mineral processing flowsheets

mineral processing flowsheets

The Mineral Processing Flowsheets shown on the following pages are based on actual data obtained from successful operating plants. Metallurgical data are shown in these flowsheets which incorporate Crushers, Grinding Mills, Flotation Machines, Unit Flotation Cells, and Selective Mineral Jigs as well as other standard milling equipment.

The Flotation Machine, the Selective Mineral Jig and the Unit Flotation Cell have revolutionized flowsheet design and have made it possible for both small and large plants to increase recoveries and economical return.The Unit Flotation Cell and the Selective Mineral Jig have been perfected to meet the most important principle in ore dressing.

To recover this free mineral, either the Unit Flotation Cell or Jig or both can be installed in the grinding circuit without auxiliary equipment such as pumps or elevators, and for successful operation do not usually require more water than necessary for classifier dilution.

Many of the flowsheets given here have been made possible because of the fact that a coarse pulp (particles as coarse as 1/4)can be circulated in the Sub-A Flotation Machine without sanding or choke-ups and with high metallurgical efficiency.

Sub-A Flotation Machines have the gravity flow principle and flexibility that has made possible the development and application of many of these flowsheets. In fact, the elimination of pumps in handling concentrates for cleaning and recleaning has simplified flowsheets and reduced operating expenses to the operators advantage and profit. It should be pointed out that it is not only the cost of pump wearing parts but the time lost in shut-down for pump repair that is important in profitable mill operation.

Ore Testing takes the guesswork out of answering the question of can this ore be milled profitably. It also gives conclusive answers to the subordinate- questions of what type of flowsheet will give the greatest net return on this operation, and can increased value and/or increased mill capacity be obtained by the addition or substitution of equipment in the mill?

In other words, ore testing is the key to the basic question of the economic possibility of a mining operation. It gives the answer to this question at a minimum of expense without making a costly investment in equipment to learn it the hard way.

The results obtained through ore testing and the intelligent interpretation of the results very often lead to a simple method of treatment giving good profits, where some other treatment might mean less profit or an actual deficit. Our Labgives a good illustration of what proper selection of treatment methods based on ore testing can result in. Test results give you facts.

The 911MPEProcess Equipment Ore Testing Laboratory is continually being confronted with and solving such problems. Very often situations arise where the most common methods of treatment may not be successful but little known and ingenious methods may be applied. The flowsheet showed the results obtained from testing a complex lead-zinc-copper-iron ore containing values in gold. Exceptionally high grade and recovery were obtained in this instance. Utilizing a patented process special reagents made profitable production of lead/copper and zinc-iron concentrates and subsequent separation of these concentrates into four (4) separate products.

Although flotation has made profitable the bene-ficiation of many low grade ores both metallic and non-metallic, it is not always true that flotation will give the greatest economic retiirn. For instance, in many cases, cyanidation of gold ores either direct or as part of a composite method of treatment may be the answer to the question of, what treatment will give the greatest dollar value return on the mill investment ?

An ore sample was received at the 911MPEEquipment Laboratory of a character which would ordinarily respond to the counter-current decantation method of cyanidation for extracting gold. Samples of the Same ore gave results concurring with test work by others but this method was not recommended due to settling difficulties encountered.

Work was not stopped here, however. Eventually, a successful method for treating this ore was found by sacrificing a small loss in slime. The final flowsheet evolved with recoveries indicated which made profitable installation of a reasonable cost plant, overcoming the difficulty arising from the physical characteristics of the ore.

Change of reagents in a flotation circuit may give higher recovery, a better grade of concentrates or both. A Sub-A Unit Flotation Cell installed in the grinding circuit may permit an increase in tonnage milled, a decreased loss in slimes and a better overall recovery.

AMineral Jigs installed in the grinding circuit in cyanide mills have proved very successful in increasing recovery. It is always advisable to recover your mineral values as soon and as coarse as possible.

Typical flowsheets are shown for both metallics and non-metallics as well as industrial products, wastes, etc. De-inking of waste paper by flotation, for example, is coming into prominence with Flotation Cells as it is now possible to recover for the paper industry a useful and usable product on a much more attractive basis than in the past.

Your flowsheet should be designed without bottlenecks or weak links which present problems that can seriously effect operating efficiency. The old saying of one hours delay means no profit today is more true today than ever before due to higher operating costs. This adage emphasizes the importance of having your flowsheet designed efficiently and tailored for your specific operation, and the need for selecting standard reliable equipment designed to give you continuous service.

mining law 2021 | laws and regulations | usa | iclg

mining law 2021 | laws and regulations | usa | iclg

ICLG - Mining Laws and Regulations - USA covers common issues in mining laws and regulations including the acquisition of rights, ownership requirements and restrictions, processing, transfer and encumbrance, environmental aspects, native title and land rights in 15 jurisdictions.

The US legal system consists of many levels of codified and uncodified federal, state, and local laws. The Governments regulatory authority at each level may originate from constitutions, statutes, administrative regulations or ordinances, and judicial common law. The US Constitution and federal laws are the supreme law of the land, generally pre-empting conflicting state and local laws. In many legal areas, the different authorities have concurrent jurisdiction, requiring regulated entities to comply with multiple levels of regulation. Mining on federal lands, for example, is generally subject to multiple layers of concurrent federal, state, and local statutes and administrative regulations. Increasingly, the executive branch of the federal Government has made use of Presidential Executive Orders to impact mining policy and procedure.

Federal and state Governments have developed comprehensive mining regulatory schemes. Although the US is a common law nation, practising US mining law often resembles practising mining law in civil law countries because the regulatory schemes are set out in detailed codifications. See, e.g., 43 C.F.R. 3000.0-5-3936.40 (US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) minerals management regulations). However, these mining law codifications are subject to precedential interpretation by courts pursuant to common law principles (and in some situations by quasi-judicial administrative bodies). US mining law may originate from federal, state, and local laws, including constitutions, statutes, administrative regulations or ordinances, and judicial and administrative body common law.

Determining which level of Government has jurisdiction over mining activities largely depends on surface and mineral ownership. A substantial amount of mining in the US occurs on federal lands where the federal Government owns both the surface and mineral estates. Federal law primarily governs mineral ownership, operations, and environmental compliance, with state and local Governments having concurrent or independent authority over certain aspects of federal land mining projects (e.g. permitting, water rights and access authorisations). If the resource occurs on private land, estate ownership is a matter of state contract law, but operations and environmental compliance are still regulated by applicable federal and state laws. Estate ownership on state-owned land is regulated by state law, and operations and environmental compliance are regulated by applicable federal and state laws, and in some cases local zoning ordinances.

The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), 43 U.S.C. 17011787, governs federal land use, including access to, and exercise of, mining rights on lands administered by the BLM and the US Forest Service (USFS). FLPMA recognises the Nations need for domestic sources of minerals, 43 U.S.C. 1701(a)(12), and provides that FLPMA shall not impair GML rights, including, but not limited to, rights of ingress and egress. 43 U.S.C. 1732(b). However, FLPMA also provides that mining authorisations must not result in unnecessary or undue degradation of public lands. 43 C.F.R. 3809.411(d)(3)(iii); see also 43 U.S.C. 1732(b). BLM and USFS have promulgated extensive FLPMA mining regulations. See, e.g., 36 C.F.R. 228.1228.116, 43 C.F.R. 3000.0-5-3936.40. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 42 U.S.C. 4321-4370m-12, requires federal agencies to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for all major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Mining operations on federal lands or with a federal nexus generally will involve an EIS or a less intensive environmental assessment (EA) examining environmental impacts. The NEPA process involves consideration of other substantive environmental statutes. Other Government statutes affect mining with regard to the following: solid and hazardous material disposal and transportation; reclamation; clean water and air; toxic substances; historic and cultural preservation; and endangered species.

The US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulates mineral resources and reserves reporting by entities subject to SEC filing and reporting requirements. The SECs reporting classification system is based on the SECs 1992 Industry Guide 7, which provides for declaration only of proven and probable reserves. On October 31, 2018, the SEC adopted amendments to modernise the property disclosure requirements for mining registrants which more closely align with current industry and global regulatory practices and standards, including the Committee for Reserves International Reporting Standards. Under the new rules, Guide 7 has been replaced with a new subpart of Regulation S-K which, among other new requirements aimed at protecting investors, requires mining registrants to disclose both mineral resources and mineral reserves and to support all disclosures with a technical report prepared by qualified persons with mining expertise. The SEC adopted a two-year transition period with the initial compliance year beginning on or after January 1, 2021, but registrants may voluntarily comply immediately.

The United States Congress is intensifying efforts to increase domestic mining and processing of strategic minerals. The American Critical Minerals Exploration and Innovation Act now moving through Congress would allocate more than $2 billion over a 10-year period to research and development of strategic minerals. The proposed legislation also aims to streamline the mine permit review process.

The legislation comes on the heels of several efforts during the Trump administration to focus on strategic minerals. Pursuant to Executive Order 13817, President Trump outlined a federal policy to reduce the countrys dependency on the importation of minerals considered critical to the security and prosperity of the United States. He directed the Secretary of the Interior, in coordination with the Department of Defense and other executive branch agencies, to identify such critical minerals based on the following criteria: (i) a non-fuel mineral or mineral material essential to the economic and national security of the United States, (ii) the supply chain of which is vulnerable to disruption, and (iii) that serves an essential function in the manufacturing of a product, the absence of which would have significant consequences for our economy or our national security. On May 18, 2018, the Department of the Interior published the final list of critical minerals which includes uranium. Final List of Critical Minerals 2018, 83 Fed. Reg. 23,295 (May 18, 2018).

The Executive Order further directed implementation of the critical mineral policy to: (a) identify new sources of critical minerals; (b) increase activity at all levels of the supply chain, including exploration, mining, concentration, separation, alloying, recycling, and reprocessing of critical minerals; (c) ensure that miners and producers have electronic access to the most advanced topographic, geologic, and geophysical data within the U.S. territory to the extent permitted by law; and (d) streamline leasing and permitting processes to expedite exploration, production, processing, reprocessing, recycling, and domestic refining of critical minerals.

In order to conduct reconnaissance, miners must demonstrate that they hold a right to access the minerals. Such rights may be based on fee ownership, lease or contracting of privately owned minerals, or through locations, leases, or contracts of federal and/or state-owned mineral. Where the surface and minerals have been severed, surface access rights may need to be demonstrated as well.

The General Mining Law of 1872 (GML), 30 U.S.C. 2154, 611615, as amended, is the principal law governing locatable minerals on federal lands. The GML affords US citizens the opportunity to explore for, discover and purchase certain valuable mineral deposits on federal lands open for mineral entry. Locatable minerals include non-metallic minerals (fluorspar, mica, certain limestones and gypsum, tantalum, heavy minerals in placer form, and gemstones) and metallic minerals including gold, silver, lead, copper, zinc, and nickel. Locating these mineral deposits entitles the locator to certain possessory interests: unpatented mining claims, which provide the locator an exclusive possessory interest in surface and subsurface lands and the right to develop the minerals; and patented mining claims, which pass title from the federal Government to the locator, converting the property to private land. However, a mining patent moratorium has been in place since 1994 and no new patents are being issued. The GML affords US citizens the opportunity to explore for, discover and purchase certain valuable mineral deposits on federal lands open for mineral entry. The process for developing locatable mineral rights on federal lands involves:

The Materials Disposal Act of 1947, 30 U.S.C. 601615, as amended, provides for the disposal of common minerals found on federal lands, including, but not limited to, cinders, clay, gravel, pumice, sand or stone, or other materials used for agriculture, animal husbandry, building, abrasion, construction, landscaping and similar uses. These minerals may be sold through competitive bids, non-competitive bids in certain circumstances or through free use by Government entities and non-profit entities.

The Mineral Lands Leasing Act of 1920, 30 U.S.C. 181287, as amended, establishes a prospecting permit and leasing system for all deposits of coal, phosphate, sodium, potassium, oil, gas, oil shale, and gilsonite on lands owned by the United States, including National Forests. In addition, sulphur deposits found on public lands in Louisiana and New Mexico are leasable, as are geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources, uranium, and hardrock mineral resources. These same deposits found in some acquired federal lands, including acquired forest lands, are leasable.

Acquired lands are those obtained by the federal Government from private owners through purchase, condemnation, or gift, or by exchange. These lands are not subject to location. However, the Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands of 1947, 30 U.S.C. 351360, authorises the leasing of coal, phosphate, oil and gas, oil shale, sodium, potassium, and sulphur found in acquired lands. Leasing is also allowed for those minerals that would be considered locatable if found on the public domain, as well as geothermal resources.

Areas designated as national parks, national monuments, most Reclamation Act project areas, military reservations, wilderness areas, and wild and scenic river corridors are generally not open to mining locations and leases. Project proponents should research mineral access when considering exploration activities on federal lands.

Prospecting and mining are prohibited after an area is incorporated into the National Park System; rights acquired prior to an areas inclusion into the system may remain valid if properly located and maintained, but will be subject to control of the National Park Service which regulates use of privately owned reserved and other mineral interests on lands within the boundaries of the National Park System in addition to controlling surface and subsurface uses of both patented and unpatented claims.

States have the authority to lease, sell, exchange, or otherwise manage state-owned mineral lands pursuant to constitutional or statutory provisions, and as regulated by state boards or officers, through either a single agency or a combination of agencies. Leasing is the most common method of obtaining mining rights on state mineral land. A few states provide for both mining claims and permits, while others allow prospecting rights under mineral leases. Some require neither. The purpose is to generally allow the applicant to obtain an exclusive right to explore untested or undeveloped ground while giving the state some control over mineral activities. Once minerals of value are located and described, the applicant typically obtains a preferred right to a mineral lease. In some instances, competitive bidding is required.

The Mineral Lands Leasing Act of 1920, 30 U.S.C. 181287, as amended, provides US citizens the opportunity to obtain a prospecting permit or lease for coal, gas, gilsonite, oil, oil shale, phosphate, potassium, and sodium deposits on federal lands. The process for obtaining a permit or lease involves filing an application with the federal agency office with jurisdiction over the affected land. Depending on the type of permit or lease applied for, applicants may be required to:

The GML requires that mine claimants, permittees and lessees must be US citizens. A citizen can include a US-incorporated entity that is wholly owned by non-US entities or corporations. There generally are no restrictions on foreign acquisition of these types of US mining rights through parent-subsidiary corporate structures. The Mineral Lands Leasing Act, Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands and Reorganization Plan No. 3 require that the holder of a mineral lease or prospecting permit must be a citizen of the United States. 30 U.S.C. 181, 352; 43 C.F.R. 3502.10(a). Corporations organised under the laws of the United States or any state or territory of the US may qualify to hold leases or prospecting permits. While foreign persons are permitted to be shareholders, the citizenship of the shareholders is significant. The country of citizenship of each shareholder must be a country that does not deny similar or like privileges to U.S. citizens. 30 U.S.C. 181 (such countries are referred to as non-reciprocal countries). Disclosure of foreign ownership is not required unless it meets the 10% threshold. 43 C.F.R. 3502.30(b). Therefore, even foreign stockholders from non-reciprocal countries may own less than 10%.

While the GML does not specifically mention corporate eligibility, the requirement of proof of citizenship refers to a corporation organised under the laws of the United States or any state or territory thereof and an association of persons unincorporated. These requirements have generally been interpreted to mean that for a corporation, it is the jurisdiction of formation that determines its citizenship, but for unincorporated associations such as partnerships and limited liability companies the entity is disregarded, and the associations members need to satisfy the citizenship requirement. The interest in mining claims by a person or entity not qualified by citizenship is voidable by the United States, rather than void, and such defects may be corrected by conveying the interest to a qualified holder.

Foreign investments are subject to US national security laws. The Committee on Foreign Investment in the US, for example, is an inter-agency committee chaired by the Secretary of the Treasury that has authority to review foreign investments to protect national security and make recommendations to the President to block the same. 50 U.S.C. 4565. The President may exercise this authority if the President finds that the foreign interest might take action impairing national security and other provisions of the law do not provide the President with appropriate authority to act to protect national security. 50 U.S.C. 4565(d)(4).

Foreign employees are governed by general US immigration laws and are required to obtain a work visa or other authorisation. A limited number of visas are available for skilled workers, professionals and non-skilled workers, but these workers must be performing work for which qualified US workers are not available. 8 U.S.C. 1153(b)(3)(C).

The GML does not contain change of control restrictions. Mineral leases and contracts may contain change of control restrictions by their terms. A change of control in the holder of a lease, licence or permit may require federal and state agency approval depending on the type of right involved.

There are no restrictions or limitations on the sale, import, or export of extracted or processed minerals, unless such minerals are deemed a national security risk by the US Department of Homeland Security or State Department. For example, projects involving the export of particular minerals, such as uranium or rare earth elements, can be subject to greater scrutiny when foreign companies are involved.

Privately held mineral rights and the rights to conduct reconnaissance, exploration and mining on such rights may be subdivided among numerous parties. Rights to conduct such operations on federal and state mineral interests are governed by the instruments conveying such rights and may or may not permit subdivision.

Generally, the holder of a mining claim or lease for a primary mineral is entitled to extract from a claim/lease those associated minerals or secondary minerals which may be economically recovered along with the primary mineral(s), unless the Government or private mineral interest owner has expressly reserved such minerals to itself.

Generally, the holder of a mining claim or lease may exercise rights over residue deposits on the land concerned. However, certain residue deposits may be subject to ownership by another party and may not be contemplated by a mining lease or other mineral rights instrument.

Yes. There are special federal and state rules relating to offshore exploration and mining, depending on whether exploration and mining are taking place in state-owned or federal waters. Generally, the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 43 U.S.C. 1331, et seq., provides the US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) with authority to manage minerals on the US outer continental shelf. Minerals may be offered for lease by the BOEM in accordance with federal regulations at 30 C.F.R. Parts 580582.

Upon making a discovery of valuable minerals, the locator of a federal mining claim receives the exclusive right of possession and enjoyment of all veins, lodes, and ledges throughout their entire depth which have apexes within the mining claim. The locator also receives the exclusive right to possess all surface areas within the claim for mining purposes, but the United States retains the right to manage the surface of the property for other purposes. A locators possessory rights are considered vested property rights in real property with full attributes and benefits of ownership exercisable against third parties, and these rights may be sold, transferred and mortgaged.

Holders of federal and state mineral leases and contracts may obtain surface access rights under the terms of the instrument, but in some instances additional access rights may have to be obtained through rights-of-way regulations.

Split-estate lands are lands where the ownership of the surface estate and mineral estate have been severed. In such instances, surface rights may have been granted to private parties, with the minerals reserved to the United States. Even where surface and mineral interests are in private ownership, these interests may be held by different parties. When surface rights and mineral rights are owned by different parties, the mineral rights owner (or lessee or locator) has the legal right to use as much of the surface as is reasonably necessary to mineral development. However, the mineral estate owner must show due regard for the interest of the surface estate owner. In such cases, the mineral rights holder must comply with notice requirements and other state and federal requirements that protect the surface owner, including submission of an adequate bond for reclamation.

Those projects that require NEPA review will be subject to public notice and comment requirements and the review will involve consideration of the projects cultural, societal and economic impacts. State and local permitting processes also may require applicants to secure public input. State laws may impose a public interest standard for projects requiring state approval. For example, mining operations that require state water rights may need to show that the use of the water is in the public interest, which may include consideration of wildlife, fisheries and aquatic habitat values.

As discussed in question 8.1, the law governing split estates requires both the mineral estate owner and the surface estate owner to proceed with due regard for the other, and to accommodate the use of the other. The mineral rights owner is generally entitled to use as much of the surface and subsurface as is reasonably necessary to exploit its interest in the minerals, but this entitlement must be balanced against the surface owners right to use his property. Federal and state legislation has granted additional protections to surface owners, which may include notice and consent requirements, bonding for reclamation, and the payment of damages for surface destruction.

There is little risk of expropriation of mining operations by Government seizure or political unrest. Rights may only be expropriated following due process and payment of due compensation to the holder.

NEPA is the principal environmental law implicated by mining on federal lands. NEPA requires federal agencies to take a hard look at the environmental consequences of its projects before action is taken. An agency must prepare an EIS for all major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. An agency may first prepare an EA to determine whether the effects are significant. If the effects are significant, the agency must prepare the more comprehensive EIS. If the effects are insignificant, the agency generally will issue a finding of no significant impact, ending the process. NEPA does not dictate a substantive outcome; however, the analysis generally requires consideration of other substantive environmental statutes and regulations, such as those identified in the response to question 1.3 above. NEPA is administered by the federal agency making the decision that may significantly affect the environment.

Mining projects on federal lands, or that otherwise have a federal nexus, will likely have to go through some level of NEPA environmental review. State laws may also require environmental analysis. Where analysis is required by different agencies, it may be possible to pursue an agreement among the agencies to allow the operator to produce one comprehensive environmental review document that all agencies can rely on.

There is no statutory deadline for federal agencies to complete their NEPA review. Small mine project reviews may take in excess of a year to complete. Larger project reviews likely will take longer. Third parties may sue the federal agency completing the review to ensure that the agency considered all relevant factors and had a rational basis for the decisions made based on the facts found. Prosecuting the litigation would extend the project approval time, and if the agency loses, additional time would be required for the agency to redo its flawed NEPA analysis. In some instances where mines were proposed in especially sensitive areas, it has taken decades to obtain approval.

The Clean Air Act regulates air emissions from stationary and mobile sources. The Clean Air Act is administered by the Environmental Protection Agency and states with delegated authority. The Clean Water Act regulates pollutant discharges into the waters of the US, including the territorial seas. 33 U.S.C. 1311(a). The Clean Water Act is administered by the Environmental Protection Agency, US Army Corps of Engineers, and states with delegated authority. The Endangered Species Act requires federal agencies to ensure their actions are not likely to jeopardise the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or destroy or adversely modify designated critical habitat and prohibits the unauthorised taking of such species. The US Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service administer the Endangered Species Act.

Additional environmental statutes that may impact mining are identified in the response to question 1.3 above. States also have a wide range of environmental laws that govern permitting and reclamation on mining projects.

A variety of federal and state laws govern the storage of tailings and other waste products on mining operations and for the closure of mines. In general, a mine plan must provide a detailed description of how the mine operations will comply with such requirements.

FLPMA requires BLM and USFS to prevent unnecessary or undue degradation of public lands. 43 U.S.C. 1732(b). Casual- use hardrock mining operations on BLM lands that will result in no, or negligible, surface disturbance do not require any reclamation planning. Notice-level exploration operations requiring less than five acres of surface disturbance must meet BLM reclamation standards and provide financial guarantees that the reclamation will occur. 43 C.F.R. 3809.320, 3809.500(b). Plan-level operations require a plan of operations that includes a detailed reclamation plan for closure. 43 C.F.R. 3809.11, 3809.401. BLM reclamation standards for closure generally include saving topsoil for reshaping disturbed areas, erosion and water control measures, toxic materials measures, reshaping and re-vegetation where reasonably practicable, and rehabilitation of fish and wildlife habitat. 43 C.F.R. 3809.420. Mining in BLM wilderness study areas additionally requires that surface disturbances be reclaimed to the point of being substantially unnoticeable in the area as a whole. 43 C.F.R. 3802.0-5(d).

Mining activities on National Forest lands must be conducted so as to minimise adverse environmental impacts on National Forest System surface resources. 36 C.F.R. 228.1. Operators must take measures that will prevent or control on-site and off-site damage to the environment and forest surface resources, including erosion control, water run-off control, toxic materials control, reshaping and re-vegetation where reasonably practicable, and rehabilitation of fish and wildlife habitat. 36 C.F.R. 228.8(g). State laws may also include closure and reclamation requirements, including, for example, water and air pollution controls, re-contouring and re-vegetation, fish and wildlife protections, and reclamation bonding requirements. Mining projects can often address both federal and state requirements through a single closure and reclamation plan and financial guarantee.

Federal and state laws generally require financial guarantees prior to commencing operations to cover closure and reclamation costs. These reclamation bonds ensure that the regulatory authorities will have sufficient funds to reclaim the mine site if the permittee fails to complete the reclamation plan approved in the permit.

Individual counties and municipalities may impose certain zoning requirements on lands subject to their jurisdiction, including prohibitions on mining in certain areas and designations of specific areas for mining.

The US contains numerous reservations comprised of federal lands set aside by treaty, Congressional Act or administrative directive for specific Native American tribes or Alaska natives. Tribal reservation title generally is held by the US in trust for the tribes, and the US Bureau of Indian Affairs administers the reservations. Alaska native lands are owned and administered by Alaska native corporations. Mineral development within the tribal reservations and Alaska native lands requires negotiation with the appropriate administrator, leases with tribes for tribally-owned mineral rights and tribal consent for access rights. Tribes also may acquire land in fee by purchase as any private party. Reservations may contain inholdings of private or Government-owned surface and mineral interests. Therefore, title to a particular parcel of lands within reservation boundaries is important to understanding the complex jurisdictional issues that may impact mining.

Tribal cultural interests are considered through NEPA and two specific laws. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), 54 U.S.C. 300101, et seq., requires an analysis that includes social and cultural impacts, and may require tribal consultation. Section 106 of NHPA requires federal agencies to inventorise historic properties on federal lands and lands subject to federal permitting, and to consult with interested parties and the State Historic Preservation Office. 54 U.S.C. 306108. The Native Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, 25 U.S.C. 30013013, imposes procedural requirements that apply to inadvertent discovery and intentional excavation of tribal graves and cultural items on federal or tribal lands. Locatable minerals found on American Indian reservations are subject to lease only. Under the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982, 25 U.S.C. 21012108, tribes may enter private negotiations with mineral developers for exploration and extraction, subject to the Interior Secretarys approval. Tribes also may assert off-reservation rights for fishing and hunting if such rights have been granted by treaty or otherwise, and such rights may impact mining even where operations are not on tribally-owned lands.

The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act, 30 U.S.C. 801966, requires the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) to inspect all mines each year to ensure safe and healthy work environments. 30 U.S.C. 813. MSHA is prohibited from giving advance notice of an inspection, and may enter mine property without a warrant. 30 U.S.C. 813. MSHA regulations set out detailed safety and health standards for preventing hazardous and unhealthy conditions, including measures addressing fire prevention, air quality, explosives, aerial tramways, electricity use, personal protection, illumination and others. See, e.g., 30 C.F.R. 56.156.20014 (safety and health standards for surface metal and non-metal mines). MSHA regulations also establish requirements for: testing, evaluating, and approving mining products; miner and rescue team training programmes; and notification of accidents, injuries, and illnesses at the mine. 30 C.F.R. 5.1036.50, 46.149.60, 50.10.

Mining has been deemed one of 16 critical infrastructure sectors identified by the US Department of Homeland Securitys Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Agency, citing the mining industrys role in critical manufacturing and the production of medical equipment. As such, mining operations have not been required to shut down operations in light of state and local closure requirements. However, MSHA has issued a directive indicating that it will abide by the Presidents Coronavirus Guidelines for Americans which are based on the Center for Disease Control Interim Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health Management of Persons with Potential Coronavirus Disease 2019. Additional state and local requirements may impact mining operations. Because MSHA does not have jurisdiction to enforce or implement state and local Governments emergency orders, mining companies are required to consult with such Governments to ensure compliance with workplace requirements.

On June 4, 2020, President Trump issued Executive Order 13927, Accelerating the Nations Economic Recovery from the COVID-19 Emergency by Expediting Infrastructure Investments and Other Activities, 85 Fed. Reg. 35165, which authorises federal agencies to invoke their emergency authorities to expedite transportation, defence and other infrastructure project approvals that would otherwise be subject to lengthy environmental review. The mining industry is likely to benefit from expedited permitting of infrastructure projects. However, environmental groups have indicated they will challenge projects approved pursuant to the order.

No. Land and mineral title records are kept in the Government office having jurisdiction over the mining rights (e.g., the BLM) and in the real property records of each county in which the property is located. All relevant sources must be consulted to determine title.

The US Constitution and federal laws are the supreme law of the land, generally pre-empting conflicting state and local laws. In many legal areas, the different authorities have concurrent jurisdiction, requiring regulated entities to comply with multiple levels of regulation. Mining on federal lands, for example, is generally subject to multiple layers of concurrent federal, state, and local statutes and administrative regulations.

Many international treaties of general application apply to mining industry investment by foreign persons into the United States, but none specifically address investment in the mining industry or trading in various minerals. See the response to question 15.2.

There are no federal taxes specific to minerals extraction. General federal, state, county and municipal taxes apply to mining companies, including income taxes, payroll taxes, sales taxes, property taxes and use taxes.

Federal tax laws generally do not distinguish between domestic and foreign mining operators. However, if a non-US citizen acquires real property, the buyer must deposit 10% of the sales price in cash with the US Internal Revenue Service as insurance against the sellers income tax liability. The cash requirement can be problematic for a cash-strapped buyer that may have purchased the mine property with stock.

Locatable minerals claimants must pay an annual maintenance fee of $165 per claim in lieu of performing assessment work required pursuant to the GML and FLPMA. 43 C.F.R. 3834.11(a), 3830.21. Failure to perform assessment work or pay a maintenance fee will open the claim to relocation by a rival claimant as if no location had been made. 43 C.F.R. 3836.15. Certain waivers and deferments apply.

Leasable minerals permittees and lessees must pay annual rent based on acreage. The rental rates differ by mineral and some rates increase over time. 43 C.F.R. 3504.15. Prospecting permits automatically terminate if rent is not paid on time; the BLM will notify late lessees that they have 30 days to pay. 43 C.F.R. 3504.17. State laws may also include closure and reclamation requirements, including water and air pollution controls, re-contouring and re-vegetation, fish and wildlife protections, and reclamation bonding requirements. Mining projects can often address both federal and state requirements through a single closure and reclamation plan and financial guarantee. Local Governments may require that transfer taxes be paid upon the recording of a conveyance of mining properties.

There are generally no royalties levied on the extraction of federally owned locatable minerals under the GLO. However, mineral leases generally carry royalty obligations. Many states, however, charge royalties on mineral operations on state-owned lands and taxes that function like a royalty on all lands, such as severance taxes, mine licence taxes, or resource excise taxes. These functional royalties can differ depending on land ownership and the minerals extracted.

As noted above, state and local Governments have concurrent or independent authority over certain aspects of mining projects (e.g. permitting, water rights and access authorisations). Ownership of state-owned land and minerals is controlled by state law and varies by state. State laws generally are similar to federal laws in that title remains with the state until the minerals are severed pursuant to statutory procedures. State and local laws may impose a public interest standard for projects requiring state approval. State laws also include permitting requirements and closure and reclamation requirements, including, for example, water and air pollution controls, re-contouring and re-vegetation, fish and wildlife protections, and reclamation bonding requirements. Local permits may be required for certain operations, e.g., truck haulage. Many state laws require financial guarantees prior to commencing operations to cover closure and reclamation costs. In addition, some states charge royalties on mineral operations on state-owned lands and impose taxes that function like a royalty on all lands, such as severance taxes, mine licence taxes, or resource excise taxes. Local zoning laws may prohibit or limit mining in certain areas.

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) among the US, Canada and Mexico, in Chapter 11, required equal treatment between the NAFTA countrys own citizens and those from another NAFTA country, and required that the NAFTA country protect those investors and their investments. Among the most important protections were the broad prohibitions on expropriation of the investors rights, including a prohibition on the NAFTA country implementing measures tantamount to expropriation except in accordance with approved criteria, and requiring payment of compensation resulting from losses incurred by the investor. In November 2018, the three countries executed a new agreement, called the United StatesMexicoCanada Agreement (USMCA), to replace NAFTA. The USMCA entered into force in July 2020, and includes more enforceable labour and environmental standards, intellectual property protections and a new chapter on the digital economy.

Under the GML, rights in unpatented mining claims can be abandoned voluntarily or by non-payment of annual maintenance fees. Minerals leased under federal law (energy minerals such as coal), minerals owned by states, and minerals owned by private entities can only be abandoned in accordance with the terms of the lease or other grant from the mineral owner to the holder of the right to develop the minerals. All such abandonments are subject to reclamation and closure requirements.

Under the GML, there is no obligation to relinquish an exploration or mining right after a certain period of time. The terms of federal mineral leases, state mineral leases or private leases generally set the term limits of mining rights, but may permit rights to continue past an initial or extended term as long as minerals are continuing to be produced and sold.

Under the GML, unpatented mining claims may be cancelled for failure to pay annual maintenance fees, or, in some instances, the federal Government can challenge the validity of unpatented mining claims for failure to make a valid discovery of a valuable mineral. The terms of federal, state and private leases often contain default provisions allowing cancellation upon failure to comply with conditions of the lease.

The write up is extremely useful as it offers a bird’s eye view of different jurisdictions. The comparative tool is remarkable. Thank you for an amazing initiative. Ms V.Sewlal - Master of the North Gauteng High Court

fluorspar beneficiation process plant

fluorspar beneficiation process plant

Acid grade fluorspar which is in great demand by the chemical and aluminum industries, must contain at least 97.5% CaF2 with not more than 1.5% SiO2 and 0.5% Fe2O3. Often the Silica is limited to 1.2% with penalties starting at 1.0% SiO2. These limitations on grade and impurities require extremely close mill control, particularly through flotation where selectivity and high recovery is essential.

Over 95% of all acid grade fluorspar is processed by flotation through Sub-A (Fluorspar Type) Flotation machines. These machines, of the cell to cell type, are designed special for fluorspar with a high degree of flexibility essential for selectivity and multiple cleaning of concentrate. Middlings and clean tailings often must be completely isolated from the separate cleaning steps and diverted to the proper part in the milling circuit for most economical and efficient retreatment.

The flowsheet illustrated above is typical for the average Sub-A Fluorspar Flotation mill treating up to 100 tons of mine run ore per 24 hour day. Actual flotation conditions and equipment requirements should always be determined by having a comprehensive test made on the ore before proceeding with any fluorspar operation. Fluorspar ores may be quite complex, particularly when associated with lead and zinc sulphides, barite, calcite, iron oxide, and siliceous impurities. For this reason, a laboratory flotation test should be the first step in establishing a flowsheet.

For the average small mill treating up to 100 tons of ore a day, primary crushing is usually adequate and very economical. Larger tonnage will require primary and secondary crushing for maximum efficiency in size reduction and subsequent ball milling.

Fluorspar ores usually require grinding to 48 or 65 mesh to liberate the calcium fluoride from the gangue impurities. Ball mill grinding with a Steel Head Ball Mill in closed circuit with classifier is the general practice. In larger plants, particularly when fine grinding is necessary, thickening of the classifier overflow is necessary to maintain proper density and feed regulation to flotation. This thickening step on fluorspar ores containing sulphides is usually between the sulphide and fluorspar flotation circuits. Reagents used for selective flotation of lead and zinc then can be rejected in the thickener overflow water.

Normally, conditioning at mill temperature willthoroughly film the fluorspar with reagent and makeit readily amenable to separation and recovery by flotation. Heating the pulp, even up to the boiling point,is often advantageous.

AnAgitator and Conditioner is ideal for fluorspar conditioning as circulation is positive and thorough reagentizing with a minimum amount of reagent is assured. Any frothing tendency is dissipated in the pulp through the stand pipe and adjustable froth collar.

Flotation of fluorspar must be extremely selective when producing acid grade concentrate. This selectivity is essential as the ratio of concentration is low, often up to 80% or more of the entire tonnage, and must be floated in the rough circuit. Cleaning by two or more stages of flotation must bring the rougher product up to acid grade and at the same time retain a high weight recovery with a minimum circulating load.

The Sub-A Flotation machine, the accepted standard in all fluorspar flotation plants, has been adapted specially for fluorspar treatment with provision for multi-stage cleaning and recirculation of middling products without the need of auxiliary pumps. Cleaner tailings may be conveniently removed at any point in the circuit. The flowsheet on the reverse side of this page shows one of the many possible cell arrangements used in treating fluorspar ore.

Thickening of fluorspar concentrates offers no special problem. Thickener capacity, however, should be adequate to handle the tonnage and have ample storage capacity during possible interruption in the filtering and drying sections. Fluorspar flotation froth has a tendency to build up on the thickener surface, but this can be taken care of by retaining rings near the overflow lip and by sprays so only clear water overflows the thickener. Thickened concentrates at 50 to 60% solids is removed by a Adjustable Stroke Diaphragm Pump, feeding by gravity to the filter.

Fluorspar is extremely rapid filtering even when ground fine, provided a non-blinding filter media is used. The rotary fluorspar type filter with stainless steel filter media, heavy duty oscillating mechanism, oversize valve and ports, and high displacement vacuum pump is standard for fluorspar flotation concentrates and will discharge a filter cake with as low as 6% moisture. In the event the filtrate is slightly turbid or contains solids, it should be diverted back to the thickener. For this reason a adjustable stroke diaphragm pump is often used in place of the conventional centrifugal filtrate pump.

Fluorspar flotation concentrates of acid grade must be dried to less than 0.5% moisture. Dust losses are kept to a minimum by providing a closed system with a cyclone to insure only vapor laden air discharging to the atmosphere. Enclosed screw conveyors, elevators and often air-born systems are used to transport the finely divided dried acid spar to the storage bins. Provisions should be made for handling efficiently the hot concentrate discharging from the dryer. The Standard Dryer is ideal for this purpose.

Fluorspar ores often contain appreciable amounts of sulphides in the form of galena, sphalerite, or both. These sulphides, when present, not only represent a valuable constituent of the ore, but also must be removed prior to fluorspar flotation to meet the market specifications for acid grade fluorspar.

If lead and zinc were present, the same flowsheet would apply to remove a bulk sulphide concentrate which could be subsequently refloated to produce the respective lead and zinc concentrates suitable for marketing.

The best approach to effectively produce separate lead and zinc concentrates should be established by test work. In some cases, selective flotation is indicated initially. This may be accomplished by removing a lead concentrate, then following this process by conditioning and flotation of the lead tailing to produce a zinc concentrate.

Conditioning of the classifier overflow is required if sulphidization is employed to effect flotation of oxidized lead. A second stage conditioning of the thickened lead tailing, after repulping with fresh water, is required for flotation of the fluorspar. Heating of the pulp at this point is often advantageous.

The lead and fluorspar are recovered by Flotation of the cell-to-cell type, permitting maximum recovery and grade of concentrate. Wide acceptance of machines is well verified when considering that over 95% of all acid grade fluorspar is processed in the Sub-A Flotation Machine. Flexibility of these machines is of prime importance where such high specifications must be met. Multiple cleaning, always necessary in acid grade fluorspar plants, can be performed without the help of pumps.

Both concentrates are thickened and filtered. The thickenedlead concentrate is filtered on the Disc Filter. Thickened fluorspar concentrate, at approximately 60% solids here, has a high filter capacity of approximately 2000 pounds per sq. ft. per 24 hours. The Fluorspar Filter with its stainless steel filter media, is especially designed for this application.

The Standard Dryer effectively dries the filtered fluorspar concentrate to less than 0.5% moisture, as required for marketing. An elevated temperature in the dryer can also be used to burn off small amounts of sulphur and lead.

A screw conveyor and bucket elevator as employed to transport the dried fluorspar to the concentrate storage bins. Bins can be conveniently discharged into rail road cars for shipment, while the filtered lead concentrate may be marketed as produced, without drying.

While many ores respond to the same general pattern of treatment, each ore is an individual problem.Such is the case of this fluorspar ore which is characterized by the presence of a portion of the fluorite inextremely close association with calcium carbonate andsilica and containing appreciable clay.

High acid grade fluorspar concentrates are difficult to obtain from this class of ores by flotation with an ordinary -65 mesh grind. The concentrates, in this study, are currently being used for production of hydrofluoric acid and synthetic cryolite. Market requirements demand that the calcium carbonate content be reduced to an absolute minimum. Moreover, the future productionnow in demand, is desirable. This study deals with a flowsheet designed to achieve high recovery of acid-grade fluorspar in an economical manner.

The typical fluorspar flotation flowsheet normally consists of stage grinding by ball mill in closed circuit with a mechanical classifier followed by conditioning of the pulp either with or without steam in the presence of reagents followed by Sub-A Flotation with three or more cleaning steps by reflotation. This particular ore does not, with the normal flowsheet, produce an acid grade concentrate of 97.5% CaF2 with less than 1.5% SiO2.

The ore being studied is crushed underground at the mine and partially beneficiated by the heavy media process. This washed ore is further crushed at the mill. Soda ash is added to the primary grinding mill which is in open circuit with a duplex Spiral Classifier. The classifier is in closed circuit with the secondary grinding mill and the classifier overflow, which is all 65 mesh, is pumped by a SRL Pump to the Conditioner where the following reagents are added:

Reagent Amount, Pounds per ton Na2Si03 (Optional) 0.2 Soda Ash 2.0 Oleic Acid up to 2.0 Quebracho 0.2

The conditions presented by this particular ore illustrate the importance of complete laboratory investigations as a great many different combinations of treatment were required to develop the final flowsheet. The deviations from the standard fluorspar flowsheet were first substantiated by locked cycle batch laboratory tests followed by a small tonnage pilot plant run to verify the laboratory results before final recommendations were made.

The rougher flotation circuit produces a final tailings while the rougher concentrate is subjected to the first cleaning stage. A 6 cell Sub A Flotation Machine, cell to cell type, is used for the rougher flotation and 6-cell Sub-A Flotation Machines are also used for the three cleaning steps.

Tailings from the first cleaners are pumped to a Morton 2-stage Cyclone for the removal of clay slimes. The ability to add clear water for washing in the classifier makes the Morton Cyclone particularly useful at this point in the flowsheet. The slimes go to final tailings and the cyclone sands, at high density, are reground in a Regrind Mill which is in closed circuit with a Hydro-Classifier. The regrind is to 325 mesh and the hydro-classifier overflow returns to the first cleaner cells for reflotation. Reagent sodium silicate is recommended to aid classification. Concentrates from the first cleaners go to the second cleaner cells where further up-grading takes place.

The middlings (tailings) from the second cleaner cells go to the hydro-classifier in the re-grind circuit. The concentrates from the second cleaners advance to the final cleaners. Tailings from the final cleaner cells are returned to the second cleaners and the final, high grade concentrates are filtered, dried and shipped to market.

The concentration of fluorspar ores for the production of acid grade concentrates is accomplished by the use of combinations of reagents such as pH regulators, depressant and fluorspar promoters. The reagents commonly used are as follows:

Factors of simplicity, initial low plant cost, together with flowsheet flexibility for maximum results on a difficult ore were basic considerations in the design of this 125-ton per day Fluorspar Flotation Mill. The design proved successful and accomplished the desired metallurgical results, with low capital expenditure and operating costs.

Following numerous laboratory tests, a flowsheet was developed that gives flexibility to handle the several types of fluorspar ores. Two stage open circuit crushing, with the average ore ground to 100 mesh,gives maximum results. Fine grained ores with some sulphides require secondary classification and a sulphide flotation stage. Due to character of most fluorspar ores heating the pulp gave improved results, and necessitated the installation of a boiler to provide hot dilution and make up flotation water for five stages of cleaning and recleaning. A Apron Feeder controls the feed from crude ore bin to jaw crusher while a wedge bar grizzly ahead of the jaw crusher removes the fines from the crusher feed. A 2x4 Dillon Screen removes the fines ahead of secondary crushing. An adjustable stroke ore feeder controls feed to the 5x8 Steel Head Ball Mill, and the spiral classifier discharge is pumped direct to flotation section or to hydroclassifier for secondary classification, depending on requirements.

The machinery was located for accessibility, ease of operation, minimum loss of floor space, resulting in reduced size of mill. The crude ore bin was constructed of natural timber on the site, on a steep slope, reducing expense of excavation and construction. An 8 clear opening rail grizzly prevented oversizegoing into bin.

The buildings for crushing section and mill are of light steel construction with corrugated sheet metal on walls and roof. The frame work and trusses lightweight for buildingsupport only and provided without insulation, because of mild climatic conditions. Account of heavy snowfalls the roof slopes are all of quarter pitch.

Launders on cleaning stages are made so that flows can be changed to regulate number of cells required, depending on the type ore being treated. Wood platforms and walkways of 2 spaced lumber are used in flotation sections, while piping between machines is carried below the floor.

All electric lighting and power wiring with ample reserve are in rigid conduit with flexible connections to motors; and motor controls are mounted on wall panels with stop and start push button stations located within sight or near each motor. Fluorescent lighting is provided over flotation section, as it gives operators better visual control of the flotation operation.The Rotary Dryer is lined with fire brick at discharge (burner) end.

With depletion of high-grade deposits, production must depend upon low-grade deposits that are highly contaminated with impurities which may be silica, calcite, barite, iron oxide, and sulphides such as pyrite, galena, and sphalerite, in close association. The flotation problem is largely one of impurity removal. The sulphide minerals are generally floatedfirst, and then the fluorite is floated from the silica, calcite, and other impurities.

Oleic acid or various mixtures of oleic and linoleic acids with soda ash and sodium silicate as silica depressant and slime controller, and quebracho to depress calcite, are the common reagents for fluorspar flotation. Sometimes pre-sulphide flotation with xanthate and a frother is necessary to remove sulphides and, often, heating the pulp to boiling temperature is advantageous in effectively depressing the silica, calcite and other associated minerals in the cleaning stages.

[/fusion_builder_column][fusion_builder_column type=1_1 background_position=left top background_color= border_size= border_color= border_style=solid spacing=yes background_image= background_repeat=no-repeat padding= margin_top=0px margin_bottom=0px class= id= animation_type= animation_speed=0.3 animation_direction=left hide_on_mobile=no center_content=no min_height=none]Geology-Where-are-Fluorspar-Deposits

This report is the fourth in a Bureau of Mines series describing the sodium fluoride-lignin sulfonate-fatty acid process of froth flotation separation of fluorspar from complex ores containing fluorspar, barite, calcite, and quartz which was developed and patented by Clemmer and Clemmons of the Bureau of Mines. At the Tucson (Ariz.) Metallurgy Research Laboratory the ores of Arizona were studied; and at the Tuscaloosa (Ala.) Metallurgy Research Center, the ores of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Illinois were studied.

The sodium fluoride-lignin sulfonate-fatty acid process is applicable to a variety of ores of different grades and mineral association for recovery of fluorspar from associated gangue materials; it has been shown to be practicable in continuous pilot plant operation as well as laboratory-scale flotation tests. This report deals with the application of the process to a complex calcareous fluorspar ore from Illinois and presents the results of laboratory batch flotation tests and continuous pilot plant flotation tests for recovery of the fluorspar in the ore.

The largest use of fluorspar is in the production of hydrofluoric acid in which no satisfactory substitute for acid-grade fluorspar is known. A prospective new outlet for hydrofluoric acid is in its addition to the oxidizer of the Atlas rocket, which will significantly increase the booster performance. The second major use of fluorspar is as a flux in the manufacture of basic open hearth and basic electric furnace steels in which no suitable materials are available to replace metallurgical-grade fluorspar, A third use of fluorspar is in the manufacture of glass and ceramic products. The specifications and prices of the various grades of fluorspar are listed in appendix A.

The complex fluorspar ore used in the investigation was from the fluorspar district near Cave-in-Rock, III. ; a 14-ton sample of ore was obtained from the Minerva Co. Crystal mine located about 5 miles west of Cave-in-Rock.

Petrographic examination showed that about 38 percent of the fluorspar reporting to the minus 48- plus 65-mesh fraction contained inclusions and that about 24 percent of the fluorspar was locked in the minus 325- plus 400-mesh fraction. However, the carbonate and quartz crystals locked in the fluorspar mineral were extremely small; in a concentrate analyzing 98.0 percent CaF2, 30 percent of the fluorspar grains were locked. The petrographic analysis revealed that no appreciable benefit to mineral liberation would be achieved by crushing finer than 65 mesh.

The primary carbonate in the ore was calcite with a considerable quantity of dolomite. The silica present was reported as quartz. Other materials consisted of 1.3 percent sphalerite and minor amounts of barite and galena. A chemical analysis of the sample is shown in table 1.

Samples of the ore were prepared for flotation by dry crushing to minus 10 mesh followed by wet stage grinding to minus 65 mesh in a laboratory pebble mill, using Tuscaloosa city tap water that had about 45 parts per million equivalent calcium carbonate total hardness. Prior to flotation, the ground ore pulp was treated, at about 40 percent solids, in a mechanically agitated flotation cell with conditioning reagents and then with a collector. A rougher fluorspar concentrate was floated off and cleaned six times.

A series of preliminary flotation tests was made of the ore to determine the quantities of sodium fluoride and calcium lignin sulfonate necessary to produce the maximum recovery and grade of fluorspar. The quantities of sodium fluoride and calcium lignin sulfonate were varied from 2.0 to 8.0 pounds per ton of ore; the quantity of oleic acid was held constant at 0.48 pound per ton of ore. The grade of fluorspar concentrate was increased with the dosages of sodium fluoride and calcium lignin sulfonate and leveled off at 5.0 pounds per ton. The summarized results of flotation tests made to determine the effect of varying the quantities of sodium fluoride and lignin sulfonate are given in table 2.

The laboratory batch flotation studies were continued to determine the optimum quantity of collector needed to obtain the maximum grade and recovery of fluorspar. The pulp was conditioned (1) with 5.0 pounds of sodium fluoride per ton of ore. to disperse the pulp and clean up the mineral faces, (2) with 5.0 pounds of calcium lignin sulfonate per ton of ore to coat the surfaces of the gangue particles and render them hydrophilic, and (3) with various quantities of sodium oleate, as a collectors to concentrate the fluorspar. In most instances an acid-grade fluorspar concentrate was obtained. The rougher concentrate contained 94.3 percent of the total fluorspar in the ore at a collector dosage of 0.30 pound per ton of ore, but the mineral particles did not adsorb enough collector to sustain their flotation during the six cleaning stages. About 0.50 pound of collector per ton of ore appeared to be the optimum dosage; the grade and recovery of fluorspar were essentially constant with larger quantities. This indicated that large quantities of sodium oleate were adsorbed by the fluorspar mineral and not by the gangue materials. The summarized results of these tests are shown in table 3.

Another series of tests was made using various quantities of oleic acid as the collector while maintaining the quantities of sodium fluoride and calcium lignin sulfonate at 5.0 pounds per ton of ore. The tests revealed that the oleic acid was as selective as the sodium oleate in producing acid-grade fluorspar concentrates ; however, the fluorspar recovery was somewhat lower with the oleic acid because it did not disperse, as well. The optimum amount of oleic acid was 0.48 pound per ton of ore. The summarized results of these tests are shown in table 4.

Additional laboratory batch flotation tests were made using the data obtained in determining the optimum quantities of reagent. The minus 65-mesh pulp was conditioned at about 40 percent solids in a mechanically agitated flotation cell for 5 minutes with 5.0 pounds each of sodium fluoride and calcium lignin sulfonate per ton of ore for dispersion of pulp and retardation of gangue minerals. Sodium oleate, 0.5 pound per ton of ore, was then added as a collector; conditioning was continued for another 5 minutes. The rougher concentrate was floated and refloated (cleaned) six times to remove gangue minerals. A concentrate analyzing 97.8 percent CaF2 and accounting for a fluorspar recovery of 84,5 percent was obtained. The results of a selected test are presented in tables 5 and 6.

Based on the results of the laboratory batch tests, a continuous pilot plant with a capacity of about 150 pounds of dry feed per hour was assembled. The process included grinding, classification, conditioning, and flotation, as shown by figure 1.

The ore was reduced by jaw and roll crushers in closed circuit to minus 3/8 inch and stored in a bin. From the bin it was transferred by a constant-weight feeder to a rod mill operated at 60 percent solids. The rod mill operated in closed circuit with a vibrating screen to grind the ore to minus 65 mesh. The screen undersize (minus 65-mesh) passed to a hydroseparator for

removal of colloidal slimes. The hydroseparator overflow represented about 1.5 percent of the weight of the ore and a loss of less than 1 percent of the total fluorspar. The hydroseparator underflow, at about 40 percent solids, passed to a conditioner where sodium fluoride and calcium lignin sulfonate were added. The discharge from the first conditioner flowed to a second conditioner where oleic acid was added as the fluorspar collector. A retention time of about 9 minutes in each conditioner gave satisfactory results. The conditioned pulp then flowed to a bank of three rougher flotation cells where a rougher concentrate was floated. The rougher tailing flowed to a single cell operating as a scavenger to recover additional fluorspar. The froth from this cell was recycled to the last rougher cell; the tails flowed to waste. The rougher concentrate was cleaned nine times, and the middlings were circulated back to the first cleaner where they were removed and thickened in a bank of three hydrocyclones (parallel). The underflow from the hydrocyclones was sent to the first conditioner, and the overflow went to waste. An emulsion-type collector (made up of 17.7 parts oleic acid 1.3 parts sodium oleate, and 361.0 parts water) was added to the second rougher cell to aid the flotation of the fluorspar.

The summarized results of a continuous flotation test are given in tables 7 and 8. The final fluorspar concentrate analyzed 96.4 percent CaF2 , a recovery of 90.0 percent of the total fluorspar in the ore. About 7 percent of the fluorspar was lost in the overflow from the cyclones.

The fluorspar concentrate was slightly below the specifications for acid-grade fluorspar; however, it meets all specifications for high-quality ceramic-grade fluorspar. It was possible to obtain an acid-grade fluorspar by introducing additional cleaners into the circuit; however, there was some sacrifice in recovery.

The laboratory batch and continuous pilot plant flotation tests demonstrated that the sodium fluoride-calcium lignin sulfonate-fatty acid method for selective flotation of fluorspar from complex calcareous fluorspar ore is an effective and practical means of producing high-grade fluorspar concentrates.

The flotation of the fluorspar in a continuous test in which the middlings were removed from the circuit, thickened, and returned for further conditioning produced a fluorspar concentrate analyzing 96.4 percent calcium fluoride, a recovery of 90.0 percent of the fluorspar in the ore. The fluorspar concentrate produced from a deposit near Cave-in Rock, III., meets all specifications for high-quality ceramic-grade fluorspar.

fluorspar beneficiation,fluorspar beneficiation process plant,beneficiation of fluorspar ores,fluorspar beneficiationfluorspar beneficiation

fluorspar beneficiation,fluorspar beneficiation process plant,beneficiation of fluorspar ores,fluorspar beneficiationfluorspar beneficiation

Acid grade fluorspar which is in great demand by the chemical and aluminum industries, must contain at least 97.5% CaF2with not more than 1.5% SiO2and 0.5% Fe2O3. Often the Silica is limited to 1.2% with penalties starting at 1.0% SiO2. These limitations on grade and impurities require extremely close mill control, particularly through flotation where selectivity and high recovery is essential.

Over 95% of all acid grade fluorspar is processed by flotation through Sub-A (Fluorspar Type) Flotation machines. These machines, of the cell to cell type, are designed special for fluorspar with a high degree of flexibility essential for selectivity and multiple cleaning of concentrate. Middlings and clean tailings often must be completely isolated from the separate cleaning steps and diverted to the proper part in the milling circuit for most economical and efficient retreatment.

The flowsheet illustrated above is typical for the average Sub-A Fluorspar Flotation mill treating up to 100 tons of mine run ore per 24 hour day. Actual flotation conditions and equipment requirements should always be determined by having a comprehensive test made on the ore before proceeding with any fluorspar operation. Fluorspar ores may be quite complex, particularly when associated with lead and zinc sulphides, barite, calcite, iron oxide, and siliceous impurities. For this reason, a laboratory flotation testshould be the first step in establishing a flowsheet.

For the average small mill treating up to 100 tons of ore a day, primary crushing is usually adequate and very economical. Larger tonnage will require primary and secondary crushing for maximum efficiency in size reduction and subsequent ball milling.

Fluorspar ores usually require grinding to 48 or 65 mesh to liberate the calcium fluoride from the gangue impurities.Ball mill grinding with a Steel Head Ball Mill in closed circuit with classifier is the general practice. In larger plants, particularly when fine grinding is necessary, thickening of the classifier overflow is necessary to maintain proper density and feed regulation to flotation. This thickening step on fluorspar ores containing sulphides is usually between the sulphide and fluorspar flotation circuits. Reagents used for selective flotation of lead and zinc then can be rejected in the thickener overflow water.

Normally, conditioning at mill temperature willthoroughly film the fluorspar with reagent and makeit readily amenable to separation and recovery by flotation. Heating the pulp, even up to the boiling point,is often advantageous.

AnAgitator and Conditioner is ideal for fluorspar conditioning as circulation is positive and thorough reagentizing with a minimum amount of reagent is assured. Any frothing tendency is dissipated in the pulp through the stand pipe and adjustable froth collar.

Flotation of fluorspar must be extremely selective when producing acid grade concentrate. This selectivity is essential as the ratio of concentration is low, often up to 80% or more of the entire tonnage, and must be floated in the rough circuit. Cleaning by two or more stages of flotation must bring the rougher product up to acid grade and at the same time retain a high weight recovery with a minimum circulating load.

The Sub-A Flotation machine, the accepted standard in all fluorspar flotation plants, has been adapted specially for fluorspar treatment with provision for multi-stage cleaning and recirculation of middling products without the need of auxiliary pumps. Cleaner tailings may be conveniently removed at any point in the circuit. The flowsheet on the reverse side of this page shows one of the many possible cell arrangements used in treating fluorspar ore.

Thickening of fluorspar concentrates offers no special problem. Thickener capacity, however, should be adequate to handle the tonnage and have ample storage capacity during possible interruption in the filtering and drying sections. Fluorspar flotation froth has a tendency to build up on the thickener surface, but this can be taken care of by retaining rings near the overflow lip and by sprays so only clear water overflows the thickener. Thickened concentrates at 50 to 60% solids is removed by a Adjustable Stroke Diaphragm Pump, feeding by gravity to the filter.

Fluorspar is extremely rapid filtering even when ground fine, provided a non-blinding filter media is used. The rotary fluorspar type filter with stainless steel filter media, heavy duty oscillating mechanism, oversize valve and ports, and high displacement vacuum pump is standard for fluorspar flotation concentrates and will discharge a filter cake with as low as 6% moisture. In the event the filtrate is slightly turbid or contains solids, it should be diverted back to the thickener. For this reason a adjustable stroke diaphragm pump is often used in place of the conventional centrifugal filtrate pump.

Fluorspar flotation concentrates of acid grade must be dried to less than 0.5% moisture. Dust losses are kept to a minimum by providing a closed system with a cyclone to insure only vapor laden air discharging to the atmosphere. Enclosed screw conveyors, elevators and often air-born systems are used to transport the finely divided dried acid spar to the storage bins. Provisions should be made for handling efficiently the hot concentrate discharging from the dryer. The Standard Dryer is ideal for this purpose.

Fluorspar ores often contain appreciable amounts of sulphides in the form of galena, sphalerite, or both. These sulphides, when present, not only represent a valuable constituent of the ore, but also must be removed prior to fluorspar flotation to meet the market specifications for acid grade fluorspar.

If lead and zinc were present, the same flowsheet would apply to remove a bulk sulphide concentrate which could be subsequently refloated to produce the respective lead and zinc concentrates suitable for marketing.

The best approach to effectively produce separate lead and zinc concentrates should be established by test work. In some cases, selective flotation is indicated initially. This may be accomplished by removing a lead concentrate, then following this process by conditioning and flotation of the lead tailing to produce a zinc concentrate.

The Selective Mineral Jig may be utilized to recover galena in this circuit. Presence of oxidized lead in the ore is overcome to a great extent by removing it at a relatively coarse size, in the jig.

Conditioning of the classifier overflow is required if sulphidization is employed to effect flotation of oxidized lead. A second stage conditioning of the thickened lead tailing, after repulping with fresh water, is required for flotation of the fluorspar. Heating of the pulp at this point is often advantageous.

The lead and fluorspar are recovered by Flotation of the cell-to-cell type, permitting maximum recovery and grade of concentrate. Wide acceptance of machines is well verified when considering that over 95% of all acid grade fluorspar is processed in the Sub-A Flotation Machine. Flexibility of these machines is of prime importance where such high specifications must be met. Multiple cleaning, always necessary in acid grade fluorspar plants, can be performed without the help of pumps.

Both concentrates are thickened and filtered. The thickenedlead concentrate is filtered on the Disc Filter. Thickened fluorspar concentrate, at approximately 60% solids here, has a high filter capacity of approximately 2000 pounds per sq. ft. per 24 hours. The Fluorspar Filter with its stainless steel filter media, is especially designed for this application.

The Standard Dryer effectively dries the filtered fluorspar concentrate to less than 0.5% moisture, as required for marketing. An elevated temperature in the dryer can also be used to burn off small amounts of sulphur and lead.

A screw conveyor and bucket elevator as employed to transport the dried fluorspar to the concentrate storage bins. Bins can be conveniently discharged into rail road cars for shipment, while the filtered lead concentrate may be marketed as produced, without drying.

While many ores respond to the same general pattern of treatment, each ore is an individual problem.Such is the case of this fluorspar ore which is characterized by the presence of a portion of the fluorite inextremely close association with calcium carbonate andsilica and containing appreciable clay.

High acid grade fluorspar concentrates are difficult to obtain from this class of ores by flotation with an ordinary -65 mesh grind. The concentrates, in this study, are currently being used for production of hydrofluoric acid and synthetic cryolite. Market requirements demand that the calcium carbonate content be reduced to an absolute minimum. Moreover, the future productionnow in demand, is desirable. This study deals with a flowsheet designed to achieve high recovery of acid-grade fluorspar in an economical manner.

The typical fluorspar flotation flowsheet normally consists of stage grinding by ball mill in closed circuit with a mechanical classifier followed by conditioning of the pulp either with or without steam in the presence of reagents followed by Sub-A Flotation with three or more cleaning steps by reflotation. This particular ore does not, with the normal flowsheet, produce an acid grade concentrate of 97.5% CaF2with less than 1.5% SiO2.

The ore being studied is crushed underground at the mine and partially beneficiated by the heavy media process. This washed ore is further crushed at the mill. Soda ash is added to the primary grinding mill which is in open circuit with a duplex Spiral Classifier. The classifier is in closed circuit with the secondary grinding mill and the classifier overflow, which is all 65 mesh, is pumped by a SRL Pump to the Conditioner where the following reagents are added:

The conditions presented by this particular ore illustrate the importance of complete laboratory investigations as a great many different combinations of treatment were required to develop the final flowsheet. The deviations from the standard fluorspar flowsheet were first substantiated by locked cycle batch laboratory tests followed by a small tonnage pilot plant run to verify the laboratory results before final recommendations were made.

The rougher flotation circuit produces a final tailings while the rougher concentrate is subjected to the first cleaning stage. A 6 cell Sub A Flotation Machine, cell to cell type, is used for the rougher flotation and 6-cell Sub-A Flotation Machines are also used for the three cleaning steps.

Tailings from the first cleaners are pumped to a Morton 2-stage Cyclone for the removal of clay slimes. The ability to add clear water for washing in the classifier makes the Morton Cyclone particularly useful at this point in the flowsheet. The slimes go to final tailings and the cyclone sands, at high density, are reground in a Regrind Mill which is in closed circuit with a Hydro-Classifier. The regrind is to 325 mesh and the hydro-classifier overflow returns to the first cleaner cells for reflotation. Reagent sodium silicate is recommended to aid classification.

The middlings (tailings) from the second cleaner cells go to the hydro-classifier in the re-grind circuit. The concentrates from the second cleaners advance to the final cleaners. Tailings from the final cleaner cells are returned to the second cleaners and the final, high grade concentrates are filtered, dried and shipped to market.

The concentration of fluorspar ores for the production of acid grade concentrates is accomplished by the use of combinations of reagents such as pH regulators, depressant and fluorspar promoters. The reagents commonly used are as follows:

Factors of simplicity, initial low plant cost, together with flowsheet flexibility for maximum results on a difficult ore were basic considerations in the design of this 125-ton per day Fluorspar Flotation Mill. The design proved successful and accomplished the desired metallurgical results, with low capital expenditure and operating costs.

Following numerous laboratory tests, a flowsheet was developed that gives flexibility to handle the several types of fluorspar ores. Two stage open circuit crushing, with the average ore ground to 100 mesh,gives maximum results. Fine grained ores with some sulphides require secondary classification and a sulphide flotation stage. Due to character of most fluorspar ores heating the pulp gave improved results, and necessitated the installation of a boiler to provide hot dilution and make up flotation water for five stages of cleaning and recleaning. A Apron Feeder controls the feed from crude ore bin to jaw crusher while a wedge bar grizzly ahead of the jaw crusher removes the fines from the crusher feed. A 2x4 Dillon Screen removes the fines ahead of secondary crushing. An adjustable stroke ore feeder controls feed to the 5x8 Steel Head Ball Mill, and the spiral classifier discharge is pumped direct to flotation section or to hydroclassifier for secondary classification, depending on requirements.

2.Topography of Mill Site provides gravity flowminimum use of pumps, and minimum of excavation, retaining and foundation walls. The important part in any mill-site is to be sure that the maximum use of cut and fill is utilized. Concrete is expensive and is primarily considered for adequate foundation instead of expensive retaining walls and fills.

The machinery was located for accessibility, ease of operation, minimum loss of floor space, resulting in reduced size of mill. The crude ore bin was constructed of natural timber on the site, on a steep slope, reducing expense of excavation and construction. An 8 clear opening rail grizzly prevented oversizegoing into bin.

The buildings for crushing section and mill are of light steel construction with corrugated sheet metal on walls and roof. The frame work and trusses lightweight for buildingsupport only and provided without insulation, because of mild climatic conditions. Account of heavy snowfalls the roof slopes are all of quarter pitch.

Launders on cleaning stages are made so that flows can be changed to regulate number of cells required, depending on the type ore being treated. Wood platforms and walkways of 2 spaced lumber are used in flotation sections, while piping between machines is carried below the floor.

All electric lighting and power wiring with ample reserve are in rigid conduit with flexible connections to motors; and motor controls are mounted on wall panels with stop and start push button stations located within sight or near each motor. Fluorescent lighting is provided over flotation section, as it gives operators better visual control of the flotation operation.The Rotary Dryer is lined with fire brick at discharge (burner) end.

With depletion of high-grade deposits, production must depend upon low-grade deposits that are highly contaminated with impurities which may be silica, calcite, barite, iron oxide, and sulphides such as pyrite, galena, and sphalerite, in close association. The flotation problem is largely one of impurity removal. The sulphide minerals are generally floatedfirst, and then the fluorite is floated from the silica, calcite, and other impurities.

Flowsheet of an operating acid-grade fluorspar plant treating 300 tons of ore per day. Rougher flotation concentrates are ground to 200 mesh prior to cleaning. Acid-grade fluorspar is 98 per cent 325 mesh. No pumps are used for handling froth in flotation cleaner circuits.

Oleic acid or various mixtures of oleic and linoleic acids with soda ash and sodium silicate as silica depressant and slime controller, and quebracho to depress calcite, are the common reagents for fluorspar flotation. Sometimes pre-sulphide flotation with xanthate and a frother is necessary to remove sulphides and, often, heating the pulp to boiling temperature is advantageous in effectively depressing the silica, calcite and other associated minerals in the cleaning stages.

fluorite beneficiation method and plant

fluorite beneficiation method and plant

Fluorspar, also known as fluorite, is an essential mineral for metallurgy, chemical, glass, ceramic industry. Raw fluorspar ores normally are associated with gangues like quartz and calcite, which make it impossible to use directly for industrial production. Fluorspar beneficiation process is required.

There are three methods in total. Before modern beneficiation plant is utilized, original method is manual hand-pick. Fluorspar lumps are picked up from gangues by the difference in color and shape. This method is low in efficiency and cant produce in large scale, but it is still a good roughing process for big fluorspar lumps.

The second simple and effective method is gravity concentration, which is a separation process based on the difference in density between valuable minerals and gangues. Although the density difference is not big between fluorspar and gangue, it is no longer a problem for modern gravity concentration equipment. Gravity concentration is becoming popular in fluorspar beneficiation.

The third method is flotation process. This method has disadvantages of big investment, high production cost, low efficiency, pollution to environment, but it is the only way to produce high grade fluorspar concentrate.

Raw ore is fed onto belt conveyor after primary crushing and washing. Labors pick up big lumps, which are used for metallurgy purpose. Middlings are sent to secondary crushing. Crushed fluorspar is screened into different fractions for gravity concentration. Concentration from gravity separation by jigging process can be used for metallurgy industry. Tailings from gravity separation are enriched by flotation process to get high grade concentrate powders, which is used for chemical industry. This combined process is suitable for most of the fluorspar deposits.

The simplest and most effective beneficiation method is gravity separation. It is major process to get fluorspar concentrate for metallurgy industry. Compared with flotation process, gravity concentration is becoming popular. The process is crushing, screening, jigging, dewatering. Fluorspar ore is big, double crushing process is necessary before screening. Fluorspar is fragile, jaw crusher is good enough for it. Crushed ore is classified into 0-8mm, 8-30mm, 30-50mm fractions by vibration screen. Different jigs are used for different fractions. Concentration and tailings from jigging separation contains huge water, linear vibration screen is used for dewatering process.

fluorspar/fluorite beneficiation process plant

fluorspar/fluorite beneficiation process plant

Acid grade fluorspar which is in great demand by the chemical and aluminum industries, must contain at least 97.5% CaF2 with not more than 1.5% SiO2 and 0.5% Fe2O3. Often the Silica is limited to 1.2% with penalties starting at 1.0% SiO2. These limitations on grade and impurities require extremely close mill control, particularly through flotation where selectivity and high recovery is essential.

Over 95% of all acid grade fluorspar is processed by flotation through Sub-A (Fluorspar Type) Flotation machines. These machines, of the cell to cell type, are designed special for fluorspar with a high degree of flexibility essential for selectivity and multiple cleaning of concentrate. Middlings and clean tailings often must be completely isolated from the separate cleaning steps and diverted to the proper part in the milling circuit for most economical and efficient retreatment.

The flowsheet illustrated above is typical for the average Sub-A Fluorspar Flotation mill treating up to 100 tons of mine run ore per 24 hour day. Actual flotation conditions and equipment requirements should always be determined by having a comprehensive test made on the ore before proceeding with any fluorspar operation. Fluorspar ores may be quite complex, particularly when associated with lead and zinc sulphides, barite, calcite, iron oxide, and siliceous impurities. For this reason, a laboratory flotation testshould be the first step in establishing a flowsheet.

For the average small mill treating up to 100 tons of ore a day, primary crushing is usually adequate and very economical. Larger tonnage will require primary and secondary crushing for maximum efficiency in size reduction and subsequent ball milling.

Fluorspar ores usually require grinding to 48 or 65 mesh to liberate the calcium fluoride from the gangue impurities. Ball mill grinding with a Steel Head Ball Mill in closed circuit with classifier is the general practice. In larger plants, particularly when fine grinding is necessary, thickening of the classifier overflow is necessary to maintain proper density and feed regulation to flotation. This thickening step on fluorspar ores containing sulphides is usually between the sulphide and fluorspar flotation circuits. Reagents used for selective flotation of lead and zinc then can be rejected in the thickener overflow water.

Normally, conditioning at mill temperature willthoroughly film the fluorspar with reagent and makeit readily amenable to separation and recovery by flotation. Heating the pulp, even up to the boiling point,is often advantageous.

AnAgitator and Conditioner is ideal for fluorspar conditioning as circulation is positive and thorough reagentizing with a minimum amount of reagent is assured. Any frothing tendency is dissipated in the pulp through the stand pipe and adjustable froth collar.

Flotation of fluorspar must be extremely selective when producing acid grade concentrate. This selectivity is essential as the ratio of concentration is low, often up to 80% or more of the entire tonnage, and must be floated in the rough circuit. Cleaning by two or more stages of flotation must bring the rougher product up to acid grade and at the same time retain a high weight recovery with a minimum circulating load.

The Sub-A Flotation machine, the accepted standard in all fluorspar flotation plants, has been adapted specially for fluorspar treatment with provision for multi-stage cleaning and recirculation of middling products without the need of auxiliary pumps. Cleaner tailings may be conveniently removed at any point in the circuit. The flowsheet on the reverse side of this page shows one of the many possible cell arrangements used in treating fluorspar ore.

Thickening of fluorspar concentrates offers no special problem. Thickener capacity, however, should be adequate to handle the tonnage and have ample storage capacity during possible interruption in the filtering and drying sections. Fluorspar flotation froth has a tendency to build up on the thickener surface, but this can be taken care of by retaining rings near the overflow lip and by sprays so only clear water overflows the thickener. Thickened concentrates at 50 to 60% solids is removed by a Adjustable Stroke Diaphragm Pump, feeding by gravity to the filter.

Fluorspar is extremely rapid filtering even when ground fine, provided a non-blinding filter media is used. The rotary fluorspar type filter with stainless steel filter media, heavy duty oscillating mechanism, oversize valve and ports, and high displacement vacuum pump is standard for fluorspar flotation concentrates and will discharge a filter cake with as low as 6% moisture. In the event the filtrate is slightly turbid or contains solids, it should be diverted back to the thickener. For this reason a adjustable stroke diaphragm pump is often used in place of the conventional centrifugal filtrate pump.

Fluorspar flotation concentrates of acid grade must be dried to less than 0.5% moisture. Dust losses are kept to a minimum by providing a closed system with a cyclone to insure only vapor laden air discharging to the atmosphere. Enclosed screw conveyors, elevators and often air-born systems are used to transport the finely divided dried acid spar to the storage bins. Provisions should be made for handling efficiently the hot concentrate discharging from the dryer. The Standard Dryer is ideal for this purpose.

Fluorspar ores often contain appreciable amounts of sulphides in the form of galena, sphalerite, or both. These sulphides, when present, not only represent a valuable constituent of the ore, but also must be removed prior to fluorspar flotation to meet the market specifications for acid grade fluorspar.

If lead and zinc were present, the same flowsheet would apply to remove a bulk sulphide concentrate which could be subsequently refloated to produce the respective lead and zinc concentrates suitable for marketing.

The best approach to effectively produce separate lead and zinc concentrates should be established by test work. In some cases, selective flotation is indicated initially. This may be accomplished by removing a lead concentrate, then following this process by conditioning and flotation of the lead tailing to produce a zinc concentrate.

Conditioning of the classifier overflow is required if sulphidization is employed to effect flotation of oxidized lead. A second stage conditioning of the thickened lead tailing, after repulping with fresh water, is required for flotation of the fluorspar. Heating of the pulp at this point is often advantageous.

The lead and fluorspar are recovered by Flotation of the cell-to-cell type, permitting maximum recovery and grade of concentrate. Wide acceptance of machines is well verified when considering that over 95% of all acid grade fluorspar is processed in the Sub-A Flotation Machine. Flexibility of these machines is of prime importance where such high specifications must be met. Multiple cleaning, always necessary in acid grade fluorspar plants, can be performed without the help of pumps.

Both concentrates are thickened and filtered. The thickenedlead concentrate is filtered on the Disc Filter. Thickened fluorspar concentrate, at approximately 60% solids here, has a high filter capacity of approximately 2000 pounds per sq. ft. per 24 hours. The Fluorspar Filter with its stainless steel filter media, is especially designed for this application.

The Standard Dryer effectively dries the filtered fluorspar concentrate to less than 0.5% moisture, as required for marketing. An elevated temperature in the dryer can also be used to burn off small amounts of sulphur and lead.

A screw conveyor and bucket elevator as employed to transport the dried fluorspar to the concentrate storage bins. Bins can be conveniently discharged into rail road cars for shipment, while the filtered lead concentrate may be marketed as produced, without drying.

While many ores respond to the same general pattern of treatment, each ore is an individual problem.Such is the case of this fluorspar ore which is characterized by the presence of a portion of the fluorite inextremely close association with calcium carbonate andsilica and containing appreciable clay.

High acid grade fluorspar concentrates are difficult to obtain from this class of ores by flotation with an ordinary -65 mesh grind. The concentrates, in this study, are currently being used for production of hydrofluoric acid and synthetic cryolite. Market requirements demand that the calcium carbonate content be reduced to an absolute minimum. Moreover, the future productionnow in demand, is desirable. This study deals with a flowsheet designed to achieve high recovery of acid-grade fluorspar in an economical manner.

The typical fluorspar flotation flowsheet normally consists of stage grinding by ball mill in closed circuit with a mechanical classifier followed by conditioning of the pulp either with or without steam in the presence of reagents followed by Sub-A Flotation with three or more cleaning steps by reflotation. This particular ore does not, with the normal flowsheet, produce an acid grade concentrate of 97.5% CaF2 with less than 1.5% SiO2.

The ore being studied is crushed underground at the mine and partially beneficiated by the heavy media process. This washed ore is further crushed at the mill. Soda ash is added to the primary grinding mill which is in open circuit with a duplex Spiral Classifier. The classifier is in closed circuit with the secondary grinding mill and the classifier overflow, which is all 65 mesh, is pumped by a SRL Pump to the Conditioner where the following reagents are added:

The conditions presented by this particular ore illustrate the importance of complete laboratory investigations as a great many different combinations of treatment were required to develop the final flowsheet. The deviations from the standard fluorspar flowsheet were first substantiated by locked cycle batch laboratory tests followed by a small tonnage pilot plant run to verify the laboratory results before final recommendations were made.

The rougher flotation circuit produces a final tailings while the rougher concentrate is subjected to the first cleaning stage. A 6 cell Sub A Flotation Machine, cell to cell type, is used for the rougher flotation and 6-cell Sub-A Flotation Machines are also used for the three cleaning steps.

Tailings from the first cleaners are pumped to a Morton 2-stage Cyclone for the removal of clay slimes. The ability to add clear water for washing in the classifier makes the Morton Cyclone particularly useful at this point in the flowsheet. The slimes go to final tailings and the cyclone sands, at high density, are reground in a Regrind Mill which is in closed circuit with a Hydro-Classifier. The regrind is to 325 mesh and the hydro-classifier overflow returns to the first cleaner cells for reflotation. Reagent sodium silicate is recommended to aid classification.

The middlings (tailings) from the second cleaner cells go to the hydro-classifier in the re-grind circuit. The concentrates from the second cleaners advance to the final cleaners. Tailings from the final cleaner cells are returned to the second cleaners and the final, high grade concentrates are filtered, dried and shipped to market.

The concentration of fluorspar ores for the production of acid grade concentrates is accomplished by the use of combinations of reagents such as pH regulators, depressant and fluorspar promoters. The reagents commonly used are as follows:

Factors of simplicity, initial low plant cost, together with flowsheet flexibility for maximum results on a difficult ore were basic considerations in the design of this 125-ton per day Fluorspar Flotation Mill. The design proved successful and accomplished the desired metallurgical results, with low capital expenditure and operating costs.

Following numerous laboratory tests, a flowsheet was developed that gives flexibility to handle the several types of fluorspar ores. Two stage open circuit crushing, with the average ore ground to 100 mesh,gives maximum results. Fine grained ores with some sulphides require secondary classification and a sulphide flotation stage. Due to character of most fluorspar ores heating the pulp gave improved results, and necessitated the installation of a boiler to provide hot dilution and make up flotation water for five stages of cleaning and recleaning. A Apron Feeder controls the feed from crude ore bin to jaw crusher while a wedge bar grizzly ahead of the jaw crusher removes the fines from the crusher feed. A 2x4 Dillon Screen removes the fines ahead of secondary crushing. An adjustable stroke ore feeder controls feed to the 5x8 Steel Head Ball Mill, and the spiral classifier discharge is pumped direct to flotation section or to hydroclassifier for secondary classification, depending on requirements.

2) Topography of Mill Site provides gravity flowminimum use of pumps, and minimum of excavation, retaining and foundation walls. The important part in any mill-site is to be sure that the maximum use of cut and fill is utilized. Concrete is expensive and is primarily considered for adequate foundation instead of expensive retaining walls and fills.

The machinery was located for accessibility, ease of operation, minimum loss of floor space, resulting in reduced size of mill. The crude ore bin was constructed of natural timber on the site, on a steep slope, reducing expense of excavation and construction. An 8 clear opening rail grizzly prevented oversizegoing into bin.

The buildings for crushing section and mill are of light steel construction with corrugated sheet metal on walls and roof. The frame work and trusses lightweight for buildingsupport only and provided without insulation, because of mild climatic conditions. Account of heavy snowfalls the roof slopes are all of quarter pitch.

Launders on cleaning stages are made so that flows can be changed to regulate number of cells required, depending on the type ore being treated. Wood platforms and walkways of 2 spaced lumber are used in flotation sections, while piping between machines is carried below the floor.

All electric lighting and power wiring with ample reserve are in rigid conduit with flexible connections to motors; and motor controls are mounted on wall panels with stop and start push button stations located within sight or near each motor. Fluorescent lighting is provided over flotation section, as it gives operators better visual control of the flotation operation.The Rotary Dryer is lined with fire brick at discharge (burner) end.

With depletion of high-grade deposits, production must depend upon low-grade deposits that are highly contaminated with impurities which may be silica, calcite, barite, iron oxide, and sulphides such as pyrite, galena, and sphalerite, in close association. The flotation problem is largely one of impurity removal. The sulphide minerals are generally floatedfirst, and then the fluorite is floated from the silica, calcite, and other impurities.

Flowsheet of an operating acid-grade fluorspar plant treating 300 tons of ore per day. Rougher flotation concentrates are ground to 200 mesh prior to cleaning. Acid-grade fluorspar is 98 per cent 325 mesh. No pumps are used for handling froth in flotation cleaner circuits.

Oleic acid or various mixtures of oleic and linoleic acids with soda ash and sodium silicate as silica depressant and slime controller, and quebracho to depress calcite, are the common reagents for fluorspar flotation. Sometimes pre-sulphide flotation with xanthate and a frother is necessary to remove sulphides and, often, heating the pulp to boiling temperature is advantageous in effectively depressing the silica, calcite and other associated minerals in the cleaning stages.

fluorspar beneficiation future project delta minerals

fluorspar beneficiation future project delta minerals

Process methods of fluorite ore are gravity separation and flotation. Mineral Processing equipment includes gravity separation equipment and flotation equipment; gravity separation equipment: jig, only jig can deal with the coarse fluorite ore. Fluorite flotation equipment is the similar with other mineral flotation equipment including crusher, ball mill, flotation machine etc.

Process methods of fluorite ore are gravity separation and flotation. Mineral Processing equipment includes gravity separation equipment and flotation equipment gravity separation equipment jig only jig can deal with the coarse fluorite ore. Fluorite flotation equipment is the similar with other mineral flotation equipment including crusher ball mill flotation machine etc.

Fluorite Flotation Process is applied for refractory fluorite with complied properties such as high mud content impurity containing fine particle distribution etc.. After the reformation the fluorite flotation indexes have been improved obviously increasing the economic income of 3200000 yuan/year and the profit of 1500000 yuan/year.

The sulfide ore contained in fluorite is floated with xanthate collector and then fatty acid collectors float fluorite. In flotation of fluorite it can be also feasible to add a small amount of sulfide mineral to inhibit residual sulfide mineral and ensures the quality of fluorite concentrate. Mixed flotation of fluorite and barite flotation and then separate them. In mixed flotation obtain mixed concentrate with oleic acid as collector. Mixed concentrate separation can use positive or reverse flotation to obtain fluorite concentrate.

The fatty acid collects fluorite and sodium silie restrains quartz. The dosage of sodium silie should be controlled properly a small amount has activation to the fluorite but inhibition function is not enough excessive inhibits fluorite. Sometimes in order to increase the inhibitory effect of sodium silie on quartz some multivalent metal ions will be add.

barite beneficiation process and plant flowsheet

barite beneficiation process and plant flowsheet

Barite (barium sulphate) often occurs as large veins or beds, as gangue mineral in various mineral veins, in limestones, sandstones and like deposits. The ores are generally low grade and require concentration by flotation to meet market specifications.

Barite, which has the ability to influence other materials with its basic characteristics, makes this heavy spar indispensable in maintaining the high specifications and uniform viscosity needed in all rotary drilling fluids. TheBarite Beneficiation Process is one offlotation, it is used as an ingredient in heavy mud for oil-well drilling, for which purpose specifications demand a material meeting the drilling mud specifications.

Crush enough ore in 8 to 10 hours for 24-hour operation. The ore is dumped over a 10 grizzly ahead of the coarse ore bin to control size pieces handled by the crusher. The rugged 36x 10 Apron Ore Feeder, especially designed for the severe service under the feed hopper, has a variable speed drive for controlling the feed to the jaw crusher, thus assuring maximum crushing efficiency.

A 2 wide by 6 long Shaking Grizzly is operated from the eccentricity of the jaw crusher bumper. The grizzly set at a slope of 15-20 from horizontal saves headroom and with 1.5 clear openings eliminates the undersize; while oversize material goes to a 15 x 24 Jaw Crusher, which reduces the 10 pieces to approximately 1.5.

Crude ore is drawn from the fine ore bin by means of a 24 x 14 Adjustable Stroke Belt Ore Feeder and reduced to 100-150 mesh in a 6x12 Steel Head Ball Mill, charged with 3, 2.5, 2 and 1 diameter balls.

The ball mill discharge and spiral screen undersize is classified at approximately 100-150 mesh separation in a 48 x 26-9 Crossflow Classifier. The classifier sands are returned to the ball mill, while the overflow is pumped by a 3x3 SRL Rubber Lined Sand Pump to a 12 diameter Hydroclassifier for final separation ahead of flotation.

The coarse fraction settles, is raked to center discharge cone of hydroclassifier and removed with a 4 Duplex Adjustable Stroke Diaphragm Pump. (The adjustable feature on the classifier acts as a control on the size material overflow.) A restriction plate, in the hydroclassifier tank cone, disperses the added water which tends to eliminate the. fines or undersize fraction which might be mechanically trapped in the coarse size.

The coarse fraction hydroclassifier sands are metered to a 6x6 Steel Head Ball Mill charged with 1 diameter balls which give more efficient grinding on the fine feed. The ground fraction from the regrind mill is returned to Hydroclassifier with a SRL Sand Pump.

This two stage grinding affords added flexibility by controlling grind. Some ores require feed to conditioner to be thickened, which sometimes eliminates troublesome soluble salts and effectively controls the density of the pulp in the conditioner and flotation circuits. Flotation can sometimes be done at 40-50% solids without detriment; yet flotation at higher percent solids produces a more finished product in flotation cells, so this thickener is often included.

The hydroclassifier overflow, or thickener underflow is conditioned with necessary reagents for flotation. If caustic soda is not added in the ball mill, it is added with sodium carbonate to the conditioner for regulating pH from 8.0 to 10.0. Sodium silicate is sometimes added to liberate slimes; while the collector is usually a refined tall oil acid or similar product. It can be added to conditioner or in stages.

An 8-cell No. 21 Sub-A Flotation Machine, non-metallic flotation type, equipped with multi-bladed moulded rubber or neoprene impeller and diffuser wearing plates, produces rough flotation concentrates. These rougher concentrates are further upgraded by two stages of cleaning. Each stage consists of 3-cells of the 6-cell No. 21 (38 x 38) Sub-A Flotation Machine. In the rougher cells the pulp level in each cell can be controlled either by wood weir blocks or hand wheel operated weir gates. The flotation tailings are sampled by a Automatic Sampler fitted with a wet type cutter. The tailings are then pumped by means of a SRL Pump to the tailings pond.

A 5 x 5 SRL Sand Pump elevates the final flotation concentrates to the 30 x 10 Spiral Rake Thickener; the thickener underflow is reused in the flotation circuit. The thickened product is filtered on a 6 x 6-disc Disc Filter.

A 9x 10 Screw Conveyor feeds the filtered product to the 5 x 50 Countercurrent Dryer with dust collection system. The dried product from the dryers is moved to the Chain Type Bucket Elevator by means of an enclosed screw feeder, and discharged into a dust tight surge bin for a bagging machine; or into a storage bin for loading hopper cars.

The flowsheet in this study is for a plant to treat economically 100 tons per 24 hours of ore containing approximately 37% barite, 37% fluorspar and 1.5% zinc as sphalerite and to yield marketable concentrates of barite, assaying in excess of 95% BaSO4, and acid grade fluorspar. The close association of the minerals and their similar response to the reagents require careful testwork to determine the exact reagents and treatment process. Overgrinding must be avoided.

The flowsheet incorporates standard equipment for both low cost and operating service. Units illustrated are for a specific tonnage but illustrate a typical flowsheet. The crushing section operates only 1 shift per day.

For the average mine up to 100 tons per day, primary crushing is usually sufficient. Since over 90% of the operating problems of a jaw crusher come from the bumper bearings, an all anti-friction bearing crusher has been selected. Larger tonnagesrequire primary and secondary crushing sections for maximum efficiency in size reduction for subsequent grinding operations. The grizzly ahead of the crusher provides greater crushing capacity since the undersize material by-passes the crusher.

The ore for treatment is of such a nature that conventional grinding to 65 mesh using a ball mill classifier circuit results in excessive overgrinding of the barite. To avoid this condition a rod mill is used instead of a ball mill for reducing the feed for flotation. This circuit, consisting of a combination of spiral classifier and cyclone, actually results in a slight undergrinding of the fluorspar but this does not prove detrimental in the coarse flotation circuit. Reagents for zinc flotation are added to the grinding circuit and the pulp is then conditioned to obtain maximum contact of the reagents for effective activation of the sphalerite.

The classifier overflow at approximately 30% solids is subjected to rougher flotation in a Sub-A Selective Flotation Machine, followed by multiple cleaning of the rougher concentrate. Cell-to-cell Sub-A Flotation Machines are best for this service. The tailing from the zinc flotation section is pumped to a thickener which overflows the collodial slimes to waste. The thickened pulp is metered to barite conditioning and flotation. The discarding of collodial clay slimes, if present in the ore, is necessary to prevent excessive reagent consumption. The thickening operation also provides for uniform feed rates to the barite section.

The zinc tailings thickener underflow, at approximately 40% solids, is conditioned with barium chloride and citric acid in the first conditioner, and a barite frother and collector is added in the second conditioner. A Super Agitators and Conditioners with standpipes around the shaft provide for pulp recirculation and prevent froth buildup in the conditioner tanks. A fairly lengthy conditioning period is required to obtain the maximum effect of the reagents. The barite rougher flotation is rapid and the addition of a small amount of reagent towards the end of the circuit assures ample froth for the scavenger operation. The rougher concentrate is cleaned three times, using plenty of clean spray water to cleanse the froth and obtain satisfactory slime rejection. The barite tailing is pumped to a thickener to density the pulp to approximately 40% solids for fluorspar conditioning and flotation.

The underflow from the barite tailings thickener is metered at 40% solids to the first of two conditioners where a depressant and sodium silicate are added for gangue depression. Fluorspar collectors are added to the pulp in the second conditioner. The conditioned pulp is subjected to rougher flotation followed by multiple cleaning of the rougher concentrate.

The fluorspar and barite flotation concentrates do not present any difficulties in thickening and filtration. The thickeners are of sufficient capacity to handle the tonnage and to provide some concentrate space in the event of minor filter or dryer interruptions. Froth retaining overflow launders and sprays are desirable on the thickener tanks. The small amount of zinc in the ore does not warrant thickening prior to filtration; instead, a filter with sufficient area for filtering the concentrates direct from the flotation machines is used. The zinc and barite concentrates are filtered, using a Disc Filters and the fluorspar by a drum type Fluorspar Filter with stainless steel filter media.

The filtered zinc concentrates drop directly into a concentrate bin. The barite and fluorspar concentrates from the filters pass to rotary dryers which are provided with dust collecting systems. The dry concentrates are then conveyed to air tight surge bins for bagging or storage silos for loading into hopper cars.

The recoveries of base metals, barite and fluorspar in acceptable products varies with the type ore and degree of association of the various components in the ore. Coarse mineralization with minimum amounts of slime will generally result in higher recoveries. The reagents and conditions for treating ores of this nature can be determined only by batch or pilot plant testing programs.

Most of the barite produced by flotation is used as an ingredient in heavy mud for oil-well drilling, for which purpose specifications demand a material with minimum specific gravity of 4.30. When sold for production of lithopone and barium chemicals, lump or jig concentrate with minimum BaS04 of 95 per cent and maximum Fe2O3 of 1.0 per cent is specified.

When sold for drilling mud ingredient, the barite needs to be ground to less than 5.0 per cent plus 325 mesh, which requirement necessitates either grinding the crude ore to this fineness before flotation or regrinding the concentrate produced at a coarser initial grind. Gravity concentration is sometimes advantageous in conjunction with flotation, as by this means products may be obtained that will meet the requirements of more than one market. Some of the anionic reagents commonly used to float the barite are detrimental to its use as drilling mud and must be removed from the particle surfaces by heat during the drying stage.

Barite is readily floatable by fatty acids in an alkaline pulp, usually oleic acid with soda ash or caustic soda. Sulphonated petroleum products are also satisfactory. The trend in development of new reagents is to overcome the need to heat the concentrate to a high temperature to remove the reagent.

Any discussion of barite mining is virtually. impossible without considering, almost in the same breath, the many other variables, such as beneficiation, transportation, infrastructure and location that impact the economics of a particular barite orebody. My comments will be limited to just the mining aspects of barite orebodies and these observations must be considered in proper context with all other parameters affecting exploitation of a barite property prior to final decision on economic feasibility. In many instances low-cost mining situations are more than offset by high-cost beneficiation requirements. Likewise, there are cases of relatively high-cost mining associated with no or low-cost beneficiation requirements thus permitting economic exploitation.

Barite orebodies and occurrences are almost as varied as the number of occurrences. As in most mining situations, the design of a mine plan and implementation of a proper exploitation program must be approached on a case by case basis. Proper and sufficient geologic control of a barite orebody must precede the development of a mine plan.

Generally speaking, barite orebodies can and, at many times, do strange things; pinch with depth; almost never increase in size with depth, overturn, fault-off, change grade, etc. Due to the extreme variable nature of most barite orebodies, a mine plan and its implementation must be as flexible as possible. The ability to quickly adapt to variable conditions will greatly enhance the economics within a particular barite mining environment.

Although a significant quantity of the worlds barite production comes from underground mines, the worlds largest producing barite mines are surface mines. Virtually 100% of current barite production in the United States and Canada is from high productivity surface mines. Generally speaking, only in those areas of the world that have an abundance of low cost labor is the exploitation of barite by underground mining feasible at todays economics.

Two of the largest underground barite mines in the world were located in North America. Both were shut down in the early seventies with appreciable reserves remaining at depth. The costs associated with underground mining of barite attributable to the much lower productivities of underground mining relative to surface mining dictated the closure of these two mines prior to the depletion of reserves.

Open pit mining of barite orebodies is generally no different than most other open pit mining environments. As in all other sectors of the mining industry, the increasing costs of labor and the decreasing trend in productivities will dictate the use of ever larger and more productive mining equipment.

Just 10 years ago 4 cu-yd. loaders and 20-25 ton trucks were the largest sizes commonly employed by barite producers. D8s were generally the largest dozers used. Today 35-40 ton trucks with 7-8 cu.yd. loaders are common.

Generally speaking, most barite orebodies amenable to open pit methods are of the size where flexibility of equipment employed is of prime importance. It is common practice to use the same equipment for both stripping and mining, thus permitting much greater flexibility in day-to-day operations, generally better equipment utilization, and commonly lower equipment acquisition and maintenance costs.

Stripping ratios of surface barite mines are increasing and the movement of large volumes of overburden are becoming more and more critical to the overall economics of an operation. One could initially conclude that the higher efficiency of scrappers, draglines, or shovels for overburden removal and truck-loader combinations for the mining phase would be the most economic approach. In practice, most barite orebodies do not lend themselves to complete separation of the stripping and mining functions. Most barite orebodies are not amenable to using scrappers, draglines or large shovels for the actual mining phase and the ore must be selectively mined at least to the extent that larger stripping equipment would create unacceptable mining dilution. Likewise, many barite orebodies do not lend themselves to continuous, simultaneous mining and stripping. The flexibility afforded by truck-loader configurations generally outweighs the loss of productivity over scrappers. Most barite orebodies lend themselves best to cycles of mining, stripping, mining, etc. , and together with market, weather, and geological conditions, the flexibility of readily switching from mining to stripping or back to mining generally provides the best possible utilization of manpower and equipment.

As the higher grade, larger barite orebodies become depleted, deeper lower grade orebodies will naturally be exploited, and the prime consideration in mining will become the removal of larger volumes of material at the least possible cost. Selective mining reduces productivities in any given situation. The greater the degree of this selectivity the lower are resultant productivities and resultant costs can escalate rapidly. The trend now and in the future will be to less selectivity in mining with consequent improvement and enlargement of the beneficiation sector to offset the increased dilution from mining. The key to low cost mining and stripping is volume; the greatest amount of material moved in the least amount of time. Increased equipment size with its inherent increased productivities coupled with improved, larger crushing and beneficiation facilities will become the norm in the mining of large barite orebodies.

As alluded to earlier, the large underground barite mines at Malvern, Arkansas and Walton, Nova Scotia were most unique. Most barite orebodies do not occur in sufficient size or grade to permit underground mining with methods that lend themselves to high productivity mining techniques. Both the Malvern and Walton orebodies were exceptions. Both were multimillion ton orebodies of sufficient tonnage and dimension to permit exploitation by highly productive mining methods.

Unfortunately, the vast majority of barite occurs in narrow veins of varying degrees of strike and dip and lend themselves only to mining by lower-productivity, narrow-vein-type mining systems. Fortunately most barite ore-bodies are competent and occur in relatively competent geologic environments. The author is familiar with attempts to undercut and block-cave barite, but the extreme competency of the barite prevented natural caving even after massive undercutting of the ore zone. Open storing and shrink-stoping methods are commonly employed, and technical problems are generally no more complicated than encountered in most other narrow vein mines. Competency of the ore-body, hanging and footwall, together with mine water will be the most important considerations. Extensive support systems and the handling of appreciable water volumes will obviously seriously impact mining costs. Narrow vein barite mines are not large producers. One of the most common problems in narrow vein systems is under-development.

Mining volumes are in direct proportion to the number of people that can be efficiently employed within a mine. Consequently, the number of working faces available within a mine system relates directly to the capacity of that system. Generally speaking, it can and normally does take up to or over a year from primary development of a stope to final ore extraction in a shrink-stoping operation.

Annual production is dependent on the number of stopes that can be developed, mined and pulled in a year. Generally narrow vein barite mines are not or cannot be developed to the level required for large volumes. Unless multiple working faces are created by multiple level development within the same or closely associated vein systems, sufficient stopes cannot be developed to allow continuous, high volume production. Under-development creates periods of low production during development cycles, followed by spurts of production when stopes are mined and pulled, again to be followed by low production periods when the mine again has to catch-up with development. This can create havoc with costs not only in mining but in all phases of the operation through marketing.

Exploitation of narrow vein barite orebodies by underground mining methods are common and practical in countries with lower cost labor. Even so, mining costs are the significant factor as most orebodies currently being mined are of sufficient quality to require little or no beneficiation and resultant costs are competitive. Many of these mines are being forced to improve productivities and have remained competitive only by virtue of conversion to the more productive trackless systems employing large, fast, rubber-tired underground equipment. Narrow-vein underground mining of barite requiring extensive beneficiation in order to produce marketable quality material would in most cases be prohibitive at todays economics.

The single most important factor associated with the development and mining of a barite orebody is people. Generally speaking, approximately 50A of the cost of barite mining is labor cost. Naturally, this will vary but is generally a workable rule of thumb. Not only is the direct cost of labor important but, in certain situations, the indirect costs of labor become virtually prohibitive. A certain percentage of the labor force in all mining situations must be skilled and in the more remote locations of the world the costs of labor can become one of the most important factors in the economics of a barite property. Unlike the ferrous and non-ferrous metals industry, barite mines are extremely small in comparison (the largest in the world are commonly less than 500,000 tons per year capacity) and infrastructure costs of housing and facilities can become prohibitive.

The recent proliferation of governmental regulatory interference in all phases of industry are impacting costs in all areas. Safety, environmental, and permitting regulations on both the federal and state levels are significantly lowering productivities of barite mining. As barite mines are small in comparison to most mines, the impact of recent training regulations and punative fines on the part of MSHA will have a greater effect on unit costs of production. The days of throwing together a small producing unit at nominal cost have just about had it. With stringent noise, dust, safety, training and permitting regulations, the costs of getting in to production are much greater, the reserves must be sufficient to justify the initial capital and preproduction development costs and production volumes must be large enough to offset, on a unit cost basis, the impact of the recent proliferation of zero-productivity cost impacts.

fluorite/fluorspar beneficiation process plant,fluorite/fluorspar beneficiation machine - mineral processing and beneficiation plants supplier-forui machinery factory

fluorite/fluorspar beneficiation process plant,fluorite/fluorspar beneficiation machine - mineral processing and beneficiation plants supplier-forui machinery factory

Fluorspar, also known as fluorite, is an essential mineral for metallurgy, chemical, glass, ceramic industry.The main component of fluorite is calcium fluoride.Fluorite is the only mineral for which significant quantities of the important element fluorine can be obtained.

Fluorite is also used as a flux in the manufacture of steel and other metals to eliminate impurities. Raw fluorspar ores normally are associated with gangues like quartz and calcite, which make it impossible to use directly for industrial production. Fluorspar beneficiation process is required.

There are three methods in total. Before modern beneficiation plant is utilized, original method is manual hand-pick. Fluorspar lumps are picked up from gangues by the difference in color and shape. This method is low in efficiency and cant produce in large scale, but it is still a good roughing process for big fluorspar lumps.

The second simple and effective method is gravity concentration, which is a separation process based on the difference in density between valuable minerals and gangues. Although the density difference is not big between fluorspar and gangue, it is no longer a problem for modern gravity concentration equipment. Gravity concentration is becoming popular in fluorspar beneficiation.

The third method is flotation process. This method has disadvantages of big investment, high production cost, pollution to environment, but it is the only way to produce high grade fluorspar concentrate.

Raw ore is fed onto belt conveyor after primary crushing and washing. Labors pick up big lumps, which are used for metallurgy purpose. Middlings are sent to secondary crushing. Crushed fluorspar is screened into different fractions for gravity concentration. Concentration from gravity separation by jigging process can be used for metallurgy industry. Tailings from gravity separation are enriched by flotation process to get high grade concentrate powders, which is used for chemical industry. This combined process is suitable for most of the fluorspar deposits.

The simplest and most effective beneficiation method is gravity separation. It is major process to get fluorspar concentrate for metallurgy industry. Compared with flotation process, gravity concentration is becoming popular. The process is crushing, screening, jigging, dewatering. Fluorspar ore is big, double crushing process is necessary before screening. Fluorspar is fragile, jaw crusher is good enough for it. Crushed ore is classified into 0-8mm, 8-30mm, 30-50mm fractions by vibration screen. Different jigs are used for different fractions. Concentration and tailings from jigging separation contains huge water, linear vibration screen is used for dewatering process.

Gongyi Forui Machinery Factory is the leading manufacturer of fluorite beneficiation plant in China.we have many years' experience in fluorite process. we design and build the plant in our own workshop, to ensure the quality and deliver time. We will send our experienced engineer to supply techincial service in site to ensure the beneficiation effect.

summary of fluorite ore flotation process - jxsc machine

summary of fluorite ore flotation process - jxsc machine

Taking deep research on the features, extraction methods, and fluorite mining machines have a significant positive effect on running the fluorite processing plant successfully. In the following paragraphs, I have made a detailed introduction from fluorite mineral attribute to extraction methods and machines and listed 2 cases for your reference.

Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is a mineral that common in nature, consists mainly of calcium fluoride( CaF2), can be symbiotic with many other minerals. More in wiki https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%90%A4%E7%9F%B3/258531?fromtitle=%E8%90%A4%E7%9F%B3%E7%9F%BF&fromid=8815755&fr=aladdin

Just as is the case with almost ore processing and non-metal beneficiation, the concentrate fluorite is extracted by crushing, sieving, grinding, grading, flotation, filtration, drying, etc. How to realize the high-efficiency sorting of associated fluorite ore is a real problem in the fluorite beneficiation process. Therefore, based on the characteristics of the associated fluorite ore, summarized the beneficiation method and floating agent of the types of associated fluorite ore. We, the JXSC mining machine factory, would be delightful provide you with the flotation machines.

The separation of quartz and fluorite achieved by grinding, it is an important factor affecting the flotation of quartz-type fluorite. The ground ore of a coarse size indicates that may have many associated fluorite ore lumps, these lumps may increase the silica content, decrease the flotation effect. If the grinding particle size is too fine, although quartz and fluorite have been dissociated from the monomer, it will cause the fluorite losing easily, thus reduce the recovery rate of fluorite.

In order to dissociate the fluorite from the quartz and not to pulverize the fluorite, the stage grinding process is generally used, which can reduce the silicon content in the fluorite concentrate after flotation and increase the fluorite recovery rate.

The results show that under the same conditions of grinding fineness, the fluorite concentrate by rod mill obtains a lower Si O2 content. Compared with ball milling, the particle size of rod grinding is more uniform, rod mill control the grinding fineness better.

In order to solve the difficulties in the separation of high calcium quartz fluorite ore, researchers did a great time of experiment. Studies have shown, the fluorite beneficiation effect of 97.21% concentrate grade and 69.04% recovery rate can be obtained when the condition of -0.074 mm grain taking 83.62% percentage, flotation 6 times, the PH value of slurry is 9-10YN-12 as the capture agent, sodium silicate, tannic and the Calgon as the inhibitors. When the PH value is 6, the sodium oleate has a significant effect on the recovery of pure fluorite minerals during the flotation process. However, when the slurry contains fine-grained quartz ore, the performance of sodium oleate to capture fluorite decreases. The capture ability of the oleic acid gradually improved by adding the sodium hexametaphosphate to disperse the quartz and fluorite. In a word, fine-grained quartz type fluorite ore is better to adopt the stage grinding process method to get the best size. Besides, it is best to use Na2CO3 to adjust PH value, choose oleic acid, oxidized paraffin, sodium silicate as a combination of collector and inhibitor.

Calcite type fluorite ore mainly consists of fluorite, and calcite( more than 30%). Since both calcite and fluorite are calcium-containing minerals, they have similar surface physicochemical properties. When coexisting in solution, they are prone to the mutual transformation between minerals, making separation of the two difficult to achieve.

Fatty acid collectors can float both of calcite and fluorite, therefore, it is needed to adjust the PH value of slurry. Practice shows that the PH value has a great impact on the flotation. When the PH value in the range of 8-9.5the fatty acid collectors can display function both of the fluorite and calcite. But in the weak acidic medium, the calcite has a lower floatability. Although it is difficult to separate calcite and fluorite by flotation, we still have chance to realize it by adjusting the PH value, choosing suited inhibitor(sodium silicate, salinization sodium silicate, acidification sodium silicate, Calgon, lignin sulfonate, dextrin,tannin, etc.), and using oleic acid as the trapping agent.

The barite type fluoride ore mainly consists of barite(10%-40%) and fluoride, also associated with iron pyrite, gelenite, sphalerite, and other sulfide minerals. It is not easy to separate the barite and fluoride because of the similar floatability. In general, the flotation process of the barite type fluoride ore is divided into two steps, one is combination flotation that obtains the combination of concentrate both of barite and fluorite, another is flotation that separation the barite and the fluorite from the combination concentrate.

Flotation of the first step: Na2CO3 as the conditioner of PH value, oleic acid as the capture agent, and sodium silicate as the inhibitor. Flotation of the second step has two ways: 1 Inhibiting barite and floating fluorite: inhibitors have lignin sulfonate, sodium silicate, NAF, dextrin, aluminum salt, ferric salts; captor has oleic acid. 2 Inhibiting fluorite and floating barite: adjusting the PH value the slurry to strong alkalinity by the sodium hydrate, using the citric acid, barium chloride, ammonium salt, sodium silicate as the inhibitors, and using the oleic acid or sodium alkyl sulfate as the collector.

The mineral composition of sulfide-type fluorite is similar to that of quartz type fluorite, but the content of the metal mineral is higher than that of the quartz type, and sometimes, the content of lead and zinc can reach the industrial grade. Therefore, it is necessary to take the recovery of the other metal mineral into considered. Usually, adopt the captor for sulfide minerals to select the metal sulfide minerals preferentially, then use the captor of fatty acid to recover the fluorite from the flotation tailings. In addition, roasting, leaching, and other processes can also help to extract valuable metals and to decompose fluorite.

A great deal of research and production practice shows that flotation is a useful method for recovering fluorite ores, suit for large scale fluorite ore processing, the beneficiation method( flotation process and chemical agent) varies from the ore characteristics. if you need a fluorite ore flotation machine, pls contact us.

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fluorite flotation process,fluorite flotationseparation

fluorite flotation process,fluorite flotationseparation

Process methods of fluorite ore are gravity separation and flotation. Mineral processing equipment includes gravity separation equipment and flotation equipment; gravity separation equipment: jig. Only jig can deal with the coarse fluorite ore. Fluorite flotation equipment includes crusher, ball mill, flotation machine etc.Jaw crusher is the primary crusher. It is used in fluorite coarse crushing process.Cone crusher is the fine crushing machine used in fluorite processing plant. After fluorite crushing process, fluorite is less than 15mm. Grinding mill used Ford fluorite processing.Ball mill is the most commonly used fluorite ore dressing machinery. After grinding, fluorite is less than 0.074mm. In order to get concentrates, re-grinding process is essential. The final size of fluorite powder is usually 100 meshes, 200 meshes, 400 meshes.

Fluorite flotation process is applied for refractory fluorite with complicated properties such as high mud content, impurity containing, fine particle distribution etc.Our fluorite flotation process has many advantages including automatic controlling, high efficiency, safety,fast and low energy consumption.

Fluorite ore processing methods which is one roughing repeatedly choice,as a collector agent rougher with oleic acid or its substitutes, to a mixture of sulfuric acid with an acidic waterglass-containing substanceinhibitor, a sulfuric acid with an acidic waterglass ratio is 1:0.5 to 1:2, the joint used in an amount of 0.5 ~ 1.5kg / t ore. The present invention provides fluorspar addition to calcium beneficiation process has in addition to the high efficiency of calcium, the process is simple, low-cost advantages can be selected from the high calcium fluorite ore grade fluorite concentrate with a low content of calcium carbonate.

A natural fluorite fluorescent paint process, the process of dressing - crushed - preparation - mixing - sintering. The present invention has a simple process and low cost to meet the arts and crafts paint and various fluorescent effect required items need.

A process for the preparation of fluorspar flotation method, the crude intermediate product produced with oleic fatty acids or mixed fatty acids as raw materials, added thereto weight of the fatty acids of 3% to 15% by weight of concentrated sulfuric acid, so that the occurrence of sulfatedreaction, again in the reaction product by weight of fatty acid weight the beneficiation of 0.4% to 3% of foaming agent accompli product. The present invention provides a method of producing low-cost production fluorite floating selection collectors collecting capacity, water-soluble, dispersible, suitable for room temperature and low flotation fluorite.

A flotation of fluorite ore processing method, it is granted a patent improvements 87,105,202 No.Flotation fluorite mineral acid jacketed plus synergist modifier. Any one of the water glass of the present invention, the addition of acid and the acid composition of one or more soluble salt mixture composition for the adjusting agent, and the formation of the composition series, can be used sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, oxalic acid, acetic acid kinds of acids and the corresponding salts, the combination ratio range of waterglass and acid.

The present invention provides a carbonate - fluorite ore economic effective flotation separation method, especially for the high carbonate content of the flotation separation of fluorite ore. The key is to choose the carbonate minerals inhibitors - acidified water glass processing drug measures in the conventional process conditions, carbonate and fluorite achieve high purity sorting.

The present invention uses a mixture of acid, alkali and synergist as a modifier, oleic acid or oak sodium oleate as collector, the process for the composite circuit in a near-neutral under normal temperature conditions fluorite oreflotation of fluorite concentrate obtained a high recovery rate, product quality, low impurity, pharmaceutical consumption, low cost, suitable for all kinds of fluorspar concentrator applications.

A fluorite dressing plant inGuangzhou, fluorite and quartz are the main minerals, and there is a small amount of pyrite, sericite, chlorite, calcite, barite, clay minerals and various sulfides.Dissemination sizeof fluoriteis not epigranular, particle size ranges from 0.01mmto 40mm, general is 1 ~ 3 mm, fluorite and quartz coexist. Under the condition of 87%of grinding particle sizeis-0.074mm,adopting fluorite flotation process,flotation temperature is 36 ~ 25, taking H111 as the collectorto be added in the rough concentration, secondaryconcentrationand fourth concentration. Superfine fluorite ore concentrate can be obtainedafter a rough concentrationand six timesconcentration. The concentratecontains CaF2 98.96%, recovery rateis 91.81% (concentratecontains SiO2 0.55%).

nokeng fluorspar mine on track to realise full potential

nokeng fluorspar mine on track to realise full potential

We were trying to combine a relatively simple mining project with a more complex fluorspar beneficiation process with a large capital ticket of between US$400 and US$500 million. As such, SepFluor struggled for about four years to develop investors appetite for the project.

Wagner points out that 45% of financing came in the form of equity while SepFluor also received funding from Nedbank CIB as well as from FMO and DEG, development banks from Holland and Germany respectively.

In addition, we were able to forward sell a significant proportion of the first three years production, and while this was at a price when the market had not yet started its upswing, it helped in getting the project financed.

The initial Engineering, Procurement, Construction contract (EPC) for Nokeng was awarded to a company in India. However, due to escalating costs during the financing stages, Wagner decided to terminate the contract and it went back on tender in 2015.

At that time, most of the project houses in South Africa had little work so this was the perfect time to go back into the market and we awarded the work to a joint venture comprising DRA Projects and Group Five, Wagner explains.

DRA was responsible for the design and management of the plant and Group Five was tasked with its construction. There were some issues when Group Five went into business rescue towards the end of the construction phase, but by then the plant was almost complete and DRA ensured that construction was completed.

With Nokeng now operational, SepFluor is focused on financing its chemical beneficiation plant in Ekandustria, near Bronkhorstspruit. This is in keeping with the governments Fluorochemical Expansion Initiative (FEI), an attempt to increase beneficiation of South African mined fluorspar.

Currently, Pelchem is the only South African company that has a hydrofluoric acid plant but it operates on a very small scale, developing niche fluorine chemicals that it sells in small quantities on a global level.

So, there is a tremendous opportunity to lock in returns based on the savings in transport costs to ship fluorspar around the world as well as direct strategic access to a low cost raw material supply.

In addition, there will be 19,000tpa of surplus hydrofluoric acid which can be sold worldwide or used in local downstream beneficiation for the production of refrigerants, car gaskets, glass products the opportunities are tremendous.

Granted, initially it will be a little slow but there is strong government support for these initiatives and I am certain beneficiation will attract other industries and investment opportunities, states Wagner.

In addition to beneficiation, Nokeng is also benefitting nine local communities around the mine. About 135 permanent workers and around 70 contract workers, with some hailing from local communities, have been gainfully employed at the mine.

Named after SepFluors chairperson and opened in August 2018, the centre will provide National Mining Qualifications Authority-accredited skills training for more than 4,500 people from local communities over the life of mine.

Wagner firmly believes that the fact, that high-quality fluorspar that can be mined at low cost, ensures that Nokeng sits in the bottom quartile of international cost curves, thereby making it a lucrative asset and placing the company on a strong strategic footing.

We know for a fact that there are other ore bodies on the property. We have done exploration on another ore body, Wilton, which we will continue to drill and believe there is a strong probability that we will find other ore bodies within our mining rights area, which will increase the life or expand the operation, he concludes.

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