manganese or eutropha, with a small amount of iron-sulfur-manganese ore, calcium sulphurite and manganese garnet; associated metal minerals such as galena, sphalerite, strontium silver ore Copper ore and pyrite. The gangue minerals are mainly quartz, calcite and chlorite, a small amount of diopside, serpentine and claystone.
Ore material on the grid sieve, screened material flow into the washing machine, then into vibrating classifier, handpick the +30mm grain size to do secondary washing. -30mm +3mm grain size into the mineral jig to get concentrated manganese. The jigging tailings and the -3mm size material is merged into the grinding system which consists of rod mill, vibrating screen, and spiral classifier. -1mm material into the SHP-1000 high-density magnetic separator select out the concentrate manganese, the strong magnetic tailings are cleaned by DPMS wet permanent magnetic strong magnetic separator. JXSC mining machinery manufacturer provides a full set of manganese ore processing machine globally, besides, we do gold wash plant, gold separator machine, portable crusher, gold trommel scrubber, stone crusher, ore dressing equipment, mineral concentrate, etc. contact us to know the latest gold wash plant prices.
Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant mineral nutrient, playing a key role in several physiological processes, particularly photosynthesis. Manganese deficiency is a widespread problem, most often occurring in sandy soils, organic soils with a pH above 6 and heavily weathered, tropical soils. It is typically worsened by cool and wet conditions (Alloway 2008). Numerous crop species have been reported to show high susceptibility to Mn deficiency in soils, or a very positive response to Mn fertilization, including cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats), legumes (common beans, peas and soybean), stone fruits (apples, cherries and peaches), palm crops, citrus, potatoes, sugar beets and canola, among others. The impact of Mn deficiencies on these crops includes reduced dry matter production and yield, weaker structural resistance against pathogens and a reduced tolerance to drought and heat stress.
Manganese has a relatively low phloem mobility in plants, and as a result, typical leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency first develop in younger leaves. The critical concentration for Mn deficiency is generally below 20 ppm dry weight in fully expanded, young leaves. In the case of dicots, Mn deficiency first results in pale mottled leaves, followed by typical interveinal chlorosis. Under severe Mn deficiency dicots may also develop a number of brownish spots. In cereals, Mn deficiency can cause pale green or yellow patches in younger leaves. This condition is known as gray speck, and is characterized by necrotic spots that form in older leaves (Figure 1).
Manganese plays a key role in photosynthesis, as the photosystem II-water oxidizing system has an absolute Mn requirement (Hakala et al. 2006). Adequate Mn is critical in this system, as Mn facilitates the photolysis (light splitting) of water molecules and provides energy for photosynthesis. It is, therefore, not surprising that Mn deficiency substantially impairs photosynthesis, even in the absence of visual leaf symptoms. The negative effect of Mn deficiency in photosynthesis results in marked decreases in soluble sugar concentrations in different parts of plants (Figure 2). It is widely believed that the reduction in photosynthesis is the major reason behind the decline in dry matter production and yield under Mn-deficient conditions.
As a cofactor, Mn is reported to activate over 35 enzymes, several of which catalyze different steps of the lignin and phytoalexins biosynthesis. Impairment of lignin biosynthesis in Mn-deficient plants, especially in the roots, is associated with increased pathogenic attack, particularly soil-born fungi, because lignin serves as a barrier against pathogenic infection (Figure 3; Marschner 2012). Manganese application contributes to the resistance against not only various soil-borne diseases including take-all in wheat, common scab in potato and root rot in cotton, but also fungal leaf diseases such as tan spot in wheat, powdery mildew in grape and black leaf mold in tomato (Brennan 1992; Graham and Webb, 1991; Heine et al. 2011; Yao et al. 2012).
The peroxidase enzyme, which generates hydrogen peroxide, is another Mn-dependent enzyme that contributes to pathogen resistance. The hydrogen peroxide produced is not only involved in the stabilization of the cell wall, but is also thought to be directly toxic to pathogens (Heine et al. 2011), and therefore acts as a fungicide (Graham and Webb, 1991).
Nearly all environmental stress factors represent an oxidative stress. Manganese plays an important role in improving stress tolerance, as superoxide dismutase enzymes, which are responsible for the detoxification of the destructive free radicals, require different metal cofactors, such as Mn, to function. Not surprisingly, increases in activity of Mn-superoxide dismutase contributed greatly to plant tolerance of different environmental stress factors such as winter hardiness, ozone stress, salinity and drought stress.
Manganese deficiency in plant tissues has also been reported to impair fatty acid production, which can adversely affect the cuticular wax deposition, as wax synthesis begins with fatty acid synthesis in plastids. Since the wax layer is responsible for limiting non-stomatal water loss and reducing the heat load on leaves (Hebbern et al. 2009), weakening of this layer due to Mn deficiency can cause an increase in the susceptibility of crops to both drought and heat stress. In barley, for example, latent Mn deficiency was found to significantly reduce the wax content (up to 40%), resulting in increased transpirational water loss and lower water-use-efficiency (Hebbern et al. 2009).
Graham RD, Webb MJ (1991) Micronutrients and plant disease resistance and tolerance in plants. In Micronutrients in Agriculture (J. J. Mortvedt, F. R. Cox, L. M. Shuman and R. M. Welch, eds.), pp. 329370. SSSA Book Series No. 4, Madison, WI.
Hebbern CA, Laursen KH, Ladegaars AH, Schmidt SB, Pedas P, Bruhn D, Schjoerring JK, Wulfsohn D, Husted S (2009) Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Physiol Plant 135:307-316
Heine, G., J.F.J. Max, H. Fuhrs, D. W. Moran-Puente, D. Heintz, and W. J. Horst. (2011) Effect of manganese on the resistance of tomato to Pseudocercospora fuligena. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 174:827-836.
Different types of manganese ore are suitable for different beneficiation production lines. Manganese minerals with large crystalline particle size can be economically obtained by a simple method of beneficiation, sieving or gravity separation. Manganese minerals with small crystal size can be obtained by magnetic separation and flotation separation.
Manganese ore beneficiation production line equipment can effectively improve the comprehensive utilization rate of manganese ore after ore processing and reduce the waste of production resources. In the beneficiation process of manganese minerals, HXJQ Machinery tailors the beneficiation design plan for the customer according to the actual situation of the customer.
Formed in 1935 and listed on the Johannesburg Stock exchange the following year, Assmang Manganese Limited specialises in the mining of manganese, iron ores and chrome. The company, which is owned jointly by African Rainbow Minerals Limited and Assore Limited, operates mines in the Kalahari manganese field in the Northern Cape province.
Assmangs Black Rock Mine operation is a large, underground operation consisting of three shafts and producing between three and four million tonnes of manganese per year. Eighty per cent of its production volume is destined for the export market, including China, Japan, India, Europe and others. The remaining 20 per cent is sold to the local South African market. The company also has its own ferromanganese smelters, located at Cato Ridge and Machadodorp.
The company has recently brought online a new beneficiation plant, which is capable of producing 900 tonnes of manganese ore per hour, making it one of the largest in Africa. It runs on a continuous, 24-hour basis, with 100 employees working at the plant in rotating four-hour shifts to oversee both maintenance and operations. This is a state-of-the-art plant and we are able to carry out all of the processes necessary to prepare the ore for smelting, including crushing, washing and sorting by size, explains Sechaba Letaba, Assmang Manganeses senior general manager.
Construction began on the project in 2007 after a competitive bidding process, which saw TWP and DRA being awarded contracts for the project. The decision to invest in this new plant was driven principally by increased demand in the global market for manganese, says Letaba.
Perhaps unusually for a construction project, the total building cost of the beneficiation plant at Nchwaning was 20 per cent less than had been budgeted for. In some ways we were fortunate with the timing of the recession, as it brought down the cost of steel and copper, says Letaba. This was supported by excellent project management on the part of TWP and DRA as well as the mine team.
Prior to processing, the ore is stored in four purpose-built silos, each with a capacity of 2,000 tonnes. While the beneficiation plant is on the same site as the Nchwaning mine, these silos act as a fail-safe mechanism, explains Letaba. Should something go wrong underground and we are unable to bring the ore to the surface, we do not have to shut down the plant as we still have 8,000 tonnes to work with.
The new plant is fully automated and is connected via fibre optic cable to a control room four kilometres away at the mine offices in Black Rock. We use two different software packages in the control room in order to manage the plant. The first is ArchestrA Technology by Wonderware, which is a comprehensive automation and information software architecture. The second, also produced by Wonderware, is SCADA HMI, which works in conjunction with ArchestrA to give us complete remote access to our plant, says Letaba.
Assmang Manganese is currently running a continuous improvement project at the beneficiation plant, focusing on power and water consumption. One of the main challenges we face in the Northern Cape Kalahari is the lack of available water, explains Letaba. We do not have it in abundance, so we need to look after each and every drop.
To achieve this, the company has implemented a water conservation strategy, which recycles the water used in the beneficiation process. After the washing of the ore, you get a sludge run-off of water and slime. We recapture this run-off and separate the two, putting the water back into the plant to be used again. Additionally, all our water storage facilities are covered so that we do not lose any through evaporation.
Assmang had, for a long time, been one of only two key manganese producers in the Northern Cape Kalahari region. However, there has recently been an increasing number of new companies entering the market. The arrival of these new competitors presents a two-fold problem, Letaba says. At Assmang, we pride ourselves on being the only high-grade producers of manganese in South Africa and our market is slightly different to what these new players are targeting. So the problem for us is not that we are competing with them for customers, but that we are now competing for infrastructure.
All mines use the existing railway network to transport their ore from the mine sites to their customers, and in the Northern Cape Kalahari region we are already pretty much running at capacityhowever in the past we only had to share with one other company. Now, we have to share with the new entrants to the area and it has made transportation more difficult.
Not only are the companies now competing for logistical resources, they are also competing for human resources. A lack of available skills is not a unique challenge to us, but one that affects the whole mining industry. But now, we find ourselves in a position where there are even more companies trying to attract the same people, so that is a challenge too.
Assmang Manganeses plans for growth do not stop with the new plant. By 2018, the company is hoping to have doubled its current output to six million tonnes per annum if the project gets approval. We run a very efficient and productive operation here and we have a positive workforce. We also maintain a very safe environment and recently won the Northern Cape Mine Managers Associations Safety Award, which we are very proud of, says Letaba.
These things provide a solid base for the growth of our business and we are building on that currently, carrying out feasibility studies for other possible projects in order to meet our goal of doubling production over the next seven years. With all these factors in our favour including our experience and expertise as a manganese producer, I am confident that we will continue to build on our past successes, he concludes. http://www.assmang.co.za
Comparative life cycle assessment of manganese beneficiation and refining is carried out.Major impact categories are assessed using ILCD and CED method.Life cycle assessment, uncertainty analysis, and sensitivity analysis are conducted.Refining has larger impact than beneficiation due to electricity consumption.Human toxicity, ionizing radiation, eutrophication are crucial impact categories.
This paper presents the life cycle assessment (LCA) carried out on the manganese beneficiation and refining process. This cradle-to-gate analysis is carried out using SimaPro software version 8.5. The considered case is the manganese beneficiation and refining process, and the final product is 1kg of refined manganese. The global average dataset is collected from the EcoInvent and AusLCI database, which are originated from literature source. The analysis methodologies considered in this study are the International Life Cycle Reference Data System (ILCD) method and Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) method. A comparative analysis is also presented which compared among ILCD, Australian Indicator, and Tool for Reduction and Assessment of Chemicals and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) methods to identify the best practice method for global analysis of mining processes. A detailed sensitivity analysis has been carried out considering different scenarios, to suggest possible solutions to reduce the environmental impacts associated with manganese beneficiation and refining processes. The analysis results reveal that particulate matter, climate change, categories of eutrophication, human toxicity (cancer and non-cancer effects), and acidification are some of the noteworthy impact categories. The analysis results also showed that coal consumption is significantly higher than other types of renewables and non-renewable energy consumption in manganese beneficiation and refining processes. The analysis results further reveal that using the chromium steel in manganese beneficiation process and ferromanganese consumption in the refining process has a significant effect over other materials involved in manganese beneficiation and refining operations. The obvious reason behind this result is ferromanganese utilization as an energy-intensive process, which in turn increases the environmental emissions. The analysis results also showed that, between the beneficiation and refining process, manganese refining has a much greater impact on the environment rather than the beneficiation process due to the fossil fuel and electricity consumption in refining operations.Get in Touch with Mechanic