Copper, due to the present world demand and price, is of foremost interest to the mining industry. Many new properties are either in the process of being brought into production or are being given consideration. Copper minerals usually occur in low grade deposits and require concentration prior to smelting. The method and degree of concentration depends on smelter location and schedules, together with the nature of the ore deposit. Sulphide copper ores generally occur with pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite and molybdenite, and with gold and silver. A complete copper-iron separation may not always be essential for the maximum economic recovery and often is tied to the distribution of the gold and silver values.
The above flowsheet is designed for the treatment by flotation of copper as chalcopyrite with gold and silver values. The ore, ranging from 60-65% silica, with pyrite, arsenopyrite, and calcite with 3 to 4% copper. This flowsheet, though simple, is adequate for tonnages of 100 to 500 tons or more per day, depending on the size of equipment selected. It can be readily expanded by duplicating units for increased tonnages. By minor circuit changes, it provides the flexibility to treat a range of ore conditions which are often encountered in any mining operation. Generally in these small plants the recovery of molybdenum is disregarded unless it is present in considerable amounts. Larger plants generally will incorporate a circuit for molybdenum recovery from the copper concentrate by flotation. Sub- A Flotation is standard for this service.
Crushing Section. The crushing section with two-stage reduction is suitable for smaller tonnages, depending on the ore characteristics. Three-stage reduction in either an open or closed circuit, with screens for the removal of fines can be employed where conditions warrant. The fines are removed by a grizzly or screen ahead of each reduction stage for higher efficiency and for reduced wear on crushing surfaces.
Feed control is essential to efficient grinding and helps reduce surges and fluctuations throughout the entire plant. The Ball Mill in closed circuit with a Spiral Classifier discharges the pulp at about 60% minus 200 mesh. The Ball Mill is equipped with a Spiral Screen on the discharge for removal of any tramp oversize, worn grinding balls, and wood chips from the circuit.
The pulp from the Conditioner is treated in a 10-cell Sub-A Flotation Machine and a 4-cell Sub-A Flotation machine. Sometimes conditioners are not provided; however, their use insures that reagents are thoroughly mixed into the pulp ahead of flotation. This gives a more uniform feed and effective use of reagents plus improved flotation conditions. The 10-cell Sub-A Flotation Machine is of the free-flow type. Weirs for the control of pulp level through the machine are provided at the fourth, eighth and tenth cells. This free-flow type provides ample volume for normal fluctuations in the feed rate without cell level adjustment. Sand relief ports help extend the long life of the molded rubber wearing parts.
The first eight cells produce a rougher concentrate while the last two cells act as scavengers. The concentrate or middling product from these two cells is returned by gravity back to the fifth cell. The rougher concentrate from the first eight cells is cleaned in two stages in the four-cell standard Sub-A Flotation Machine, of the cell-to-cell type. No pumps are needed for the return of these flotation products for cleaning. This feature in Sub-A Flotation Machines gives added flexibility by enabling the operator to change cleaning circuits readily, should conditions require. The tailings from the cleaner flotation section are pumped back to the ball mill for regrind. To control dilution a cone classifier is placed in this circuit with the coarse solids going to regrind and the overflow used as dilution in the mill and classifier. It is possible to eliminate this classification in some cases but control is less positive. A separate regrind section could be provided if the quantity of middling products were enough to make this section feasible.
The final cleaned flotation concentrate flows or is pumped to a Spiral Rake Thickener. A Adjustable Stroke Diaphragm Pump, mounted on the thickener superstructure, meters the thickened concentrate to the Disc Filter. The Thickeners are often used to store concentrates for filtration at fixed intervals. These units have heavy duty construction throughout, overload indicators and positive rake lifting features. The Diaphragm Pump is used for concentrate recirculation purposes during such periods.
Lime is added to the Ball Mill by a Cone Type Dry Reagent Feeder. Other reagents, such as cyanide, xanthate, and a frother are fed and controlled by No. 12A Wet Reagent Feeders to the classifier and to the conditioner ahead of flotation.
This flowsheet stresses simplicity without sacrifice of efficiency. The factors of flexibility are essential to meet changing ore and market conditions. The unit arrangement which can be expanded by sections for increased capacity is an important feature. The equipment indicated has been proven for long life and low maintenance, and to give superior results. The Sub-A Flotation Machines are designed for high capacity and with features of flexibility to handle fluctuating conditions with a minimum of operating attention. Low final tailings and high grade concentrate are assured through the selective action of the Sub-A in the roughing, cleaning, and recleaning circuits.
Large scale mining operations, of which the porphyry coppers are typical, must resort to concentration. This is necessary as the ores are generally low grade and require flotation to produce a concentrate acceptable to the smelters.
These large scale milling operations handling low grade ore must provide very careful planning in the design of their plant flowsheet and selection of equipment. Milling circuits must be as simple as possible and for large tonnages, as few as possible. It is for this reason grinding mills and flotation circuits arenow designed to handle these large tonnages at low cost.
Sub-A Flotation Machines are a basic part of large tonnage operations and their use assures maximum economic recovery. Particular emphasis has been placed on the design and operation of these machines for roughing, scavenging and cleaning. Mechanisms have been greatly simplified and molded rubber wearing parts are standard for maximum abrasion resistance.
Three stage crushing is illustrated in the flowsheet; however, it is possible and practical to eliminate the third stage by incorporating a rod mill in the grinding section. This is a very practical arrangement and often a necessity when handling wet, sticky ore. There is evidence that this combination of crushing and grinding results in lower costs for reducing large tonnages of ore to flotation size.
The flowsheet illustrates a typical grinding circuit with a rod mill in open circuit. Its discharge, usually all 14 mesh, goes to a classifier for removal of finished material. The classifier sands are ground in a ball mill in closed circuit with the same classifier. High speed rod milling with speeds up to 80% of critical has shown definite improvement in efficiency and grinding capacity. Proper selection of mill density and grinding charges are also factors of importance. Usually the rod mill is operated at lower density so it acts partially as its own classifier for retaining oversize for further size reduction.
Some conditioning of the pulp ahead of flotation is usually very beneficial and will result in more uniform and rapid flotation of a selective high grade concentrate. For this service the (patented) Super Agitator and Conditioner is standard. Reagents added at this point are thoroughly mixed and reacted with the pulp. Any tendency of the pulp to froth prematurely is readily overcome by the patented standpipe arrangement which also assures positive pulp circulation.
For large tonnage circuits normally encountered in many of the copper operations the open or free flow type Sub-A Super Rougher Flotation Machine is recommended. Intermediate cell weirs are eliminated and circulation of pulp through the impeller is fixed to provide the desired agitation and aeration for rougher flotation conditions. Machines are usually arranged with up to six cells being open or free-flow without intermediate weirs. Two or more machines are always provided in series. This allows adequate volume for absorbing surges and fluctuation in feed without cell adjustment. Mineral and middlings in the teeter or quiescent zone of the cell are gradually forced upward to the froth removal zone. Only the coarser material in the agitation zone passes through the impeller for further conditioning and bubble attachment.
In the flowsheet each circuit consists of 16 or 18 cells in 4 or 6 cell units. These Sub-A Super Rougher Flotation Free-Flow Machines are in series. All of the mechanisms are of the single impeller type and are completely supported from the superstructure to facilitate maintenance. All heavy hoods and castings are eliminated and the impeller-diffuser clearance is pre-set and accurately maintained throughout the long life of the heavy duty moulded rubber wearing parts. The last two cells are the super scavenger type giving veryintense agitation and aeration to float the last trace of recoverable mineral or middling for re-treatment.
Rougher flotation concentrates are cleaned in a standard Sub-A Flotation Machine with cell to cell pulp level control. This arrangement for upgrading concentrates is universal in its acceptance by the ore dressing industry. Two or more stages of cleaning in the same machine are accomplished without auxiliary pumps and ideal flotation conditions for producing high-grade concentrates are easily maintained.
Cleaner flotation tailings are returned to the head of the rougher flotation circuit for retreatment. In many milling circuits, particularly if coarse grinding is used, the cleaner tailings will contain middlings or mineral with attached particles of gangue. In these cases it is necessary to thicken or classify and regrind this fraction. Centrifugal classifiers are being very successfully applied for the classification step although they do take considerable power and require more maintenance than a thickener with its underflow going to a regrind circuit.
The flowsheet incorporates thickening for both the concentrates and tailings for water reclamation and tailings disposal purposes. A Adjustable Stroke Diaphragm Pump on the concentrate thickener assures absolute control of the volumes delivered to the Disc Filter. When the filter is down temporarily for bag changes the concentrates may be recirculated to the thickener by this same pulp.
Flexibility and simplicity are the two most important points to design into any large tonnage flotation operation. The arrangement shown is flexible and will permit addition of extra milling sections up to the limit of the designed capacity of the crushing plant. Sub-A Flotation Machines are designed specifically for high tonnage installations and have been proven for all types of applications. Rugged construction will give years of service at lowest possible cost. This flowsheet is readily adaptable for the treatment of other ores. Note particularly the location and use of Automatic Sampler.
Copper, one of our most important minerals, is found in many parts of the world. One of the major sources of Copper is the so-called porphyry ores such as the large deposits in the west and southwestern United States, Mexico, South America and Europe.
Porphyry ores, with copper occurring in the form of Chalcocite and Chalcopyrite are normally low in grade and the copper minerals must be concentrated before smelting. In this flowsheet using Sub-A Cells the emphasis is on maximum economic recoveryhigh concentrating efficiency together with a premium smelter feed with a low alumina and magnesia content in the flotation concentrate.
To obtain lowest tailings from this ore usually requires scavenging of rougher flotation tails. This is performed ideally by the Sub-A Super Rougher Flotation Machine which was specially developed for this duty. This machine has a double impeller and gives tremendous aeration. The flowsheet in this study is designed to get the maximum recovery from a large tonnage of porphyry copper ore.
The crushing section consists of three-stage ore reduction with either a grizzly or vibrating screen between each crushing stage. Removing fines before putting the ore through a crusher increases the efficiency of the crusher as it is then only working on material that must be reduced, and is not hampered by fines already reduced in size. Electromagnets and magnetic pulleys are used to remove tramp iron from the ore, the former to remove the iron near the surface and the magnetic pulley to remove the tramp iron close to the conveyor belt.
Porphyry copper ores usually are medium to medium hard and require grinding to about 65 mesh to economically liberate the copper minerals from the siliceous gangue. Sometimes a regrinding circuit is advantageous on the rougher concentrate and on the scavenger concentrate. This will liberate the mineral from the middling products and increase the recovery by putting those mineral particles into the concentrate. Rougher flotation may be accomplished at a relatively coarse grind and the subsequent regrind performed on a comparatively small tonnage.
Lime is usually added to the ball mill feed by a Dry Reagent Feeder. The frother and promoter are added in the classifier prior to flotation to realize the full effect of the reagent. Reagents can also be stage- added to the cells in the flotation circuit.
Standard Sub-A Flotation Machines are used for both the rougher and cleaner circuits, where their cell-to-cell principle gives both high recovery and a good grade of concentrate. The rougher concentration is accomplished in 6 or 8-cell flotation machines, with the concentrate from each goingto a separate bank for cleaning and re-cleaning. No. 30 Sub-A Flotation Machines are ideal for large tonnage operations, as each bank will handle from 1000 tons upward per day. Tails from the rougher circuit go to a scavenger circuit. Roughing, scavenging, cleaning and recleaning can be carried out in one bank of Sub-As. This is possible because of the distinctive gravity return of a product from any cell to any other cell of a bank without using pumps. In large installations, however, these steps are usually carried out in separate banks of cells. The scavenger flotation circuit consists of a 4-cell, Sub-A Super Rougher Flotation Machine with its super aeration. The concentrate from scavenger cells is returned to the head of the rougher cells and tails are sent to tailing pond. The new Sub-A Super Rougher Machine is designed especially to produce the lowest possible tailings in the mill circuit by scavenging off the last bit of recoverable and often difficult to float mineral. The Automatic Sampler is used on the flotation feed, concentrates and tailings to establish close mill control.
The flowsheet incorporates a thickener on the copper concentrates to thicken for optimum filtering. This also serves as a temporary storage space to accommodate operating requirements. The Adjustable-Stroke Diaphragm Pump on the thickener gives absolute control of volumes pumped to the filter. When the filter is shut down concentrates may be recirculated to the thickener by this same pump.
It is essential to have flexibility in any mill circuit, but particularly in large-tonnage operations such as this. Changing ore, changing market conditions and many other factors make this flexibility absolutely necessary. A slight change, easily made, in a flexible flowsheet may increase tonnage, improve recovery and lower grinding and reagent costs.
Kefid machinery supply global mining, crushing, grinding plant project for global customer. Our project are widely in Asia, Europe, the americas, Africa, and countries likeRussia, Kazakhstan, Indonesia, Ecuador, South Africa, Nigeria, Turkey more than 100 countries and region.Kefid machinery are widely used for mine mining project, stone quarry project, powder making industry, mineral ore deep processing area.
Kefid can supply global customer with different type of processing project. Mining equipment can be used to processing mine mineral like gold ore mine mining, copper ore mine mining, silver ore mine mining, iron ore mine mining, lead mining, and so on non-ferrous metal mine mining; Crusher and crushing plant are used to processing stone or rock, such as limestone crushing plant, river rock crushing for sand, granite crushing line, coal mining and crushing project, and other quarry stone crush and sand making project; Ore grinding and mineral beneficiation project for mineral deep processing, gold extraction engineering, iron ore beneficiation equipment, copper processing equipment, the nickel ore beneficiation equipment, and other mineral processing project.
Customer who need our machines, need technical support, project design guide, get the price or machines catalogue, please contact with us for details. We can also show you with our global customer processing site, or let our old customer tell you the Kefidcompany strength in global market.
The second stage is grinding and flotation process. Due to a different distribution of fine particle size of useful and gangue minerals incopper mining process plant, and the ore is easily argillization. Therefore, separating copper usually adopts grinding and flotation process. Equipment used in copper milling process of grinding and magnetic separation is typicallygrid ball millor overflow ball mill, classification equipment is spiral classifier or hydrocyclone, the flotation machine for mechanical stirring type flotation machine or flotation column.
Concentrating dehydration production line of a copper processing plant. For the storage and transportation of products, molybdenum concentrate needs thickening and dewatering. Common copper ore concentrate equipment of copper processing plant is a traditional thickener,efficient deep cone thickener, inclined plate thickener; commonfilter used in a copper mining process plant are disc vacuum filter and a ceramic filter. Xinhai company has a variety of thickeners and filters for customers.
Xinhai provides all kinds of copper milling process equipment of copper processing plant. The equipment quality and the service quality are excellent, and it is the right choice for when you processing copper mining process plant.
Indonesia is abundant with many types of mineral resources. The mining industry is an integral sector in economic development in Indonesia. Mining Industry is expected to grow by 10.9% from 2010 to 2015. Indonesia is one of the worlds largest producers of tin after China, coal (ranked the third largest thermal coal exporter after Australia and South Africa) and copper (ranked third largest, after the USA and Chile). It also produces significant quantities of gold and nickel. Minerals and related products represented nearly 20% of Indonesias total exports, with gold being the largest revenue earner. Indonesia is also a producer of bauxite, phosphates and iron sand, with potential for alluvial diamond production as well.
Crushing is the first stage in mineral mining and processing operation. In mineral crushing circuit, the feeder or screens separate large size rock from finer rocks that do not require primary crushing, and then convey the materials to the primary crusher. Jaw crusher, impact crusher, or gyratory crushers are usually applied for primary size reduction. The crusher productis normally 7.5 to 30 cmin diameter. According to production requirements, the primary crushed materials will be further crushed in secondary or tertiary crushing operation.
Grinding is distinct from crushing operation; it is the process of reducing materials to a powder of fine or very fine size, which involves size reduction to a rock, pebble or grain size.Material grinding is an integral step in industrial processing applications.In mineral grinding systems, the mineral from crushing and screening operations is first conveyed to coarse grinding mill and then fine grindingball mills or roller mill to reduce the material to the necessary product size range.
Many types of grinding mills have been developed for particular applications. Sometypesofmills canbeused to grind a large variety of materials whereas others are used for certain specific grinding requirements. Indonesia grinding industry development requires advanced grinding technology and high performance milling machine.
It is crucial to choose right crushing plant for a mine or quarry plant. Ore characteristics are a key factor in both crusher selection and plant design. Dry oresrequire greater provisions for dust suppression and collection, including dust enclosures aroundscreens, sealing on conveyor skirts, and vacuum and wash-down systems. Wet, sticky ores canplug chutes, reduce surge capacity, and decrease the live storage capacity of bins and silos. Toaddress this problem, chutes must be easily accessible for clean-up, and large feeder openingsmust be provided for bins, silos and tunnels. SBM can customize crushing and grinding machine for mining industry in Indonesia.
Crushing and grinding industry in Indonesia is still in developing. It requires high quality equipment for improving efficiency. SBM is global supplier and manufacturer of crushing and grinding machine. With know-how technology, we developed complete series of stone crushing and grinding machine for mining industry in Indonesia, such as jaw crusher, impact crusher, hammer crusher, gyratory crusher, VSI crusher, cone crusher, mobile crushing plant, ball mill, high pressure mill, stamp mill, ultrafine mill, vertical roller mill, trapezium mill etc.
The crushing and grinding equipment features high production capacity, big crushing ratio, low energy cost, easy operation and maintenance. It is widely applied in mining, quarrying, construction, recycling applications. No matter hard, soft, hot or abrasive materials, you will find a best solution by our machinery. Please contact us for more information.
South Africa low-cost uranium resource has 341000 tons, accounting for 7.2% of the world's total reserves and it is the world in fifth place of whole world. Uranium deposits are mainly concentrated in South Africa Victor Waters Rand Basin gold - uranium breccia. It belongs to the breccia type gold - uranium deposit and it has large reserves of low grade. Uranium is recovered as a by-product. Conglomerate in industrial uranium is as many as 20 multilayer and the seam extended range of a few kilometers, a few tens of kilometers.
Uranium ore mining processing production line will help clients to get the high grade materials for further production. SBM is a professional uranium ore processing line machine manufacturer and it can provide the test work supervision: SBM's engineers arrange and oversee laboratory, pilot plant and on-site test work.
Uranium ore crushing line is one of the most useful processing stages in the ore comminution production line. It will break the raw uranium ore into small scales. The whole uranium ore crushing line can be divided into primary crushing stage, secondary crushing stage or even the tertiary crushing stage. Depending on the production capability, the uranium ore crushing line can be divided into 80-100 t/h crushing line, 150-300 t/h production lines, 350-600 t/h production lines and the 600-800 t/h crushing line. The different mineral production line can be adopted by various clients.
For the detailed specific uranium ore crusher machine, it refers to the jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher and the mobile uranium ore crushing machine. The conventional crushing process will crush the large scale materials into smaller size. Jaw crusher will be used as the primary crushing machine. In this crushing equipment, it will complete the first stage breaking production. Cone crusher, impact crusher will be used as the secondary crushing machine. In the rock production line, it would rather have more crushing stage than grinding stage. With cone crusher and impact crusher, the uranium ore materials will be processed into powder size. Then it is the grinding stage.
In the comminution stage, it has another important processing step: uranium ore grinding process. The conventional milling will be followed by autogenous and semi-autogenous milling, and at last, it would be the fine milling process. Computer modelling maximises use of available data to assess and select the most appropriate comminution circuit, to achieve the required size reduction of the ore needed for efficient uranium extraction.
The common uranium ore grinding machine includes ball mill, vertical roller mill and Raymond grinding mill, mobile grinding mill. SBM's grinding mill technology combines the most advanced design, analysis and testing technologies with different enhancing technologies, to help clients select the best grinding solution for their needs.
SBM uranium ore grinding mill provides the user with a means of calculating the effect of our own grinding technology on the overall material flow in the processing plant and is a convincing way to demonstrate its benefits.
SBM uranium grinding mill technology offers significant advantages over conventional crushing and grinding technologies in ore processing line: 1. Compact design; 2. Selective comminution; 3. Higher degree of liberation of the valuable minerals; 4. Rapid response to changes in the feed composition; 5. Reduced product over-grinding; 6. In-bed comminution; 7. Low specific energy consumption; 8. Steep product particle size curve; 9. Combining of the crushing and grinding process stages; 10. Optimization of throughput through online monitoring; 11. The grinding product has a positive effect on the downstream processes.
Depending on the above uranium ore processing line, you will have a brief knowledge of uranium crushing and grinding production line. The mentioned machines are all made by SBM. It has focused itself on the production of ore mining equipment for over 20 years. SBM can provide the high quality and advanced mining equipment for customers. If you want to get more information, you can contact our professional experts to get more detailed information.
Zimbabwe has abundant natural resources, coal, chromium, gold, silver, iron, asbestos, lithium, and niobium, lead, zinc, tin, uranium, copper, nickel, etc. Coal, iron, chromium, and asbestos deposits are famous in the world for the large quantity. Zimbabwe has been a crazy plundering Africa wealth of western colonists, and it was referred as "the jewel in the crown" before it was independent. Coal reserves are about 27 billion tons. Iron reserves are about 250 million tons. Chromium and asbestos reserves are large. This country is lack of water resources. Main industrial categories are metal and metal processing, food processing, oil, chemical industry, drinks and tobacco, textile, paper making and printing, etc.
In 2008, the domestic political and economic situation continues to deteriorate and the international financial crisis, most mining companies are closed. Since the coalition government was establishment in February 2009, mining industry began to recover. Mining industry grew 26% year-on-year in 2011. According to the report, Zimbabwe platinum producer has regarded Engels's area underground mine as the company $258 million plan's first phase of expansion plans for the long term. Once realizing full production, the new platinum mining is expected to push up Zimbabwe mining company's ore annual output to 4.5 million tons, and the platinum output will be 5 tons.
For mining platinum ore in Zimbabwe, SBM supplies and evaluate equipment to make unbiased selections of the best equipment for this mining processing. SBM can provide the full range of capabilities to convert run of mine platinum to saleable products, integrating engineering and process know-how in development and optimization of plant designs for platinum that meets global environmental standards.
Platinum mining plant usually includes three main processing stages: crushing, grinding and beneficiation stages. The first two stages are used to get large scale raw platinum materials into fine size. Beneficiation plant will help to get fine powder materials into high grade and pure materials.
The main machine used in platinum mining plant has jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, mobile crusher and ball mill, vertical roller mill, ultrafine mill and mobile grinding plant. Of course, in the whole production line, it needs the auxiliary equipment to finish the whole processing, such as the vibrating feeder, vibrating screen, belt conveyor and so on. In beneficiation plant, all kinds of beneficiation machines will be used, like, separators, washing machine etc. These beneficiation machines will cooperate with main processing equipment to make the whole line for Zimbabwe platinum production line.
SBM is a professional mining machine manufacturer from China and our company has established good cooperation relationship with Africa countries, such as Zimbabwe, South Africa, and Uganda and so on. Our mining machines have helped local mining operators get much profit. Based on over 20 years' production experience, SBM has produced high quality and advanced mining machines for sale, crushing machine, grinding machine and beneficiation equipment.
Platinum mining jaw crusher is the major crushing equipment used as primary crushing machine in mining and quarrying industry. SBM jaw crusher machine belongs to the practical and economic equipment machine for mining operators. This primary crusher machine is designed to break all kinds of mineral ores with high crushing capability, low costs, high reduction ratio which makes it popular in over 100 countries.
SBM's cone crusher machine has the spring release system will allow the tramp platinum to pass without damage to the crushing chamber. The sealing system adopts the double dry oil and water sealing to separate the lubricating oil from stone dust to provide its reliable operating. Our platinum cone crusher has reliable construction, high productivity, easy adjustment and low operating costs.
Milling machine used in platinum processing line from SBM refers to the vertical roller mill. This grinding mill has easy access for replacement of runners, casing and segments of the rotating table without dismantling of the grinding chamber and separator. This grinding milling machine is used to get fine powder platinum materials in Zimbabwe.
Its fully-enclosed layout features high integration. It integrates the functions of high-efficiency sand making, particle shape optimization, filler content control, gradation control, water content control, and environmental protection into a single systGet in Touch with Mechanic