coal milling question 1 - page 1 of 1

coal milling question 1 - page 1 of 1

Presently we use coal from China and South Africa, maintaining volatile matter in fine coal below 32 per cent. We use cooler exhaust gas (ambient) for coal mill drying. We want to use coal from Indonesia having about 42 per cent volatile matter. Is it safe to grind in the coal mill having hot gases from cooler? We have CO2 inertisation system in coal mill circuit. What precautions are required to be taken? How much percentage of high VM coal can be used? How long we can store this type of coal in the yard?

There are well established guidelines for the safety operation of coal grinding equipment. These fall into two broad categories: (i) explosion prevention, and (ii) explosion protection. For prevention the best solution is to ensure that there is less than 12 per cent oxygen in the atmosphere. You cannot do that when cooler exhaust air is used for coal drying. As a general guideline drying with cooler exhaust air is suitable with direct firing systems. Other prevention measures are to ensure there are no fine coal dust accumulations in the system and no possible sources of ignition. These are determined by the design of the coal milling and storage system. With your non-inert coal grinding system you will have to have rigourous explosion protection designed into the equipment. The mill, raw coal feeder and ductwork must be capable to withstand a pressure of 9 bar. The dust filter, any cyclones and fine coal hoppers, must be fitted with explosion relief doors or rip-foil sides. Ducts entering these containers must be have explosion relief ahead of the container is they are longer than 5x their diameter. You can see that there is no simple answer to your question. A full inspection and audit would be required before anyone could certify that it is safe to grind the Indonesian coal in your system. I would recommend modifying the system to dry the coal with inert preheater exhaust gases. Regarding storage it is not desireable to store high volatile coal in large stockpiles. However, you will have to import large shipments to make it economic. The stockpiles need to be compacted to minimise air ingress into the piles. You should also limit the height of such piles. With 42 per cent volatiles the height of the piles should be limited to 4m.

We are having a 1.5Mt six-stage Precalciner kiln operating with South African coal having a VM of 28 per cent. Now we thinking to switch over to Indonesian coal with high VM content (up to 42 per cent) and Chinese coal (VM up to 32 per cent). The coal mill is a VRM having hot gases from cooler. Up to what maximum VM we can go without having explosion problems. With high VM coal what are the other changes to be carried out to regarding coal residue so that we do not get problems in the flame shape.

There are well established guidelines for the safety operation of coal grinding equipment. These fall into two broad categories: (i) explosion prevention, and (ii) explosion protection. For prevention the best solution is to ensure that there is less than 12 per cent oxygen in the atmosphere. You cannot do that when cooler exhaust air is used for coal drying. As a general guideline drying with cooler exhaust air is suitable with direct firing systems. Other prevention measures are to ensure there are no fine coal dust accumulations in the system and no possible sources of ignition. These are determined by the design of the coal milling and storage system.

coal ball mill

coal ball mill

Coal ball mill is a machine that crushes and grinds the coal briquette into pulverized coal. It is important auxiliary equipment of pulverized coal furnace. During the coal grinding process, the coal is crushed and its superficial area increases continually. To add new superficial area, the bond between solid molecules must be overcome, so the energy is consumed. The coal is grinded into pulverized coal in the coal mill mainly by means of three ways: press, strike and grind. Among them, the first way is the most energy-saving, and the last one most energy-consuming. During the milling process, all kinds of coal mills use two or three of these ways.

Compared with ball mills with the same specification, the yield of coal mill increases drastically, and the finished product is fine, achieving the high-yield and super-fine goal. It provides a new kind of grinding equipment to produce high-quality pulverized coal.

Feeding equipment sends the raw coal into louver scraper-trough conveyer of feeding apparatus. While the materials slipping down,the hot-blast air about 300 also enters the mill through the blast pipe and stove the raw coal. By means of the kinetic energy while slipping down, the raw coal enters the drying storehouse through the hollow shaft, and then enters the second cabin through the partition after being fully stoved. In the second cabin, there are a certain number of grinding media. Due to the rotation of cylinder, the classifying liner brings the grinding media to a certain height. Taking advantage of the impact energy and frictional energy while falling down, they crush and grind the raw coal. At the same time, the special ventilator sucks the grinded powder and the used hot-blast air out of the mill from its discharging device. The special separator separates the unqualified coarse power from the mixture of fine power and hot-blast air, and sends it back to the mill to grind again. The qualified fine powder and hot-blast air is sent into the rotoclone collector and separate here.

Pre-sales Service: The wide product range enables us to provide our customers with stand-alone machines or complete processing plants. Based on our customers request and budget, our experts make efficient, reliable solutions. Following customers order we produce strictly, whats more, before placing the order every customer has the chance to visit XinXiang Great Wall (Chaeng) working machines or complete plant in the site. To ease the trip for every visitor to China, in particular the first-time visitor, we provide FOR FREE all relevant visitor-friendly services including invitation letter preparation, hotel reservation, airport pick-up, incity transportation, and sightseeing guide, etc. After-sales Service: Experienced technicians guidance is available on the phone, and on the internet. One or more engineers will be dispatched to the quarry site to help install the customers plants. Necessary training about machine daily maintenance to local workers is provided also. After-Sales department is made of well-trained employees and installation engineers, the installation engineers are special and professional members of XinXiang Great Wall (Chaeng), they are now strategically located home and abroad, working for our customers.

Pre-sales Service: The wide product range enables us to provide our customers with stand-alone machines or complete processing plants. Based on our customers request and budget, our experts make efficient, reliable solutions. Following customers order we produce strictly, whats more, before placing the order every customer has the chance to visit XinXiang Great Wall (Chaeng) working machines or complete plant in the site.

To ease the trip for every visitor to China, in particular the first-time visitor, we provide FOR FREE all relevant visitor-friendly services including invitation letter preparation, hotel reservation, airport pick-up, incity transportation, and sightseeing guide, etc.

After-sales Service: Experienced technicians guidance is available on the phone, and on the internet. One or more engineers will be dispatched to the quarry site to help install the customers plants. Necessary training about machine daily maintenance to local workers is provided also.

After-Sales department is made of well-trained employees and installation engineers, the installation engineers are special and professional members of XinXiang Great Wall (Chaeng), they are now strategically located home and abroad, working for our customers.

coal mill,rod grinder,rod mill,crushing mill,grinding rod mill,pin crusher,rod grinding machine--hongxing machinery

coal mill,rod grinder,rod mill,crushing mill,grinding rod mill,pin crusher,rod grinding machine--hongxing machinery

Henan Hongxing Machinery, a technical rod grinder manufacturer in China, is a large joint-stock enterprise integrating R&D, production and sales. Henan Hongxing Machinery is second to none in various rod mill manufacturers. In Zhongyuan District, Henan Hongxing Machinery is one of the biggest crushing mill producers. It provides various crushing mills and accessories. Coal mill is one of the key products produced by Hongxing Machinery. Henan Hongxing forms strong comprehensive innovation system by virtue of years of experience accumulation and development. Experts from Hongxing Machinery remind you that product quality must be taken into consideration.

The grinding rod mill drives the cylinder in rotation by the engine through the rotation of the reducer and big gears around with the deceleration or through low speed synchronous motor driving directly peripheral big gears. The grinding rod mill is equipped with appropriate grinding medium-steel bar, which is raised to a certain height under the centrifugal force and friction force and then cast down or discharged. The to-be-crushed materials are continuously added to the cylinder, shattered by the rotating grinding medium and discharged to the next procedure by the overflow and the power of continuously feeding in materials.

coal mill - an overview | sciencedirect topics

coal mill - an overview | sciencedirect topics

To control the quality of coal being sent to the burners located on the furnace walls. The word quality here means the temperature and fineness of the PF. The set temperature values are dependent on the percentage of volatile matter that exists in the main fuel. The controlled temperature is important for many reasons such as stability of ignition, better grindability of solid fuels, better floating ability of suspended PF particles, etc. However, a temperature more than 65 to 70 is not recommended for various reasons.

Operating data from a coal mill is used to compare the fault detection observer-based method and PCA/PLS models based approach. There are 13 process measurements available representing different temperature, mass flows, pressures, speed etc in the coal mill.

The measurement is not updated, if the variation is less than 1%. The variations of T(t) is in the major part of the operational time inside this interval. Therefore, it is not suitable to be chosen as the predictor variable. However, the variations can be extracted from the TPA(t), which is used to control the temperature of the mill. Therefore, the PLS model is developed with the temperature of the mill as the dependent variable. In addition 6 of the other variables are chosen as regressors since there is barely information in the remainder.

A static PCA model is first developed, which captures around 99% of variations with 5 PCs (see Fig.5), which indicates strong collinearity among regressors. As shown in Fig.6, both Q and T2 statistics (with 95% confidence level) of the static PCA model are noisy, which potentially lead to false alarms. A static PLS model with 2 LVs achieves the minimal PRESS (see Fig.7), which is applied to the test dataset. Fig.8 shows the comparison between process measurement and the static PLS model prediction, together with the 95% confidence level. The process gradually drifts away form the NOC model, which eventually moves beyond the threshold around the sample 150. Due to the noise involved in the prediction signal, the estimation moves in and out the threshold from 110 till 200, when it is clearly out of the confidence level. Both Figs.6 and 8 reveal that static PCA and PLS models may lead to false alarms due to the noisy estimation. In addition, process measurements are commonly auto-correlated, this behavior is expected since the coal mill runs dynamical. Thus, dynamic models are developed by including time lagged process measurements, to address the issue of auto-correlations and reduce the possibility of false alarms due the none modeled dynamics.

Including time lagged terms enhance the NOC model by including historical data. However, time lagged terms also introduce additional noise into the modeling data block. For example, including n+1 time lagged terms might lead to poorer validation performance than the model with n terms due to measurement noise. Therefore, PRESS is used to choose an appropriate number of time lagged terms for a dynamic PLS model.

The predictive ability of the PLS model is improved with the inclusion of time lagged terms. The PRESS decreases from 1.645 to the minimal value of 1.142, which is obtained with a dynamic PLS of 3 LVs using 8 time lagged terms. The application of the dynamic PLS model to the test data reveals that the fault occurs in the process around sample 160. Fig.9 also shows a much smoother prediction such that the possibility of false alarms is significantly reduced. A dynamic PCA model is developed by the inclusion of 8 time lagged terms. The number of PCs is chosen as 2 through cross-validation, which explains 70.6% of process variations. The Q statistic of the dynamic PCA model is shown in Fig.10, the fault is detected around 160 samples, which is consistent with the dynamic PLS model.

The control loop for mill outlet temperature discussed here is mainly for TT boilers based on a CE design with bowl mill (refer to FigureVIII/5.1-2). A similar loop is valid for a ball-and-tube mill, which is discussed separately in the next section. In order to understand the loop in the figure, it is advisable to look at FigureVIII/5.0-1 and the associated PID figure (refer to FigureIII/9.2-4).

The outlet temperature of the coal mill is maintained at desired point so that the coal delivered from the mill is completely dry and achieves the desired temperature. Also, in case of high temperature at the mill outlet, cold air is blown in to reduce the risk of fire.

Normally, the entire requirement of PA flow necessary for a particular load at the mill is initially attempted through HAD so as to ensure complete drying of the coal (especially during rainy seasons) and to raise the mill temperature at a desired point. However, there may be times during hot dry summers when the mill outlet temperature shoots up. This is also never a desired situation because of fire hazard. In fact, to combat this fire hazard, arrangements for mill-inerting systems with inert gases (e.g.,N2 and CO2) need to be made (another purpose is to reduce air supply).

This is more important for ball-and-tube mills, especially when these are operated with one side only. Therefore, CAD comes into operation whenever there is need to bring down the mill temperature. Naturally when this damper operates (i.e., starts opening through process feedback), the hot air damper closes. Here also is a cross-operation of the two dampers but through process and not directly via the loop, so control loop disturbances are fewer than in the old days when cross-operations were implemented in the loop.

Mill outlet temperatures measured by redundant temperature elements and transmitters are put in an error generator. (Temperature element specialties were discussed earlier and so not repeated here.) The output of the error generator drives a PID controller. In general, since temperature is a sluggish parameter it is always advisable to use PID controllers for better results. To prevent controller saturation, controllers are put into service only when both the loops are in auto. The output of the controller through I/P converters normally drives pneumatic actuators meant for CAD.

As stated earlier, only when both HAD and CAD are in auto is the controller put into operation. Since FSSS operations depend on mill temperature conditions, with the help of the limit value monitor (LVM) necessary contacts statuses are shared with FSSS. The loop can be released to auto by an FSSS command. As a protection, both the full opening command and the >x% command for the mill CAD are issued from FSSS so sufficient cold air is circulated. If the auto release command from FSSS is missing or if HAD is in manual, it is necessary to inhibit auto operation so that the operator pay complete attention to the mill outlet temperature. That is the check back signal for FSSS from the loop for damper position.

How breakage energy and force are applied in the mill in order to achieve size reduction in an efficient and effective manner. This is a matter of design and performance of mills and the main subject of this section;

How the material being reduced in size behaves in terms of breakage characteristics such as strength and resulting broken size and shape. This relates to how the material responds to the application of breakage energy and force in terms of rate and orientation of application.

The analysis of individual mill design and operation is complex; so, for simplicity we will consider a typical mill layout for one mill type only. As VSMs have come to represent the bulk of the power station mill fleet, the explanation of mill operations will be based on this mill type. Figure13.2 illustrates the typical key components of a VSM.

In coal milling for power stations, a closed-loop process is used in which the rejects from the classifier are returned to the mill for regrinding. In VSMs, the re-circulation loop is within the mill, but some mill types would have an external loop. In fact, there are a number of re-circulation loops within a mill system. The situation is further complicated by the mill reject streams that reject undesirable material (tramp metal and non-coal bearing rock) from the mill. Generally, the following steps illustrate the path through a VSM:

Air entering through the Port Ring creates a fluidising zone in which heavy material (Mill Rejects) such as rock falls through the Port Ring into the Air Plenum below the Grinding Table and is ejected from the Mill through the Mill Reject System;

From the fluidising zone the ground coal is lifted up inside the Mill Body. Larger particles of coal reach a terminal velocity at which gravity will pull them back on to the Grinding Table for regrinding (Elutriation);

The fineness of the milling product and the capacity of the pulverizer are strictly connected. With increased fineness grows the overall circulation rate of coal in the mill, coal retention time and the flow resistance. As a result, the maximum mill capacity decreases and the rate of change of operational parameters of the furnace system deteriorates. In extreme cases, the performance of the boiler may be limited, and therefore improving the fineness of milling product must often include the modernization of the grinding system. The increase of the throughput of a pulverizer, which compensates the loss of capacity resulting from the increased fineness of coal dust, may be achieved through:

The analysis [45] proves that the maximum capacity of the ball-ring mill is obtained using 5 or 6 balls. Because earlier, as a rule, a greater number of balls was used, there is a possibility to increase the capacity by replacing the existing balls through a lower number of bigger balls. For example, in the EM-70 of FPM SA 9 balls of the diameter 530mm were replaced with 7 of 650mm. Such a modernized milling system can usually be set up on the existing gearbox. It should be noted that the costs associated with replacement of the classifier and the grinding elements are only slightly greater than the costs of the major repair of the mill. In the case where an existing mill has a grinding unit of the number of balls close to 6, the only way to increase performance is to increase the diameter of the balls, but this requires replacement of the mill body.

It has to be mentioned that the number of balls is increased during the mill operation. For example, the initial ten balls, after lowering the diameter below some value (due to wear), is complemented with the 11th additional ball.

If the existing pulverizer is equipped with 6 or 7 balls, increasing of its capacity is also possible by means of replacing the ball-ring system with the bowl and roller milling device. The milling costs per Mg of fuel in both systems are similar. However, with the same dimensions of the milling systems, the capacity of the roller system is about 15%20% higher. Another advantage is the shorter renovation time, which is about 714days for the ring-ball system, while for the roller mill, only 37days. In addition, hardfacing and re-profiling of grinding components are much easier for roller milling systems.

During the modernization of milling plant with compression mills, detailed analysis requires the selection of cross sections of nozzle-rings at the inlet of the drying agent to the mill, in order to minimize the amount of coal removed from the grinding chamber. The preferred solution is a rotating nozzle ring integrated with the bowl. This ring equalizes air distribution pattern at the periphery of the grinding chamber, which allows increasing the capacity of the grinding system without fear of excessive loss of fuel from the mill.

The rotational speed of the vertical spindle mill affects the operating conditions of the grinding unit. At high rotational speeds, the grinding unit operates at high flow of the material in the radial direction and low layers of the material under the grinding elements (balls, rollers). This causes the particles to be discharged without comminution and increases circulation in the mill. At the same time, the flow resistance and milling energy consumption (including erosive and abrasive wear) of the mill will increase.

If the rotational speed is too low, the material flow will decrease significantly. The thickness of the material layer under grinding elements will exceed the maximal height for which the particles are drawn under the grinding elements, causing excessive buildup of the material in front of the grinding elements. The material outflow from the bowl (or the bottom ring) is not supported by grinding elements movement, which results in higher flow resistance and uneven loading of the nozzle ring. These factors cause a significant decrease in mill efficiency.

Tests carried out for some industrial mills have proven that the change of grinding unit rotational speed strongly influences mill capacity. Therefore, by changing the gear ratio of the mill, both milling capacity and dynamic properties of the mill can be improved.

The fuel injector is designed to introduce the dispersed coal particles in a medium of air into the furnace. The mass ratio of air to coal is dependent on the coal mill manufacturer and usually ranges from 1.75 to 2.2 with a typical value of 2.0. An air to fuel mass ratio of 1.8 produces a primary stoichiometric ratio of approximately 0.16, or 16% of the air necessary for complete combustion of the coal. According to the previous discussion of NOx formation chemistry it is expected that lower NOx concentrations are achievable with lower primary gas/fuel ratios. The diameter of the coal transport line is constrained by the minimum velocity at which coal particles remain entrained in the carrier gas, or the coal layout velocity. This velocity is generally accepted to be 50 ft/s (Wall, 1987). The dimension of the fuel injector itself is selected by the burner manufacturer to provide the desired gas and particle velocity at the exit of the burner. The velocity here is anywhere from 50 to 115 ft/s and is chosen to provide the desired near flame aerodynamics impacting the mixing between the primary and secondary air. In many applications, there is an elbow, scroll or turning head in the coal pipe at the burner inlet. Such inlet devices result in roping, or an uneven distribution of coal within the fuel injector. Many manufacturers use components to redistribute the coal particles with an even density around the circumference of the fuel injector at its exit. A uniform distribution is typically desired to minimize NOx while maximizing combustion efficiency. The material of the fuel injector is chosen to be reliable under high temperatures and erosive conditions and is often a high grade of stainless steel. Another component of the fuel injector that is found on many commercial low NOx burners is a flame stabilizer. The function of this feature is to provide a stagnation zone at the fuel injector exit on the boundary between the primary and secondary air where small-scale mixing of coal and air occurs, providing ideal conditions for ignition and flame attachment.

Sulfur in coal can affect power plant performance in several ways. Sulfur in the form of pyrite (FeS2) can lead to spontaneous combustion and contributes to the abrasion in coal mills; therefore, if a lower quality coal containing pyrite is used in place of the design coal it can lead to problems. As the overall sulfur concentration increases, so do the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3). While the majority of the sulfur is converted to SO2 (about 12% of the sulfur converts to SO3), the increase in SO3 emissions increases the flue gas dew point temperature, which in turn can lead to corrosion issues. Most countries have legislation restricting SO2 emissions and utilizing higher sulfur coals will require additional SO2 controls (Miller, 2010). In some cases, the use of low quality fuels may impair the desulfurization equipment because of a greater quantity of flue gas to be treated (Carpenter, 1998).

All power stations require at least one CW pump and one 50% electric boiler feed pump available and running to start up a unit. In addition, fossil plant requires either coal mills or oil pumps and draught plant, e.g., FD and ID fans, PA fans, etc. Gas-cooled nuclear plant requires gas circulators running on main motors or pony motors at approximately 15% speed, whereas water reactors require reactor coolant pumps. Both nuclear types require various supporting auxiliaries to be available during the run-up stages, the poor quality steam being dumped until the correct quality is achieved.

When steam of correct quality is being produced, the turbine-generator will be run up to speed with all the unit supporting auxiliaries being powered from the station transformers via the unit/station interconnectors.

The Amer 9 plant utilizes both direct and indirect co-firing configurations. The plant co-fires biomass pellets up to a maximum of 1200ktyr1, generating 27% by heat through two modified coal mills. Only wood-based fuel has been used since 2006, due to reduced subsidies for agricultural by-products.

For the indirect co-firing option, low-quality demolition wood is gasified in a CFB gasifier at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of approximately 850C. The raw fuel gas is cleaned extensively and combusted in a coal boiler via specially designed low-CV gas burners. An advantage of this concept is that there is no contamination of the fuel gas as it enters the coal-fired boiler. This allows a wide range of fuels to be co-fired within existing emission constraints while avoiding problems with ash quality. The challenge, as always, is working within the relatively stringent fuel constraints while avoiding the inevitable high investment costs [22]. Amer 8 also co-fires at high biomass feed levels but uses a standard hammer mill configuration.

Coastal power stations, due to their proximity to major urban areas, tend to be better managed in terms of production consistency and environmental standards. In China and India in particular, coastal power stations tend to mill coal more finely, use superior emissions to control technologies, and have a tendency to use higher-quality coal blends. The result is higher quality and greater consistency in fly ash chemical and physical properties, to the extent that the material is more desirable to local cement manufacturers and those in other domestic markets along the coast. This material is typically allocated in multiyear contracts.

Adding to this, coastal urban areas usually have high volume demand for construction materials. Coastal power stations are often fully contracted to supply cement-grade fly ash, as well as the run of station ash and bottom ash to serve this demand. This is particularly clear in China, where coastal cities such as Shanghai and Shenzhen have seen dramatic urban development over the last 20years. During this period, both cities have been net importers of fly ash, drawing from both inland and domestic coastal sources.

The cost of loading material onto vessels, whether in containers or bulk, is much lower at coastal power stations due to lower local land transport costs. As a result, coastal power stations have been logical first choices for exporters/importers, and many have already developed either domestic coastal markets for their ash or export markets.

coal pulverizer

coal pulverizer

Power generation industry studies have shown that coal pulverizers are an area where improved equipment reliability is badly needed. The Electric Research Institute (EPRI) has determined that 1% of plant availability is lost on average due to pulverizerrelated problems.1 EPRI also identified oil contamination and excessive leakage as two areas where pulverizer drive train failures account for 53% of pulverizer problems.

Pulverization is currently the favored method of preparing coal for burning. Mechanically pulverizing coal into a fine powder enables it to be burned like a gas, thus allowing more efficient combustion. Transported by an air or an air/gas mixture, pulverized coal can be introduced directly into the boiler for combustion.

This type of mill consists of a rotating tube filled with cast alloy balls. Coal is introduced through two hollow trunnions on each side of the tube. As the tube rotates, the balls tumble onto the coal, crushing and pulverizing it.

Grinding Action is carried out by a series of hinged or fixed hammers revolving in an enclosed chamber with wear resistant plates. The hammers impact on the coal, crushing it against the plates. Further pulverization is achieved as the smaller coal particles are ground through attrition against each other and the grinding face.

This mill uses hydraulically loaded vertical rollers resembling large tires to pulverize raw coal fed down onto a rotating table. As the table rotates, the raw coal is pulverized as it passes underneath the rollers. Hot air forced through the bottom of the pulverizing chamber removes unwanted moisture and transports the pulverized coal dust up through the top of the pulverizer and out the exhaust pipes directly to the burner. The more recent coal pulverizer designs are Vertical Roller Mills. Figure 2 shows a cutaway view of a Babcock and Wilcox MPS Pulverizer.

Mills A ball or roller between two races or rings provides the grinding surfaces on which pulverization occurs. One or both of the races may rotate against a ball or roll (in a Ring-Roll Mill the rolls may rotate while the ring is stationary). Ring-Roll (Bowl-Mill) and Ball-Race Mills comprise the majority of coal pulverizers currently in service at power generating facilities.

In this design the grinding rolls are stationary, while the ring (or bowl, as it is sometimes called) is rotated by a worm gear drive. Powerful springs force the grinding rolls against the ring, providing the pressure required to pulverize the coal.

Raw coal enters the top of the pulverizer through the raw coal feed pipe. The raw coal is then pulverized between the roll and rotating ring. Hot air is forced in through the bottom of the pulverizing chamber to remove unwanted moisture and transport the coal dust up through the top of the pulverizer and out the exhaust pipe directly to the burner. Coal that has not been pulverized into fine enough particles cannot be blown out of the top of the unit; it falls back to the ring and roll to be further pulverized.

The gears and bearings in the gearbox are oil lubricated. Fine coal particles and wear metals from grinding surfaces enter the lube oil through worn bearing and shaft seals, as well as being inhaled through reservoir vents. Historically, the design of pulverizers has been based on the expectation of few drive system problems under prescribed operation and maintenance. In practice, this has often been found not to be true.

Many coal pulverizer designs do not incorporate any filtration in their lube circuits. The pulverizers that do not incorporate filtration use coarse filtration such as 40-micron cleanable mesh or 200-micron cleanable, stacked disk filters. Such OEM-supplied filtration is often unable to keep up with the inherently high ingression rate. This results in contamination levels often exceeding ISO code 30/30, particularly on older designs. This high level of contamination can severely diminish bearing, gear, pump, and seal life, leading to premature need for replacement or rework. Coal pulverizer downtime can be a major factor in reducing overall plant availability and reliability.

Upgrade to Achieve Total Cleanliness Control (See diagrams on back page) The majority of pulverized coal particles are in the 4-30m range, with 70% of these particles smaller than 10m. Ingression rates vary with manufacturer, model, and age ofunit, with older units usually admitting contaminants faster than newer ones. Particulate contamination in the lube system can result in rapid damage to critical components.

In order to protect the coal pulverizer lube system components, Pall recommends maintaining a fluid cleanliness level of ISO 16/13 or better. This can be accomplished through the use of Ultipleat SRT AS grade (12(c) 1000) or finer filters. Ultipleat SRT filters, with their high particle removal efficiency and dirt-holding capacity, are ideally suited to cost-effectively control contamination in this high-ingression application.

When upgrading in-line filtration, a Pall Duplex Assembly is recommended so that elements can be changed out while the pulverizer is operating. Although putting filtration in-line is preferred, difficulty in getting system specifications from the OEM, combined with the typically low pump pressure associated with this application, may make kidney loop filtration a more viable alternative. Reservoir volumes typically vary from 15-300 gallons.

A 20% reservoir volume per minute flow through a kidney loop is generally sufficient to overcome the ingression rate of most applications. The high-viscosityof gear lube oil (2,200 SUS at operating temperature) along with the inherently rapid ingression rate usually associated with these units makes it necessary in most cases to utilize at least one UR619 housing with a UE619 element (12(c) 1000 or finer) for every 50 gpm of flow to provide superior filtration with long element life. Since the pulverizers come on- and off-line, it is important to size the system for the oil viscosity at the coldest possible ambient plant temperatures. Line diameters in the kidney loop should be large enough to facilitate flow of highly viscous lube oil.

Other applications where Pall high-performance filtration is useful include coal-carrying cars and conveyor belts. Many of these applications have both hydraulic and lube systems that are vulnerable to coal dust contamination. This equipment is required to transport the coal stored on-site to the coal pulverizers. Because this equipment is essential to theoperation of the power plant, it is critical that this equipment be free from contamination-related failure.

In March 2003, a major Canadian utility derated its Unit 4 due to a failure of the B mill. The mill was expected to be out of service for about a month. With lost production of approximately 864 MWh per day, the total estimated revenue loss was around $2,000,000. Repair costs for this outage added up to more than $400,000 due to the severity of the damage to drive train components. An analysis concluded that there were multiple causes of this problem, including poor predictive/preventive maintenance practices and poor oil cleanliness.

Pall provided a filter housing for a sixmonth trial to show that oil cleanliness could be improved to industry standards and maintained without the incurrence of substantial element costs. Oil cleanliness went from 20/19/17 to 18/16/13 in approximately 2 hours and has been maintained at this level since.

mill creek generating station | lg&e and ku

mill creek generating station | lg&e and ku

As customers demand for energy increased, LG&E needed additional generating capability to guarantee supply and ensure reliability. Mill Creek began commercial operation in 1972 to meet this growing demand.

The controls for all four generating units were computerized and located in a centralized area. Additionally, a coal-handling system was installed that stockpiles coal as it is received, reclaims it from storage, reduces dust emissions, and can be controlled from several different locations.

LG&E pioneered the use of both electrostatic precipitators and scrubbers. All of the generating units were equipped with electrostatic precipitators to remove fly ash, and a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the flue gas.

The new equipment will further increase the companys ability to control SO2 emissions from current levels (around 90 percent) to a 98 percent removal rate. In addition, mercury and particulate emissions will be further reduced in half.

An important part of the companys mission is to positively impact the communities in which it does business by supporting education, community outreach, environmental stewardship and the arts. Employees and contracted employees of Mill Creek have a long tradition of volunteer service, community involvement and support of local charities.

These and similar efforts contribute to the well-being and success of the communities in which we work and live, and reinforce LG&E and KUs commitment to be both an employer of choice and a good corporate citizen.

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