early history of silver mining in tombstone, arizona

early history of silver mining in tombstone, arizona

The history of mining in Tombstone can be traced back to 1877 when Ed Schieffelin an anti-Chiricahua Apaches scout stationed at Camp Huachuca discovered silver in the region near the Goose Flats. Ed named his claim Tombstone because he had been warned against venturing into the surrounding wilderness to their camp that the only thing can be found there is his own tombstone.

Word about the discovery of silver in southern Arizona spread fast bringing in hundreds of prospectors, speculators, businessmen, homesteaders, gunmen and lawyers among others. In early 1879 a town was set out on a flat land near the mines. At first, it was known as Goose Flats but later the name was changed to Tombstone after the first silver claim in the area.

Following other discoveries made in the area marked out a mineral belt that extended to about five miles both to the north and south of the town and about eight miles to the west and east. Although Eds discovery spurred lots of mining activities in the area, it was not the first silver discovery in the region.

The area in which the Tombstone mining district is located is physically made up of a series of rugged hills that gradually merged into the towering Mule Mountains and touched the Dragoon Range to the North. Below the hills the geology of the place is mainly made up of Porphyry rocks with lime and quartzite is several places.

The silver discovered at the Tombstone mine was found in chloride form with little combination making the mining process quite easy. In fact, most of the early miners in the area mined their silver simply by panning.

By 1880 there were over 3000 mining claims in the Tombstone district. Most of these claims were small operations that did not make a lot of headlines with their productions. However, there were several established operations with machines that produced thousands of tons in ore.

All of these mines were owned and operated by the Tombstone Gold and Silver Mining Company. The company invested heavily in the mines most of which used open cuts, drifts, winzes and shafts. The ore from the mines was processed at the companys two mills located along the San Pedro River. Of the two stamp mills, one had 20 stamps while the other had 10 stamps.

The Grand Central Companys mine was another great mine in the region. Mine was on a 1500 feet by 600 feet claim that was rich in silver ore. The ore mined was processed at the companys 30 stamp mill on the San Pedro. It operated for several years before being shut down after the rich ore was exhausted.

The Girard mine was another notable mine in the Tombstone mining district. The mine was set on a 6 feet vein and had a shaft that had a depth of about 400 feet. The mine produced gold at about 70 oz. a ton. The ore was processed on a mill on the San Pedro.

The other group of productive mines in Tombstone was located at about three miles off the San Pedro. The Mines included the Bradshaw mine which was rich in gold ore, the Alkey Mine which was also a leading gold producer and the Bronkow Mine which was mainly a silver mine.

Mining continued all over Tombstone for a couple of decades until the mid-1920s when most of the ore had been mined out. By 1930 most of the mines in the district had closed down and most of the miners left town. Mining however continued on small scale for more years. Today the town of is a small town of just about 1000 people. People still venture out into the desert in search of gold and silver using metal detectors and other simple tools.

telluride colorado western mining history

telluride colorado western mining history

The town of Telluride, on the headwaters of the San Miguel River, is a quintessential western mining town. Probably named when a prospector mistook a rock sample for telluride ore (a type of rich, complex gold ore which was actually not what he had found,) the area experienced a gold rush starting in 1875 however its history reaches back much further.

This area was visited back in 1765 by Juan Rivera and a group of Spaniard explorers, with follow-up visits over the next 11 years. This all occurred during the period when the 13 original American colonies were yet to declare independence from Great Britain.

The Spaniards were most likely driven out by the Utes, on whose land they were trespassing, but there are no clear records on this. The Utes owned and governed this land until they were forced to sign a treaty with the U.S. government in 1873.

The primary motivation for the U.S. government was the same as for Juan Rivera: the minerals. The government was motivated by well-recorded prospecting done in 1872 by a few US placer miners. The early placer prospectors diaries suggest they were able to produce almost an ounce per day per person.

Not long after the treaty, groups of American prospectors started to arrive. On August 23, 1875, the Remine brothers and 8 other men located and filed the first placer claims in the area just west of where Telluride would later be built.

The first lode claim was filed on October 7, 1875, by John Fallon. It had taken him an entire summer of prospecting to find that first hard rock claim. His tenacity in seeking out a lode source for the local placer gold led to the first real boom-times in Telluride. The hard rock miners who followed Fallon quickly established several mines including first the Boomerang Mine and then the Sheridan Mine up in Marshall Basin.

The city wasnt formally incorporated until 1887 when there were already 2,000 people living there full-time. The railroad finally arrived in town in 1890, greatly accelerating growth of the town and the mining industry.

Telluride was known as a remote, hell-raising, boom town through the early 1890s. During that first boom, the mines focused on production of highly profitable silver but even in those early days, tourism was starting to develop due to the beauty of Tellurides mountain setting.

Telluride went bust in the 1893 Silver Crisis and almost became a ghost town. Further exploration located additional gold and five years later a second boom was underway. By the end of the 1890s there were 204 active mines, 18 mills and 1,300 miners in the immediate area.

World War I demand for lead and zinc added to the mining industry as gold production faded. However after WWI that second boom faded and the town did too. Another boom happened from the 1950s-1970s as more modern mining technology and better transportation made some of the old mines profitable again. This additional activity brought the total production to over three million ounces of gold in the 100-year history of the mining district.

In the 1970s as the last mining waned, Telluride redefined itself as a ski town. Despite the cycles of boom and bust, the town retains its original Victorian charm. Its status as a national historic district since 1961 has helped protect Telluride from awkward modernization with about 300 buildings remaining from the original boom times. The New Sheridan Hotel, built in 1895, still offers drinks in their well preserved, originally furnished, bar. The Telluride Historical Museum tells the history of San Miguel County, including a geology exhibit, a mining exhibit, and other relevant details of local lore. The museum is housed in the restored downtown 1893 miners' hospital. Brunswick Saloon - Telluride, Colorado ca. 1900 Historical highlights include the first long distance AC electric system in the world. This was installed to serve several mines in the area and to provide lights in town via an 8 mile transmission line, the first ever. Butch Cassidy and his wild bunch contributed another more questionable historical highlight when they chose Telluride to commit their very first bank robbery. They hit the San Miguel National Bank on June 24, 1889. The estimated $30,000 they stole was never recovered. Modern view of Telluride The historic Telluride Lone Tree Cemetery sits at the uphill edge of town. It includes many historic gravestones. The local museum leads guided tours of the cemetery on Friday evenings during the summer. Nearby Ghost Towns The city of Telluride served as the commercial and social hub of many important mines and districts. Those districts were the locations of smaller, yet still historically Significant mining towns, many of which can still be visited today. The ghost town of Pandora, just east of Telluride, is so close to town that it feels like part of Telluride itself. Pandora was named for the Pandora Mine but the Smuggler-Union Mine turned out to be the real money maker. That giant mine built its floatation mill in Pandora and operated the mill into the 1970s. The Tomboy Road is a challenging, narrow, unmaintained, sometimes harrowing road heading out of Telluride. It heads easterly four miles to the famous Smuggler-Union Mine site and the town of Smuggler which housed the hundreds of miners working at the mine. Some of the ruins have literally slid down the mountainside but an impressive crusher house as well as a couple of boilers sitting on a concrete foundation still mark the site. The gated entrance tunnel is also still visible. View of Telluride, Colorado from the mines above Pandora Just east of the Smuggler-Union Mine is the ghost town of Tomboy, named after the famous Tomboy Mine. At its peak, the town of 900 people had a school, YMCA, tennis courts, stores and stables. It was served by stage coach from Telluride daily. A few buildings remain standing and there are ruins of many more crushed by the heavy snows or disassembled for partial reuse by locals over the years. The Alta ghost town is about 6 miles south of Telluride. Gold was discovered here in 1878 so there are some older relics around. Sadly the Alta mill burned in 1948 but a boarding house and several other dwellings remain including a striking three story miners dormitory. The ghost town of Ophir is about 8 miles south of Telluride. The little, mostly occupied, mining camp is at the base of the road up to Ophir Pass. The town was started in 1875 when the first claims were staked out. By 1898, the little town was home to about 400 people with electric lighting. Surviving early structures include the stamp mill, a hotel, a number of cabins (many still occupied) and, above town, the Ophir Loop. The loop is a dramatic feat of engineering - a 100 foot trestle bridge and 3 tiers of overlapping track, designed by Otto Mears.

In the 1970s as the last mining waned, Telluride redefined itself as a ski town. Despite the cycles of boom and bust, the town retains its original Victorian charm. Its status as a national historic district since 1961 has helped protect Telluride from awkward modernization with about 300 buildings remaining from the original boom times. The New Sheridan Hotel, built in 1895, still offers drinks in their well preserved, originally furnished, bar.

The Telluride Historical Museum tells the history of San Miguel County, including a geology exhibit, a mining exhibit, and other relevant details of local lore. The museum is housed in the restored downtown 1893 miners' hospital.

Historical highlights include the first long distance AC electric system in the world. This was installed to serve several mines in the area and to provide lights in town via an 8 mile transmission line, the first ever.

Butch Cassidy and his wild bunch contributed another more questionable historical highlight when they chose Telluride to commit their very first bank robbery. They hit the San Miguel National Bank on June 24, 1889. The estimated $30,000 they stole was never recovered.

The historic Telluride Lone Tree Cemetery sits at the uphill edge of town. It includes many historic gravestones. The local museum leads guided tours of the cemetery on Friday evenings during the summer.

The city of Telluride served as the commercial and social hub of many important mines and districts. Those districts were the locations of smaller, yet still historically Significant mining towns, many of which can still be visited today.

The ghost town of Pandora, just east of Telluride, is so close to town that it feels like part of Telluride itself. Pandora was named for the Pandora Mine but the Smuggler-Union Mine turned out to be the real money maker. That giant mine built its floatation mill in Pandora and operated the mill into the 1970s.

The Tomboy Road is a challenging, narrow, unmaintained, sometimes harrowing road heading out of Telluride. It heads easterly four miles to the famous Smuggler-Union Mine site and the town of Smuggler which housed the hundreds of miners working at the mine. Some of the ruins have literally slid down the mountainside but an impressive crusher house as well as a couple of boilers sitting on a concrete foundation still mark the site. The gated entrance tunnel is also still visible.

Just east of the Smuggler-Union Mine is the ghost town of Tomboy, named after the famous Tomboy Mine. At its peak, the town of 900 people had a school, YMCA, tennis courts, stores and stables. It was served by stage coach from Telluride daily. A few buildings remain standing and there are ruins of many more crushed by the heavy snows or disassembled for partial reuse by locals over the years.

The Alta ghost town is about 6 miles south of Telluride. Gold was discovered here in 1878 so there are some older relics around. Sadly the Alta mill burned in 1948 but a boarding house and several other dwellings remain including a striking three story miners dormitory.

The ghost town of Ophir is about 8 miles south of Telluride. The little, mostly occupied, mining camp is at the base of the road up to Ophir Pass. The town was started in 1875 when the first claims were staked out. By 1898, the little town was home to about 400 people with electric lighting. Surviving early structures include the stamp mill, a hotel, a number of cabins (many still occupied) and, above town, the Ophir Loop. The loop is a dramatic feat of engineering - a 100 foot trestle bridge and 3 tiers of overlapping track, designed by Otto Mears.

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