fruit trees - an overview | sciencedirect topics

fruit trees - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Fruit trees can withstand the variability of rainfall better than annual crops due to the deep root systems and the perennial growth habit. Diversification into fruit treebased systems generates high returns to the farmer and creates opportunities for value addition and avenues for employment creation at the village level (Dhyani et al., 2013). Emphasis was placed on identification of suitable fruit tree species based on the resource endowments of the region, supplying quality planting material, mulching with crop residues and agricultural wastes, efficient irrigation systems, capacity building of farmers on these aspects and also on the market opportunities, export specifications, opportunities for export, etc.

Fruit trees, including stone fruits, are perennial plants, have a deep root, and remain for several decades in the same place, that is, soil. To achieve high and stable yields, accompanied by good external and internal quality of the fruit, the reserves of nutrients in the soil fall from year to year and must be compensated by fertilization. It has been long known that fruit trees can be cultivated on different soil types. However, in highly fertile soils, fruit trees are very vigor, late started to produce and give uneven yields from year to year. The biggest problem for producers in such soils is the control of tree vigor. A syntagma is known: who controls tree vigor controls the productiveness; who controls the productiveness controls the fruit quality. In paradox, very fertile soils should be avoided for the fruit tree growing.

Different soils contain unequal amounts of essential nutrients. On the other hand, their utilization by roots of different fruit species is different. Nutrient storage capacity and accessibility are influenced by soil texture, rooting depth, and organic matter content, but the availability is modified by soil moisture and pH (Keller, 2005). According to same author, plant-available nutrients are taken up as ions, dissolved in the soil solution, and their uptake depends also on the water flow through the soil-root-shoot pathway. A well-balanced nutrient supply is known to be crucial for all the crops to avoid excessive growth or mineral deficiency, since mineral elements affect fruit tree physiology and, thereafter, also fruit tree development (Bergmann, 1992).

Fruit trees and grapevine are important horticultural crops, responsible for tens of billions of dollars per year to the global economy, and comprising a major source of income for growers and allied businesses worldwide. Losses from viroid infections in these crops are difficult to measure unless infected hosts are visibly damaged. Viroids may be latent in some hosts yet have adverse effects that often go unnoticed. Whether viroid-infected fruit trees or grapevine show obvious detrimental effects or do not induce noticeable disease, viroid infections are responsible for significant economic losses to these crops. Table 2.1 lists viroids of fruit trees and grapevine and their alternative hosts. Specific variants of three citrus viroids may induce beneficial effects on citrus trees. Most grapevine viroids are latent and distributed worldwide. Only grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1) and grapevine yellow speckle viroid 2 (GYSVd-2) can induce a yellow speckle symptom on grapevine leaves (Koltunow et al., 1989), which varies in intensity and may be absent under certain weather conditions.

Many important fruit trees are commercially planted on acidic soils and are prone to Al toxicity. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the physiological and molecular responses of fruit trees to Al toxicity during the past decade. In the chapter, Al toxic effects on growth and structure, physiological and biochemical responses of fruit trees to Al toxicity (uptake of mineral nutrients and water, leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence, reactive oxygen species and methylglyoxal detoxification systems, nonstructural carbohydrates, and organic acids), factors affecting Al tolerance of fruit trees (species and cultivars, Al uptake and distribution, secretion of organic acid anions, nitric oxide, methyl jasmonate, and efficient maintenance of redox homeostasis via reactive oxygen species and methylglyoxal detoxification systems), and molecular aspects of Al tolerance in fruit trees are summarized. Also, several aspects needed to be further studied are discussed.

Fruit and nut trees such as mango, pineapples, papaya, banana, guava, cashew, passion fruit, and avocado are important components of tropical ecosystems. They are sources of vitamins, minerals and carbohydrates and have great economic importance as sources of both household incomes and national revenues. Fruit and nut trees provide important adaptive values and tend to be more resilient to climate change due to their perennial nature, and they have the property of sequestering carbon. World production and trade of fresh tropical fruit are expected to expand over decades, with developing countries accounting for about 98% of total production, while developed countries account for 80% of world import trade. Insect pests and mites are considered the most important constraint to their production as they indirectly reduce yields by debilitating the plant and directly reduce the yield or quality of fruit. Some of these pests are quarantine pests and restrict export markets. The control of these insect pests and mites has relied on application of broad-spectrum synthetic chemical insecticides, which has generated a panoply of problems including safety risks, outbreaks of secondary pests, environmental contamination, decrease in biodiversity, and insecticide resistance. Microbial control agents (Bacillus thuringiensis, entomopathogenic fungi, viruses, and entomopathogenic nematodes) can be used as alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for the control of several orchard insect pests and mites as they are selective and safe. Insect and mite species for which the use of entomopathogens has been attempted are reviewed in this chapter.

Fruit trees are biological and economically significant. The development of treatments that accelerate crop production is significant. Proper food management is necessary to optimize production. Fruit trees that are exposed to more chemical fertilizer rather than the soil it needs cause environmental pollution. The fertilization method, which is one of the methods applied, is a more preferred and environmentally friendly method (Thavarajah et al., 2015).

Product yields of perennial fruit trees that are frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses are limited. The solution focuses on the stimulation of plant cell development programs for modern fruit tree physiology using stress-related tolerance mechanisms and biostimulants. Biological stimulants are used in the production of fruits due to the fact that fruit intake increases nutrient uptake, promotes plant growth, and minimizes fertilizer use (Kunicki et al., 2010). Although the precise mechanisms of biostimulators are unknown, they are widely used in the fruit industry. In addition, the use of priming techniques compared to natural or synthetic compounds in plants has aroused considerable interest in recent years to awaken habits against environmental stresses (Tanou et al., 2012).

A thorough review of the molecular aspects of primate in plants, including fruit crops, has recently been reviewed (Conrath, 2011; Tanou et al., 2012; Molassiotis et al., 2016). In literature reviews, it has been reported that Ca, given in gypsum form from the soil, significantly increases the yield of marketable fruit with the Ca contents of the soil and the leaves of the obtained plant (Zhang et al., 2017). In another study, it was reported that Ca, K, and P contents increased in fruit leaves with gypsum and calcium nitrate applications and Ca fertilization had a positive effect on tuber quality (Sharma et al., 2017).

In a study in which the effects of different levels of calcium nitrate fertilizer on the yield and quality of strawberry plants were investigated, significant increases were reported in the Ca content of the plant with their yield and quality characteristics (Marwein et al., 2017). Thanks to the application of Ca leaf, a lot of research has been done in fruits and vegetables that report that quality criteria can be increased and marketing value will be increased. Another common finding obtained in these studies is that preharvest and postharvest Ca applications allow for a more healthy plant (Tian et al., 2016).

One of the essential features of Ca, which increases the quality criteria in plants, is the ratio of the Ca pectate compound to the total and cell walls. Studies have shown that preharvest or postharvest application of Ca increases the amount of this compound (Kurt et al., 2017). In many plants, mainly tomatoes, watermelons, melons, and peppers, physiological disorders occur with Ca deficiency. Ca/N, Ca/Mg, Ca/K imbalances can be caused if there is not enough Ca in the soil. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on balanced fertilization (Berkovich et al., 2016).

Fruit trees are pruned primarily to ensure production of fruits of high quality. By reducing the number of competing fruits and by increasing penetration of light into the fruit-bearing zone of the crown, pruning generally increases fruit size. The influence of increased light intensity alone within the crown often is modified by changes in temperature and humidity.

The beneficial responses of pruning are associated with greater availability of carbohydrates, hormones, and mineral nutrients to fewer fruits. Pruning of apple trees increased the concentrations of cytokinins, followed by increased amounts of auxins and gibberellins (Grochowska et al., 1984). Nitrogen concentrations of fruits also may increase after pruning (Hansen, 1987).

The effects of pruning vary with species and cultivar, severity and timing of pruning, rootstock, tree vigor, age, and environmental conditions. Dormant pruning is used to increase light penetration into tree crowns. However, the distribution of light in the fruiting zone depends on the extent to which shoot growth is influenced. Normal dormant pruning stimulates shoot growth and decreases yield by reducing the number of flower buds (and hence the number of fruits), but it increases fruit size and improves fruit color. The best color of apples followed exposure of trees to at least 70% of full sun, adequate color to 4070%, and unacceptable color to less than 40% (Heinicke, 1966). The direct heating of sunlight on apples appears to accelerate anthocyanin production.

The larger fruits of dormant-pruned trees result from better exposure of spur leaves to light, and to higher temperature, as well as greater sink strength of fruits. However, heavy dormant pruning may cause excessive growth of new shoots in the outer crown and hence inhibit penetration of light to the fruit-bearing zone (Mika, 1986). Because carbohydrates from sprouting shoots usually are not translocated to growing fruits, such heavy sprouting may inhibit fruit growth. Heavily pruned trees also may produce very large, soft fruits that are high in N and low in Ca. Such fruits may not store satisfactorily.

Summer pruning often is practiced in high-density orchards to reduce tree size and increase penetration of light into tree crowns (Taylor and Ferree, 1981). Whereas the light intensity within the crown is increased during the year of summer pruning, it often is decreased in the following year because of the vigorous regrowth of shoots.

Summer pruning has been useful in increasing fruit color of poor-coloring apple cultivars in regions where color development of fruits on unpruned trees is unsatisfactory. Because more flower buds are formed on summer-pruned than on dormant-pruned trees, some investigators concluded that flower bud formation is increased by summer pruning. However, trees that are pruned in the summer form fewer buds per tree than unpruned trees do, although summer pruning increases the number of flower buds per unit of branch length (Mika, 1986). Summer pruning should be used with caution to avoid production of small fruits with low soluble solids. For more details on the effects of dormant pruning and summer pruning on reproductive growth, the reader is referred to Mika (1986) and Marini and Barden (1987).

In fruit trees, Mg is considered a mobile nutrient. Nevertheless, our experience on nectarine (Baldi et al., 2016) and persimmon indicates that Mg is not remobilized from senescent leaves to tree skeleton, while scarce mobilization was measured in pear trees. In soil, Mg is present as cation and competes with other ions such as K+, Ca2+, manganese (Mn2+), and NH4+ root uptake. In particular, K+ and Mg2+ leaf concentrations are negatively correlated, and excess of Mg may contribute to originate K deficiency symptoms and. In organic farming, kieserite (magnesium sulfate monohydrate) is the most common fertilizer.

The fruit trees, when allowed to grow naturally, develop compact, dense canopies with tall height, which hinders the preharvest operations, like thinning, spraying, and the harvesting processes. The poor penetration and distribution of photosynthetically active radiation in the interior canopy result in the production of low grade fruits of small size and poor color. Training and pruning are essential specialized agricultural operations, which not only enhance the appearance of the tree and orchard but qualitatively influence the form and function of the fruit trees. They are an effective tool in the hands of an experienced orchardist for obtaining the maximum yield of high-quality fruits. The postharvest fruit quality, such as fruit color, total soluble solids, firmness, titratable acidity, and disease occurrence are considerably influenced by the canopy architecture management.

The management of the fruit tree canopy is essential for utilizing the solar energy, land space, and nutrients effectively. Besides, the spraying of agricultural chemicals becomes easier and can be completed effectively, thus obtaining the desired beneficial results. The training and pruning operations influence the postharvest fruit quality significantly. Most significantly, the uniform distribution of photosynthetically active radiation in the canopy on the maximum leaf area is essential for the production of large size fruits with good color, which can be achieved by employing proper training and pruning operations. Another major advantage is that maintaining the trees in a proper shape presents the maximum leaf exposure to sunlight and provides proper ventilation, lowering the high humidity levels in dense canopies. This assists in the creation of unfavorable environment for the pathogenic microorganisms and insects. This goes a long way in ensuring postharvest quality for a longer period of time as many pathogenic diseases are initially picked up as latent infection from the field in preharvest stage. The reduction in postharvest diseases can save considerable fruit loss both in terms of fruit quality and quantum of production. The strong tree framework and canopy architecture averts wind damage and protects the tree thus reducing the fruit drop and bruises. This ensures high yield and quality fruit production. Precocious bearing can be achieved by planting trees in high density, training them to specialized structures, and pruning at regular intervals. Regular pruning is essential for fruit bearing in many species like peach, where only 1-year-old shoots can bear fruits. Table 10.1 presents the influence of training and pruning on the postharvest quality of fruits as reported by different workers.

Deciduous fruit trees require a period of winter chilling which may need to be supplemented or imposed artificially in areas where winters of sufficient severity are not experienced. To break dormancy uniformly, buds of fruit trees must be subjected to an accumulation of what are known as chilling units. There are various models used for calculating chilling unit requirements, but most are based on the accumulation of hours at temperatures above freezing but generally less than 7.2C depending largely on species and cultivar. Cultivars differ in their chilling requirements; some peaches suitable for subtropical climatic conditions need less than 200h to break dormancy, while certain sweet cherry cultivars may need in excess of 1600h (Table3).

Fruit set and associated yields are greatly influenced by climatic conditions. The most significant effect is at the time of flowering in the spring, when frosts can damage blossoms and cold windy weather can significantly inhibit the activity of the pollen vectors (bees and other insects) as well as reducing the germination of pollen on the stigma and its growth down the style into the ovary. Deciduous fruits mostly require temperatures of 1525C if pollination and flower fertilization is to be optimal. Fruit growers endeavor to overcome these constraints on fruit set and production by providing shelter in the form of windbreaks within and around the orchard. It is important, however, to ensure that in orchards sited on sloping sites, the windbreak does not impede the natural flow of cold air down the slope, or this will create what is known as a frost pocket. During radiation frosts, long wave radiation is lost to the upper air and replaced by cold air at and above ground level; it is this cold air that causes the frost damage.

Where frost at blossom time is a regular occurrence, growers may install frost protection systems. The most popular of these are wind machines that help to break down inversion layers where the surface temperature is lower than the upper air temperature. The mixing of upper and lower air can raise air temperatures a few degrees so that surface air is above the freezing point. Sometimes these devices are supplemented with heat.

Overhead irrigation is also used to protect fruit blossoms. The heat released as the water freezes (the latent heat of fusion) protects the flowers from the worst frost damage. It is vital to ensure that the water supply continues throughout the frost period or damage may be increased rather than reduced. Sometimes the weight of accumulated ice can damage trees which were not properly structured during initial training and pruning.

Flower initiation and development on fruit trees is also influenced by climatic conditions. Adequate exposure to light is essential for flower initiation. Planting systems (the combination of rootstock/pruning/training systems) that facilitate good light exposure to the whole of the tree canopy are the ideal.

Climatic conditions and temperature, humidity, and excess exposure to sunlight influences fruit quality factors such as fruit color, soluble solids, surface and internal defects. Pear tree yield can be markedly influenced by autumn temperatures, which in turn can influence bud acclimation and quality.

the best collagen powders, according to a dietitian | eatingwell

the best collagen powders, according to a dietitian | eatingwell

Where does collagen come from? Why is it so popular? And how do you shop for a good collagen powder? You've got questionsand we've got answers. Plus, the 5 best collagen peptide powders to buy from a registered dietitian nutritionist.

We've talked before about how H.O.T. collagen is right now. The industry is said to grow a little over 6% in the next few years, with a projected industry value of $7.5 billion by 2027, according to Grand View Research.

Collagen is the "it" ingredient these days. After all, it's now a regular add-in to items like smoothies and smoothie bowls at your gym caf, or neighborhood smoothie shop. Even big smoothie chains, like Smoothie King and Jamba Juice, have developed new smoothies with collagen for athletes, weekend warriors, and whomever else wants to reap the benefits of collagen. (Here are the 10 best foods to eat for a collagen boost.)

Collagen brings strength, structure, and elasticity to our connective tissues, tendons, ligaments, bones, and skin. But as we age, our body becomes less efficient at producing collagen. Our inefficiency starts in our 20s, and by 40 we're losing about 1 percent a year. Around 80 years, your collagen is about 75 percent that of a young adult's. (Here are 10 healthy eating changes to make when you turn 50.)

There are five main types of collagen. Type I is the most common and is in skin, bone, teeth, tendons, ligaments, organs, etc. Type II is in cartilage. Type III is found mostly in the skin, muscle, and blood vessels. Type IV is in the epithelial tissue layers, which covers body surfaces and lines body cavities. Type V is one of the main elements of cell surfaces and the placenta. From a supplement standpoint, though, you'll mostly find Types I, II, and III.

There are also so-called vegan collagen supplements on the market, and they don't actually contain collagen (collagen is inherently not vegan). Instead, these products are comprised of other ingredients said to stimulate collagen production. (If you're looking to boost. your protein intake without animal products, try these 10 best vegan proteins.)

Often you'll see collagen powders labeled as such and these terms are pretty much synonyms. Collagen peptides are hydrolyzed collagen, and that means that the collagen has been broken down into smaller units so that it's more easily digestible. Another easy way to tell what you're getting is if the instructions say you can dissolve the powder in hot or cold water. If the powder is easy to mix in either temperature, then it's been fully hydrolyzed.

Hydrolyzed collagen has been shown to have great anti-aging benefits. In the skin its role is two-fold: it provides the building blocks for collagen and elastin fibers to form, and it stimulates the production of new collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid, per a study published in 2015 in The Open Nutraceuticals Journal.

If you're taking collagen for the anti-aging benefits, look for type I, or a combo of type I and type III. Both are found in the skin and support skin health (think: improved skin hydration, firmness, and texture, as well as fewer wrinkles, per a review study in 2019 in the journal Molecules).

If you're interested in collagen for its joint health benefits and some pain relief, look for type II. Remember, this is the collagen found in cartilage. That said, other forms can be helpful, too: type I was shown to help people with osteoarthritis, per a review study published in October 2020 in the journal Rheumatology and Therapy.

We rounded up a list of top-sellers that are also third-party verified for quality. Because collagen protein powders are considered supplements, they aren't closely regulated by the government. There are third-party verifying companies, though, such as NSF and USP that test for quality. When it comes to collagen, though, we found that NSF seems to be the only player. USP didn't have any collagen products listed as tested by them on their website.

Vital Proteins is the leader in the collagen powder market, and rightfully so with such a diverse product line. But their OGOriginal Collagen Peptidesis their best seller for a reason: one scoop gives you 18 grams collagen, hyaluronic acid, and vitamin C. It's also soluble in hot or cold liquids. Need more convincing? The accolades for this product are hard to beat: Rated "Best Choice" on Amazon, endorsed by Jennifer Anniston, and NSF-certified.

Ideal for on-the-go living, or travel, each of BUBS single-serve stick packs delivers 18 grams collagen protein. There's just one ingredientbovine collagenand nothing more added. BUBS is also third-party tested and verified by NSF.

Yep, the company well-known for their high-quality (NSF-verified) gummy vitamins and more also makes collagen peptide powder. OLLY's is easy to find and they also have a collagen gummy if that's more your speed.

Calling athletes and weekend warriors alike Momentous as a brand is designed for athletes. Their collagen peptides powder specifically delivers 2 types of proprietary collagenone targets your joints, the other is good for hair, skin, and nails. It also includes vitamin C, which is a major plus, as C helps boost collagen absorption.

If healthier skin, nails, and/or hair is your goal, the Collagen Beauty Glow from Vital Proteins is a great choice. Not only do you get collagen peptides, but there's also hyaluronic acid, biotin, vitamin C and probiotics added to the powder. It comes in three flavorsLavender Lemon, Tropical Hibiscus, and Strawberry Lemonin a canister or single-serve stick packs. And remember, Vital Proteins' products are NSF-certified.

18 worst healthy juice brands & what to buy instead | eat this not that

18 worst healthy juice brands & what to buy instead | eat this not that

We've consulted with our team of licensed nutritionists and dietitians to bring you informed recommendations for food products, health aids and nutritional goods to safely and successfully guide you toward making better diet and nutrition choices. We strive to only recommend products that adhere to our philosophy of eating better while still enjoying what you eat.

Fruit is good for you, right? It's packed with a ton of the vitamins and minerals your body needs to fight infections and inflammation, plus grow healthy bones, cells, and skin. The American Heart Association recommends that adults get about four servings of fruit per day, and that includes cup of fruit juice as one possible way to meet that goal. That doesn't mean you get a free pass to drink whatever juice you please. There are healthy juice brands, and there are store-bought juices you should avoid. We're here to show you which is which.

If you turn over your favorite brand of orange or cranberry juice to inspect the label, you might be surprised to find it's loaded with more than vitamins and mineralsit's probably sky-high in sugar, artificial sweeteners, and sodium, too.

"When you eat an apple, you're eating one apple, but when you drink 12 ounces of apple juice, you're drinking the sugar of about four to six apples," says Barbie Boules, RDN, founder of Barbie Boules Longevity Nutrition, Inc. "Even though it's naturally occurring, that's way too much sugar."

What's more, says Boules, there's usually little to no fiber in fruit juices to slow down the absorption of the sugar. This digestion-slowing, belly-filling macronutrient is key when it comes to minimizing spikes in blood sugar and keeping your energy levels from tanking soon after you finish sipping a glass.

"The naturally occurring sugar in a whole piece of fruit should not be compared to a bottle of juice or refined sugar," she says. "The fiber and a symphony of other nutrients and goodies [found in fruit] can be lost in processing."

Now you know you should always pick an apple over a bottle of apple juice when given the choice, but does that mean that all fruit juice is terrible for you? No, but you have to be cautious: because juices are often touted as a health food, it makes them dangerously misleading. Studies have shown that when people perceive food as healthier, we tend to eator drinkmore of it.

That said, some juices are lower in sugar than others and can be a smart option (in moderation!) when you need to increase your intake of fruit. Here's how to figure out which brands are healthy and which are only pretending to be good for you.

The bad news is that you can't just grab any old bottle of juice off the supermarket shelf if you want to avoid a sugar crash. Even brands that use lingo like "all natural" and "no sugar added" can have astronomical amounts of sugar per serving because of the concentration of fruit sugars found in each bottle.

No matter what time of year it is, your immune system could probably use a boost. Gorin suggests drinking Tropicana's fortified OJ, which is 100 percent orange juice with additional vitamin C and zinc. One caveat: Gorin says to cap this juice at one serving per day so you don't overdo it on the zinc (per the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, ingesting too much zinc can cause GI distress and lower levels of good cholesterol).

Opting for a juice made from vegetables, not fruit, can be a good way to quickly find a product lower in sugar than other options. Though Boules didn't recommend any specific brand, she did say that the more vegetable-based (as opposed to all-fruit based) a juice is, the lower in sugar it's likely to be.

The Bolthouse Farms organic carrot juice checks off a lot of dietitian-favorite boxes: the only ingredient is organic carrot juice (no added sugar, yay!) and it contains 13 grams of natural sugar per 8-ounce serving. Plus, because carrots are high in vitamin A and potassium, this juice is, too, which means it's a good source of important nutrients.

If you've never heard of beet juice, you're probably not an athlete: Palinski-Wade says beet juice provides your body with a source of nitrates that are converted in your body to nitric acid, quickly bringing oxygen to your muscles.

Beet It is 90 percent beet juice and 10 percent apple juice with no additional added sugars, so it's a good choice for athletes wanting to improve performanceor anyone looking for healthy juice without all the unwanted extras.

"With the only ingredient being prune juice, each serving provides three grams of fiber to help support digestive health," says Palinski-Wade, who adds that this juice also provides a source of five essential vitamins and minerals, including a good source of potassium. With stats like that, it just might be worth getting used to drinking Grandma's favorite.

Healthy ingredients? Check! This juice contains only tart cherry juice concentrate and water, with no added sugar or artificial ingredients. Palinski-Wade says adding this juice to your diet can provide multiple health benefits, since research has shown that tart cherry juice can be beneficial at reducing inflammation and fighting insomnia.

Palinski-Wade picks this juice for carb-conscious consumers, because it contains 60 percent less calories and sugar than other leading juice cocktails, 15 grams of carbohydrates, and three grams of fiber per serving. If you want the digestive health benefits of prune juice with a slimmer nutritional profile, the light variety is your best bet.

"POM Wonderful 100 percent pomegranate juice is made by pressing the entire pomegranate so that each 8-ounce bottle contains the juice from two whole-pressed pomegranatesand nothing else," says Amy Gorin, MS, RDN, a registered dietitian in the New York City area.

Meanwhile, adds Gorin, the juice is packed with antioxidants, containing 700 milligrams of polyphenol antioxidants. "Antioxidants help fight free radicals that can do damage to our body's cellsand what's super cool is that the polyphenol antioxidants in pomegranate juice are being studied in the areas of athletic performance, memory and cognition, and gut health."

How can a sugary, but healthy, food like fruit go from being healthy to unhealthy? Easy: strip it of its benefits. Fruit may contain sugar, but it also contains water and fiber: two nutrients that help fill you up and slow down your body's digestion of sugars so you get a slow release of energy. When you turn fruit into juice, you're losing this digestion-slowing fiber. Welch's tries to make up for it by adding fiber back into their juice, but the mere three grams of added fiber is no match for the 36 grams of sugar you'll still down when you drink a whole glass.

By now you've probably heard of the belly-healing bacteria called probiotics; Despite their popularity, did you know they're not exclusive to the Greek yogurt aisle anymore? Lab-grown strains of probiotics are being added to foods that don't naturally have them, like these juices. And, frankly, it's a bit ironic. Emerging research finds that diets rich in sugary products are associated with a high ratio of bad bacteria to good bacteria in the gut. Experts believe the problem stems from sugar being the primary source of fuel for the fungi that can destroy beneficial probiotics. Translation: probiotic-infused sugary drinks are about as counterproductive as drinking an espresso before going to sleep. If you want some probiotics, we'd recommend making your own smoothie at home with yogurt.

Sorry, but the "High Pulp" option for orange juices doesn't equate to a higher fiber count. There are still zero grams of the digestion-slowing, energy-stabilizing macronutrient in a glass of this OJ. If you still want the taste of orange juice without the sugar crash, either slice up an orange and throw some into your water.

This juice might be naturally sweetened, but just because it's made with real fruit doesn't justify gulping down a staggering 61 grams of sugar in a bottle. And yes, although we would typically give nutritional information for an 8-ounce serving, we made an exception for bottled drinks like Naked's, whose packaging is unmistakably intended to be drunk by a single person at one time. Until the new nutrition label comes out in 2018 that instructs manufacturers to list nutritionals for the entire bottle rather than a cup, be on the lookout for food and beverages with sneaky serving sizes.

"Naked, Evolution and Odwalla are notorious for being calorie and sugar dense," says Boules. "Choose their juices over the smoothies, as the smoothie blends average 275 calories and 50 plus grams of carbs and sugar, with no fiber."

Don't fall prey to health halo labels like "100 percent Vitamin C," "GMO Free," and "No High Fructose Corn Syrup." This offering from Langers is mostly filtered water with some mango puree, citric acid, natural flavor, and lots and lots of sugar. And always be wary of juice "cocktails," which is code for "loaded with sugar."

"This 'juice' is very misleading since the actual fruit is the third ingredient on this list, after water and added sugar," says Palinski-Wade. "With 21 grams of added sugar per serving, this juice cocktail is best avoided."

Homemade smoothies are an effective way to get in a blast of nutrients in an easy-to-digest snack, but the store-bought version is a whole other beast. This bottled smoothie is overflowing with sugar (in fact, it has 12 donuts worth of the sweet stuff), and it's not justified just because these sugars are naturally-occurring. When fruit juice concentrates are added to sweeten products, it's just as bad as adding high fructose syrup as these natural sugars are lacking in fruit's waist-whittling partner in crime: fiber.

"The first issue I have with these 'single-serving' juices is the portion size," says Palinski-Wade, who points out that one bottle contains 15.2 ounces of juice when one serving should only be four ounces. "This large volume means you are taking in more sugar per serving than soda, and with just one gram of fiber per bottle, this product won't fill you up."

Cold-pressed juices are supposed to preserve more micronutrients than juices that have been pasteurizeda high-temperature process that destroys temperature-sensitive nutrientsbut that doesn't mean this juice should be your go-to breakfast, or what Naked tries to sell as "the coolest thing to hit mornings since the snooze button." The only thing being "hit" by this drink? Your energy levelsas they hit the floorminutes after you've sipped through all 12 ounces of this drink because it's made of 30 grams of sugar, with no digestive-slowing healthy fats, fiber, or protein.

This pick is far from the healthiest store bought juice. Because cranberries are the lowest sugar fruit, they have a "distinctly tart, astringent, and even unpalatable taste" without the addition of sugar, according to a letter the Ocean Spray company wrote to the FDA in an outcry over the newly mandated line for "added sugars" on nutrition labels. Although Ocean Spray got around that issue by not adding any sugar to this beverage, they overdid it on the zero-calorie sweetener front: PACt Cranberry has a whopping 12 grams of sugar alcohol erythritol. When consumed in excess (which can be likely when you think a food is "healthier" for you since it doesn't have sugar), this sugar alcohol effectively acts as a laxative and can cause stomach pain, excessive internal gas, and flatulence in sensitive individuals.

"I'm not a fan of recommending products that contain sugar alcohols for frequent consumption," says Gorin. "This flavored water contains erythritol, which is a sugar alcohol that can cause gastrointestinal irritation. If you're looking for flavored water, I'd rather you add a splash of 100 percent cranberry juice to a glass of sparkling water."

You probably have heard antioxidants are good for you, but that doesn't mean drinking them in juice form is the preferable method of ingestion. Antioxidants are compounds that rid your body of free radicals: nefarious compounds that cause inflammation and lead to a host of diseases such as obesity and Alzheimer's. You may be getting an antioxidant boost in this drink, but you're getting a staggering amount of sugar and little else. Eat some real blueberries instead. A study in the British Journal of Nutrition showed that eating (not drinking) berries daily could significantly reduce inflammation.

Upon closer inspection of the label, you see that "Just Pomegranate" really means 100 percent premium pomegranate juice from concentrate, mixed with water. And that means R.W. Knudsen could have added more water to dilute this sugary beverage, but they didn't. POM Wonderful does a better job by diluting their pomegranate juice to only 32 grams of sugar. When it comes down to it, however, you should still add more water to your pomegranate juice at home.

This morning mainstay might be bright and refreshing, but it's loaded with sugar and relatively low in nutritive values besides vitamin C. Don't let their health-halo marketing skew your keen eyes away from the label. A single serving has 26 grams of sugarand a single serving is only half the bottle. Although these grams may only be from fruit sugars and not added, regardless of source, sugars act the same way in your body. So guzzling down 49 grams of the sweet stuff in a single sitting can do some serious damage to your blood sugar levels if you don't pair it with foods high in fiber, protein, or healthy fats.

At first glance, Ocean Spray's "No Sugar Added," "100 percent Juice" cranberry juice looks like a good choice, but there's a hidden danger in this refined-sugar-free beverage; Ocean Spray sweetens their juice with fruit juice concentrates grape juice, apple juice, and pear juice. We're all for cutting out refined sugar, but fruit juice concentrates rank even worse than refined sugar on our list of every added sweetenerranked!

That's because fruit contains more of the fruit sugar fructose than table sugar does. (Although cane sugar is 50 percent fructose, apples can be 71 percent fructose, pears are 61 percent fructose, and grapes are 54 percent fructose.) Why all the negative press about fruit sugar? Because fructose isn't used by our body as energy, this sugar get converted into fat and inflammatory compounds more easily than glucose does. Plus, a growing body of research connects high doses of fructose with the root of a host of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, high cholesterol, and belly fat accumulation.

By "Light," V8 means they watered down their regular V-Fusion Strawberry Banana drink. (The first ingredientthe most prominentin this beverage is water.) V8 attempts to get the same level of sweetness with the addition of artificial sweetener sucralose. Unfortunately for you, research has linked high-intensity sweeteners like sucralose to recalibrating your brain's interpretation of sweetness. This can cause you to overconsume regular sugar-sweetened foods.

The point of Odwalla's "Gomega" drink is that you get 1,500 mg of anti-inflammatory omega-3, ALA fatty acids from the addition of ground flax seeds. Unfortunately, that only results in 2 grams of fiber and an absurdly high 47 grams of sugar in a bottle.

Just because it's "organic" doesn't automatically mean it's good for you. Yes, we'd recommend organic apple drinks over conventional as apples are notorious for their high levels of inflammatory pesticide contamination, but that doesn't make all organic apple products safe for your belly. Martinelli's offering is one of the highest sugar apple juices on the market.

Devoid of fiber and full of sugar, Tropicana's new Farmstand beverage isn't any better than your average juice. And even if it has two "servings of fruit and vegetables in every glass," you're still missing one of the key benefits veggies offer: fiber!

sweet flavours and extracts | kerry

sweet flavours and extracts | kerry

Kerrys network of farming partners have for generations given us access to the best quality cocoa from Ghana, Cameroon, Brazil and the Ivory Coast. Our team of cocoa processing, extraction and distillation experts, based in Grasse, France, are world leaders in creating cocoa and chocolate extracts and flavours.

Kerry sources high quality vanilla beans from key growing areas such as Madagascar, Mexico, Papua New Guinea and Tahiti, working with local community farmers familiar with the delicate pollination and harvest process. Our vanilla extraction know-how is brought to life by a team of specialists in Grasse, France.

Kerrys end-to-end coffee expertise includes selecting high quality beans from nature, roasting, extracting, and crafting tailored delivery systems to suit a wide range of applications. Our Roastmasters, Flavorists, Scientists, and Baristas take pride in perfecting coffee experiences that are consistent, clean label and sustainably produced. Through roasting and our patented environmentally-friendly extraction processes, the experts in our Portland, Maine, USA, and Grasse, France, centers capture subtle, sophisticated notes that can be blended to meet taste profile requirements.

Kerry has honoured the traditional craft of botanical extraction to create a range of aromatic single extracts and customised botanical blends. We work closely with a worldwide network of dedicated growers to ensure a high quality, traceable, trusted and organic (as required) supply for extracting and distilling. Kerrys botanical extracts are created in our centres in Mozzo, Italy; Grasse, France; and Clark, New Jersey, USA.

We source fruits from Brazil, the U.S., South Africa, Argentina, Mexico and China and parts of the Middle East, turning carefully selected raw materials into unique, stable ingredients and flavours. Kerrys Citrus Centre of Excellence is in the heart of the U.S.s citrus growing region, in Lakeland, Florida, and our extraction centres are in Grasse, France and Clark, New Jersey, USA.

Kerrys network of farming partners have for generations given us access to the best quality cocoa from Ghana, Cameroon, Brazil and the Ivory Coast. Our team of cocoa processing, extraction and distillation experts, based in Grasse, France, are world leaders in creating cocoa and chocolate extracts and flavours.

Kerry sources high quality vanilla beans from key growing areas such as Madagascar, Mexico, Papua New Guinea and Tahiti, working with local community farmers familiar with the delicate pollination and harvest process. Our vanilla extraction know-how is brought to life by a team of specialists in Grasse, France.

Kerrys end-to-end coffee expertise includes selecting high quality beans from nature, roasting, extracting, and crafting tailored delivery systems to suit a wide range of applications. Our Roastmasters, Flavorists, Scientists, and Baristas take pride in perfecting coffee experiences that are consistent, clean label and sustainably produced. Through roasting and our patented environmentally-friendly extraction processes, the experts in our Portland, Maine, USA, and Grasse, France, centers capture subtle, sophisticated notes that can be blended to meet taste profile requirements.

Kerry has honoured the traditional craft of botanical extraction to create a range of aromatic single extracts and customised botanical blends. We work closely with a worldwide network of dedicated growers to ensure a high quality, traceable, trusted and organic (as required) supply for extracting and distilling. Kerrys botanical extracts are created in our centres in Mozzo, Italy; Grasse, France; and Clark, New Jersey, USA.

We source fruits from Brazil, the U.S., South Africa, Argentina, Mexico and China and parts of the Middle East, turning carefully selected raw materials into unique, stable ingredients and flavours. Kerrys Citrus Centre of Excellence is in the heart of the U.S.s citrus growing region, in Lakeland, Florida, and our extraction centres are in Grasse, France and Clark, New Jersey, USA.

Kerrys sweet and beverage flavour offerings go beyond our Simply Nature line to deliver fresh from nature taste profiles with labeling consumers can feel good about. From natural flavours to natural flavour WONFs to organic compliant and certified, our flavourists, sensory and analytical scientists create and validate the performance of our flavours across a range of food and beverages.

the best home printers in 2021

the best home printers in 2021

As much as wed all love to live in a paperless world, that reality is still far away. It doesnt matter whether you have your own home business, occasionally work from home or just need to print school assignments and day-to-day paperworkowning some kind of printer is probably unavoidable. The best home printer is the one that handles your routine printing taskswhether thats a two-sided document or a photo print you want to frame for mom and dadquickly, easily and affordably.

Unfortunately, thats easier said than done. Many printers seem like theyre frozen in time, still just as clunky as the model you owned in 1998. Run-of-the-mill printers are still noisy, jam easily and go through ink like your kids at an all-you-can-eat dessert buffet.

But believe it or not, printers have gotten better. The best home printers are now fast, quiet and easy to set up. Multifunction printers combine the benefits of a printer, scanner and copier. And best of all, ecotank printers reduce the cost of replacing ink dramatically. To be perfectly honest, printers are still the most annoying computer peripheral you need to own, but choose wisely and you will be pleasantly surprised at just how good a home printer can be.

The ideal home printer should be a jack of all trades, able to print, scan, copy and fax (if the now-peculiar need should arise). The Epson Workforce Pro WF-7820 is an all-in-one inkjet that handles all that, wirelessly and mall. Full duplex printingso it can print on both sides of the page automaticallyis also on tap. But this printer can accommodate unusual print requests as well.

It can print wide-format projects up to 13x19 inches, for example, which comes in handy more often than youd expect, such as for school projects and unusual late-night printouts you need to take to the office the next day. Do you need wide format printing? Probably notbut getting it included at this price point makes getting it a no-brainer. The printer also has a 50-sheet automatic document feeder (ADF) and a 250-page paper capacity inside.

While not the fastest printer around, the WF-7820 is more than capable with a print speed of 25 pages per minute and a speedy first-page-out, so you wont wait long for print jobs to start. Interacting with the printer is also streamlined. It houses a large 4.3-inch color LCD touchscreen for setting up print jobs, setting printer options and doing routine maintenance. But you can also connect to the printer wirelessly via your phone and control it using Epsons mobile app. Its also compatible with Alexa for voice commands.

Budget-friendly refillable tanks are the most interesting development in printer technology of the last decade. Epson pioneered the cartridge-free system and the EcoTank ET-3760 represents the latest generation of the technology.The cost savings are significant; this printer costs about a penny per color per page, as opposed to 20 cents for a typical inkjet printer.

While the earliest versions of the EcoTank were awkwardly bolted on to the side, the EcoTank is now built directly into the front of the printer, making it easier to refill and see how much ink you have left. Not that you'll have to worry about that too much, since the ink that comes in the box should last you for about 2 years (or 7,500 pages, whichever comes first). That's assuming you print about 200 pages a month.

Features include wireless printing, voice-activated printing, direct printing from your smartphone, copying, scanning, automatic two-sided printing and direct SD card printing. This model is particularly convenient because of the 30-sheet ADF on top in addition to the 150-sheet main tray.

You can spend a small fortune on a photo printer, but if youre not a working professional photographer, you dont have to break the bank; there are a lot of affordable inkjets that do a wonderful job printing photos for home use. The Canon Pixma Pro-200 isnt the least expensive option, but its an excellent model that creates beautiful borderless photos and can make oversized images up to 13x39 inches in size.

Unlike many popular printers, this model isnt an all-in-one. This dedicated photo printer employs high-end Full-Photolithography Inkjet Nozzle Engineering nozzles to generate a resolution of 4,800x2,400 dpi images. The printer uses eight independent color cartridges (cyan, magenta, yellow, black, photo cyan, photo magenta, light gray, and gray) to create gorgeous prints that rival the best printers costing as much as $2,000.

You can connect to the printer via Wi-Fi, USB or Ethernet, though it conspicuously lacks a media card reader for directly accessing photos from your camera. This printer isnt optimal if you need to do a lot of text-only printing, so its best for dedicated photo printing. But if thats what you need, few printers in this price range will make prints as satisfying.

The Canon TR8620s signature feature is simply how much it doesand how well it does itfor under $200. As an all-in-one printer, it includes a 20-sheet automatic document feeder, which is common in slightly more pricey printers, but a welcome bonus here.

Theres a large color touchscreen to control the printer operations, plus a great mobile app and integration with Apple AirPrint, Amazon Alexa and Google Assistant. Print quality is solid thanks to a 5-ink system with two levels of black that delivers rich shadows and dark tones chock full of detail.

Wide-format printers tend to cost a premium, but theyre indispensable if you find yourself needing to print oversized documents or enjoy printing and hanging your own photos around the house. The Epson Expression Photo HD XP-15000 accommodates truly large print jobs, able to make borderless prints up to 13x19-inchesat an eye-popping 5760x1440-pixels.

Thanks to 6 individual color cartridges (with extra red and gray), the XP-15000 creates superb prints suitable for framing around the house or using to print creatives for a small business. It includes a 50-sheet tray for specialty media like card stock and theres also a 200-sheet tray that can be used for automatic two-sided printing.

You can control the printer from the user-friendly 2.4-inch color LCD, and it supports both wired and wireless printing (but theres no media slot for printing directly from your cameras SD card, unfortunately).

Theres nothing worse than sending a bunch of print jobs to your printer and having it fail to connector get halfway through printing and have your ink cartridges run out. The HP Envy 6055 All-in-One Printer circumvents both common printer issues. Its self-healing dual-band Wi-Fi is able to recover from common connectivity issues and can connect on either a 2.4 or 5 GHz band network (many printers can only connect to the slower 2.4GHz Wi-Fi band).

If you opt into HPs Instant Ink program, the brand will send you replacement ink cartridges automatically whenever you run low for as little as $2.99 per month, based on the number of pages you print. The Envy 6055 is also a capable photo printer, able to print borderless images. It also can copy and scan, sending documents directly to Google Drive or Dropbox. In all, its a hassle-free printer for those who dont want to think about their printer.

All-in-one devices are great for people who move a lot of paper around, but what if you rarely (or never) need to scan or copy? In fact, even color ink might be overkill for some people. The HP Neverstop Laser Printer 1001NW is a monochrome laser printer for anyone with very modest printing needs. It has onboard Wi-Fi, and its 21 ppm (pages per minute) print speed is considerably better than many comparable inkjet printers.

With a footprint that's not much larger than a sheet of 8.5x11 paper, you'll be hard pressed to find a printer that does more in such a small space. The best part? Instead of toner cartridge refills that cost hundreds of dollars, the 1001nw uses a refillable toner tank that gives you 2,500 pages per refill (the device ships with 5,000 pages worth of toner in the tank) and costs under $30 for a 2-pack.

Brother positions this as an all-in-one printer with a very low lifetime cost and extremely long ink lifetime, which is super important for a home office printerthe ink cost is easily the costliest part of the equation for almost any printer, and no one likes swapping cartridges all the time. The Brother MFC-J995DWs innovative INKvestment Tank Ink System is key to the printers low cost and long ink life.

Essentially, each oversized cartridge transfers its contents to an internal ink storage tank that lets you print substantially more pages of uninterrupted printing. That means you wont end up discarding cartridges that still have some ink in them, and when a cartridge is empty youre not completely out of ink and can keep printing. This isnt a refillable supertank-style printer, but its close. And you get a years worth of ink right in the box with the initial purchase.

The ink system is so good its easy to almost overlook the printing capabilities, but that would be a mistake, because this is an excellent home office printer. Print quality is excellent, supported by a 150-page paper tray, automatic two-sided full-duplex printing and a 20-sheet automatic document feeder. Everything is controllable from a friendly 2.7-inhc color touchscreen or mobile app, and you can print via wireless, USB, Ethernet or AirPrint. Its hard to find a better overall value for your home office.

While inkjet printers have a lot of advantagesnamely the potential for better image quality in photo printscolor laser printers are quieter, faster and work better for text documents. If thats what youre looking for, the HP Color LaserJet Pro M454dw is an excellent choice. Its especially well equipped for low-to-mid volume offices, which probably describes your home office.

You get Ethernet, USB and Wi-Fi along with AirPrint and other common wireless connectivity solutions, and you can print directly from USB flash drivesthough there's no media card reader. Two paper trays accommodate up to 300 sheets at once, and you can expand that to 550 sheets with an optional expansion paper drawer.

Because this is a laser printer, its relatively fast. You can print color documents as quickly as 17 pages per minute, and print quality is quite goodthough photo prints lag in quality behind a good inkjet like the Canon PIXMA Pro-200.

The Canon SELPHY CP1300 is custom built for one thing and one thing only to deliver snapshot printouts for convenient printing from your phone and other mobile devices. With its optional battery pack and petite size, it's portable, so you can take it with you to photo shoots. You can AirPrint directly from your phone or tablet, or plug in a USB stick or your camera's memory card.

While the SELPHY can give you instantly dry, archival quality prints via its dye sublimation printing on Canon paper (rated for up to 100 years), you can also switch out the standard 4x6 prints with square photo label paper that lets you print instant stickers. It's a great way to get your prints off your phone or camera and into the real world in an instant.

Theres more to selecting a printer than first meets the eye. Your choice of printer depends on how much you routinely printa few pages a month or dozens each dayas well as whether you want to print photos or two-sided documents.

Your easiest decision is probably whether to get an inkjet or laser printer. Lasers are a good choice if you print a lot, such as in a small or home office. Monochrome laser printers are fast, reliable and inexpensive. They dont do photos very well, thoughyou can get a color laser, but they're a lot pricier and more complicated. If your printing needs sometimes include colorwhether for home, home office, or schoolworkan inkjet is usually a better bet.

As you might imagine, theres no single best printer brand; collectively, several companies offer the best printers of 2021. But depending upon what youre looking foraffordability, high printing volume for a small office, photo and creative printing, or other criteriayou might prefer one brand over another.

Brother, Canon, Epson and HP (as well as a handful of other brands) all offer superb models. If you're interested in office and productivity printing, HP and Brother are worthy of investigation; if you want to make high-quality photo prints or get a multi-purpose printer than can do prints as well as other kinds of documents, Canon and Epson have a number of compelling choices.

For all their advantages, inkjet printers can be woefully expensive to maintain, because replacement ink cartridges are pricey. So if low-cost ink is your overriding concern, consider a laser printer; laser toner is substantially less expensive than ink cartridges.

Among inkjet printers, though, consider printer models in which each color is stored in its own cartridge. Printers which use combo cartridges (in which three or more colors are housed in a single cartridge) are usually a lot more expensive to operate, because if you run out of any color you need to discard the entire cartridge along with any of its remaining ink.

Best of all: The cheapest ink ink is found in printers that use refillable tanks, sometimes called supertanks. The Epson EcoTank ET-3760, for example, is such a supertank printer that lets you purchase bulk quantities of ink that last longer and cost less than traditional ink cartridges.

Im a senior editor at Forbes and though I started out in New Jersey, I am currently living in Los Angeles. After college, I served in the Air Force where I operated satellites, taught space operations and performed space launch planning.After that, I spent eight years as a content lead on the Windows team at Microsoft. As a photographer, I have photographed wolves in their natural environment; I have also been a scuba instructor and co-hosted several podcasts that include Battlestar Recaptica and currently, Rick and Dave Control the Universe.I am the author of nearly three dozen books about photography, mobile tech, and more; Ive even authored an interactive storybook for kids. I have contributed to sites including CNET, PC World and Business Insider before joining the team at Forbes Vetted.

Im a senior editor at Forbes and though I started out in New Jersey, I am currently living in Los Angeles. After college, I served in the Air Force where I operated satellites, taught space operations and performed space launch planning.

After that, I spent eight years as a content lead on the Windows team at Microsoft. As a photographer, I have photographed wolves in their natural environment; I have also been a scuba instructor and co-hosted several podcasts that include Battlestar Recaptica and currently, Rick and Dave Control the Universe.

I am the author of nearly three dozen books about photography, mobile tech, and more; Ive even authored an interactive storybook for kids. I have contributed to sites including CNET, PC World and Business Insider before joining the team at Forbes Vetted.

before you go: snake river rafting through hells canyon | oars

before you go: snake river rafting through hells canyon | oars

ATTENTION: OARS has developed a COVID-19 General Mitigation Plan that seeks to minimize the chances that disease transmission will occur on our trips. A condition of participation is to read, understand and agree to follow the rules and guidelines and participate in all screening measures. Failure to comply with these conditions of participation will result in declination of service and/or removal from the trip.

Hells Canyon, home of the mighty Snake River, is often calledthe deepest gorge in North America. Marking the border between Idaho and Oregon, Hells Canyon plunges to depths of nearly 8,000 feet between the Seven Devils range to the east and Oregons rim country to the west. Through this tremendous gorge, the warm, clear waters of the Snake River thunder through some of the most exciting, big-wave rapids in the Northwest; in calmer sections, the Snake serves up great fishing opportunities. Hells Canyons watery bliss is matched by its stunning rockscapes and the intriguing remnants of past inhabitants, both indigenous and transplanted, creating a rich river adventure thats hard to beat.

We pride ourselves in running a relaxed and flexible schedule. Every trip is different depending upon the group, other trips on the water and sometimes the weather. The following is a sample of what your trip might be like:

Well meet at 7:00 PM at the Hells Canyon Grand Hotel for a pre-trip meeting. This is an opportunity to meet your fellow travelers and trip leader, and ask any last-minute questions. Your trip leader will give you a thorough trip orientation, pass out your waterproof river bags so that you can pack your belongings that evening, and confirm the meeting time for the following morning.

Well meet early at the Hells Canyon Grand Hotel for our departure from the Lewiston airport on a charter flight to Halfway, Oregon with Gem Air. An appropriate introduction to our journey ahead, this flight offers a spectacular birds-eye view of our pathway through Hells Canyon, and is often considered a favorite highlight of the trip. From the landing strip, well shuttle to our put-in point just below Hells Canyon Dam where our colorful boats and your OARS crew await. After an informative safety talk and some brief paddle raft/inflatable kayak instruction, were off on our river adventure!

The first day generally sets the pace for our river trip. Typically, after some time on the water, we pull over and enjoy a delicious picnic on the shores of the river. After feasting and relaxing (or perhaps swimming, a game of Frisbee, or a nature walk), we get back in our boats for more exciting whitewater. Mid-to late-afternoon we stop and make camp; you grab your bags and set up your tent while we take care of the kitchen and living roomcamp chairs and the site for tonights campfire (if permitted). Before long youll be savoring pleasing hors doeuvres and the beverage of your choicedelicious as these refreshments are, they always taste better after a day on the river! Read, nap, or just sit back and laugh with friends and family as we prepare dinner. After a satisfying feast, the evening is yours to spend however you wish. Maybe music, stories, or jokes will bring us together tonight; perhaps the popping of the fire, the whisper of the river and the clarity of the big, star-filled sky will encourage silent reflection on the amazing wilderness that is, for now, our home.

Your day begins with the morning light turning the canyon walls the colors of sunrise. Once youve eaten your fill at breakfast, youll pack up your things as the guides break down camp. Then our new days adventure begins.

Today is an exciting whitewater day, culminating in two of Hells Canyons biggest rapids: Wild Sheep and Granite. Our anticipation builds as we stop at the top of each rapid, looking down at the thundering whitewater that awaits us. Those who are skilled enough to paddle inflatable kayaks get some last-minute instruction before challenging the big waves and drops. We all fly through the frothy rapids, coming out slightly wet (maybe very wet!), but elated.

As the roiling rapids give way to more gentle stretches, we may stop and hike up Granite Creek for viewing Native American pictographs. Or, perhaps well float down to Bernard Creek for a hike to McGaffee Cabina homestead preserved from the early 1900sand panels of pictographs.

This section of the Snake River offers excellent trout fishing. During periods of calmer water, or perhaps at lunch, the anglers in the group will have some great opportunities to cast their line in deep pools.

A visit to Kirkwood Historic Ranch and Museum provides a taste of living history, exhibiting the lifestyle of Hells Canyons inhabitants in the 1930s. This is also the site of extensive historic and prehistoric Indian artifacts, which are displayed and interpreted in the Kirkwood Museum. This scenic ranch is a must-see on any Snake River trip. Further downstream, Pittsburg Landing offers an even more fascinating look at the life of the early Native Americans in Hells Canyon. Lodge rings, petroglyphs, and other artifacts still remaining on the shore teach us more about the inhabitants who prospered for thousands of years along the Snake River.

Pittsburg Landing is the ending point of the 3-day trip. We say our goodbyes, then take a three-hour ride back to Lewiston. Those on the 4 or 5-day trip continue down the river. As the water becomes calmer, well refocus our attention on the rocky canyon walls, looking for resident wildlifeincluding bear, deer, elk, mountain goats, and bighorn sheepand marveling at the majestic beauty of the gorge.

Those looking for a challenging climb might have the chance to negotiate the steep but scenic trail to Suicide Point. Panels of Indian rock art are highlights of possible hikes to Temperance Creek and Deep Creek. The latter is also the site of a darker history; in 1887, 31 Chinese men were murdered here for their gold. Other interesting destinations for the avid to explore are Salt Creek and Coon Hollow.

Depending on our individual trips schedule on the final day, we could have an early start and get under way after a cold breakfast, or we may enjoy a hearty breakfast and a more leisurely pace, but we are now heading back to civilization. Our final days float brings us past the Snakes confluence with three major rivers: the Imnaha, Salmon, and Grande Ronde. The river volume more than doubles and well see evidence of development and multiple-use impacts as we continue our float. A motor may be used on the last portion of flat water to the take-out. We reach our take-out point at Heller Bar where we bid farewell to our guides for a 45- minute shuttle ride to Lewiston. It doesnt take us long to realize that although we have left the river, the river will never leave us.

Consider Purchasing Travel Protection: Because there are costs that you will incur if you cancel the spaces on this trip that were now holding for you, or in the event you need to be evacuated during the trip due to an unforeseen illness or injury, we strongly encourage our guests to purchase an optional travel protection plan. A travel protection plan may help reimburse the cost of your pre-paid, non-refundable payments in the event you are prevented from taking your trip for a covered reason. Trip participants must understand that in the event of an illness or injury on a wilderness trip, evacuation can be prolonged, difficult and expensive. For complete details and to purchase the plan we highly recommend, visit: https://www.oars.com/tpp

Please note: To be eligible for coverage for pre-existing medical conditions, you must purchase the plan within 21 days of your initial trip payment and you must be medically fit to travel at the time you pay for the plan.

Trip Forms (online): Each participant will need to complete the required trip forms within two weeks of making a booking. Refer to your confirmation e-mail for the link to the online forms. If you prefer to fill out paper forms, please let us know right away. If you are reserving within 60 days of departure, your forms must be completed immediately to ensure we can properly plan for your trip.

Reserve flights, shuttles and lodging: Verify with your adventure consultant that your trip has met minimum numbers prior to booking flights and/or reserving overnight lodging for the night before and after your trip, if applicable.

Whitewater Orientation: To increase your safety, we expect everyone to watch our 23-minute Whitewater Orientation video before joining us. Check out the 5-minute animated CROA Safety Video on the same webpage. Watch at http://www.oars.com/videos/oars-whitewater-orientationor call 800-346-6277 to request a free DVD. Please dont leave home without watching.

Physical Requirements: Your outdoor adventure will be an active participatory trip. Please inform us of any physical limitation you may have as soon as possible. Make sure you are exercising frequently in the months leading up to your trip.

Payments: Final payment is due in our office 90 days prior to your trip (refer to your invoice for final payment date). Please let us know if you would like us to automatically charge your credit card on file when final payment is due.

Well meet at 7:00 PM at the Hells Canyon Grand Hotel for a pre-trip meeting. This is an opportunity to meet your fellow travelers and trip leader, and ask any last-minute questions. Your trip leader will give you a thorough trip orientation, pass out your waterproof river bags so that you can pack your belongings that evening, and confirm the meeting time for the following morning.

You can also fly into Spokane, Washington, then rent a car or take a bus to Lewiston. Spokane is served by Southwest, Alaska, United, Frontier, American and Delta Airlines and is approximately a two-hour drive (100 miles) from Lewiston. See By Bus for more information.

Limited bus service is available between Spokane and Lewiston on Northwestern Trailways bus lines: 800-366-3830, www.northwesterntrailways.com. The cost is $42 one-way or $80 round trip, between the Spokane airport and Lewiston.

Please mention you are withOARS while making reservations. The special rate for OARS guests, for a double room, starts at $105, depending upon availability. The Hells Canyon Grand Hotel has a lounge, restaurant, and access to an athletic club. It also provides a free airport shuttle. You can store extra luggage while on the river for no additional charge.

The dam-controlled Snake River flows steadily all season long, creating powerful Class III rapids and, in certain water levels, a few adrenaline-pumping Class IVs. Exuberant drops and roller-coaster wave trains provide an exciting ride, whether youre challenging the whitewater hands on in a paddle raft or inflatable kayak, bucking through the rapids in a hard-hulled dory, or just holding on as you plow right through in a stable oar boat. Periodic stretches of calm water offer plenty of chances to swim in the cooling river.

The number and variety of boats on an OARS trip will vary based on water levels, the number of participants and other factors we take into account when planning your adventure. Please be aware that in doing so we will ask you to share boat time with your fellow travelers. Generally, we strive for travel units to travel together in boats with no more than one or two travel units per boat with limited mobility between various boats types during the day. However, the composition of some trips may at times require more than two travel units in a boat, which compromises our ability to achieve six feet of physical distancing between travel units. We dont assign boats, nor can we guarantee exactly which crafts we bring, but trust us to provide you with the best possible mix for you and others on your trip. The following boats may be a part of your experience:

After each active day on the river, we pull ashore to camp for the night. Upon arrival, our first task is to unload the boats using a bag line of crew and passengers to expedite the process. Individuals then collect their waterproof bags and locate an area on the beach to camp for the night. On the first night in camp, a crew member will give a demonstration on setting up a tent, which youll see is quick and easy. The guides will set up the kitchen and central dining/seating area with camp chairs. They will also locate a secluded area away from camp to for the portable toilet, where privacy is assured.

As dinner is being prepared by the guides, hors doeuvres will be served and you will have an opportunity to relax, enjoy a drink if you wish, and reflect on the day with your fellow traveling companions.

In the morning, the first wake-up call will let you know that coffee, hot water for tea or cocoa, juice, fresh fruit and cold cereal are ready on the hors doeuvres table. You can fill your mug and grab a bite, then begin to pack up your personal belongings and sleep gear as the guides prepare breakfast. After breakfast is served, the entire camp will be broken down and packing will be completed. The gear will then be loaded onto the boats and well head downstream to see what new adventures await us.

The meals we serve are hearty and delicious, complete with fresh ingredients and a variety of foods. A typical morning on a multi-day trip might start with French toast, bacon, fruit, orange juice, and coffee or tea. Lunch might be a delicious salad, spread of cold cuts and cheeses with several types of bread, or pitas stuffed with veggies and hummus. There are always cookies and a cooling drink. At dinner, our guides cooking skills truly shinesizzling steaks or salmon, chicken enchiladas, and delicious stir-fry dishes are all part of their repertoire. Dinner generally includes a salad, and desserts are frequent.

We need to know as soon as possible about any dietary restrictions we should consider in planning your trip. If you have food allergies or restrictions, we will do our best to accommodate your needs. However, there may be a supplemental menu fee ranging from $5-25 per person per day, to cover any increase in ourcosts.

Beyond our standard menu, we can provide options for vegetarian, vegan and many allergy-restricted diets without applying a fee. However, we cannot always provide the same diversity or sophistication for restricted diets as we do for our regular menu. Similarly, certain allergen-free snack foods are difficult or impossible to source in our locations, so feel free to bring your own favorite snacks to supplement our provisions. Please let your Adventure Consultant know if you intend to do so.

We cannot guarantee that cross-contamination from allergens will not occur during meal prep, and reserve the right to refuse service to anyone as it relates to safety, including the potential for a medical emergency caused by a severe food allergy. Also, due to the constraints of cooking for a large group in a wilderness setting, availability of ingredients or specialty items in remote locations, and limited packing space, we are unable to cater to dietary preferences (likes or dislikes).

We provide a limited supply of sodas per person per day, water, lemonade and a limited supply of beer and wine with dinner. You are welcome to bring your own favorite beverages, alcoholic or non-alcoholic, in non-glass containers. If you choose to bring additional drinks or alcoholic beverages, please let us know in advance. For those planning to buy hard liquor in Idaho, State Liquor Store hours vary. For information on where you can buy liquor in Idaho, please visit: www.mixblendenjoy.com. Selection is likely to be limited. For your safety and the safety of others, the consumption of alcoholic beverages is limited to camp.

We are obligated to adhere to the regulations established by the managing agency with jurisdiction over the area in which our trip operates. Use of marijuana on federal lands, whether it be medicinal or recreational, is illegal and therefore we ask that you refrain from bringing it with you on yourOARS trip.

Our drinking water comes from the river and is filtered through a purification system we provide. (No iodine is used in the purification process.) We store the purified water in large containers that are accessible in camp, at lunch time and before hikes for filling personal water bottles.

The opportunity to explore the area will depend on several variables, such as the amount of time spent in the boats (often 4-6 hours per day), the time it may take to break camp in the morning and to reach our next camp in the afternoon, other groups in the area, weather and more. We make every effort to provide guided excursions to nearby points of interest, some of which are brief walks while others are long hikes requiring more planning. The trip leader must consider the overall ability of the group when deciding what hikes to offer. In anticipation of doing some side exploration during your trip, remember to bring a water bottle and lightweight shoes that are comfortable for walking on uneven terrain. All hikes are optional so you can choose to relax by the boats or in camp instead. If you are an avid hiker, please let your Adventure Consultant know prior to your trip so the trip leader is aware.

The Snake River supports a variety of cold- and warm-water fish including steelhead, salmon, rainbow trout, catfish, and bass. Hells Canyon is also one of the last strongholds of the giant white sturgeon. The fishing here is great, and our guides are happy to point out the best places to wet a lineso dont forget your gear! We recommend collapsible poles for ease in packing, light spinning tackle with 4- to 6-pound test, and an assortment of spinning lures such as Mepps, Rooster tails, and Super-dupers. Fly anglers do quite well.

The Snake River marks the border between Idaho and Oregon, which both require separate licenses. Typically, OARS trips camp overnight on the Oregon side but this can change depending on time of year and how busy the river is at the time. Those who want to fish from the shore every night might do well to purchase fishing licenses in both states. However, you may fish from the boat on either side of the river with just one fishing license. Non-residents of Idaho can buy a short-term fishing license by calling 1-800-554-8685 or you can purchase one online at Idaho Fish and Game and Oregon licenses can be purchased at Oregon Fish and Wildlife

Anyone 14 years and over needs to have a fishing license. Children under 14 years do not need to buy a license, but they must be accompanied by an adult from their party with a valid license. For more information, ask us to send you our flyer on fishing in Idaho.

While the idea of a river trip is appealing to most people, many are inhibited or reluctant because of modesty or uncertainty. To minimize our impacts, we carry out all solid human waste and use a portable toilet system that is set up each day at camp in a secluded location a discrete distance from tent sites. It is essentially a toilet without plumbing and is available from the time you pull into camp each afternoon until you leave camp the next day. Toilet paper and a convenient hand-washing station are provided.

We also carry a small container called the day tripper that can be easily accessed during the day should the need arise. It is a personal disposable toilet, which includes an odor-proof transport bag, chemical solidifier and odor eliminator, toilet paper and oversized hand wipe.

Bathing is not allowed in the river or in any of the side streams that feed into the rivers. You may want to bring a solar shower or you can borrow a bailing bucket from one of the rafts to rinse off after soaping up. Both are to be used at least 200 feet away from the water source in an area that will absorb the runoff. We recommend using a liquid biodegradable soap such as Campsuds or Dr. Bronners www.drbronner.com which can be purchased in most stores that have a camping section and can also be used to wash clothes. You may also find a good selection at your local health food store. Disposable anti-bacterial towelettes (Coleman Swash Cloths, baby wipes, etc.) can also be purchased and are especially convenient for spring and fall trips.

Even if you arent anticipating your menstrual period, come prepared for it. You can use sandwich-sized Ziploc baggies during the day to store feminine products while you are on the river or hiking, and you can then discretely dispose of the baggies when you reach camp. When possible, we recommend o.b. tampons, which are 1/3 the size of regular tampons, tuck discreetly into pockets and have less paper wrapping. If you use pads, be sure to bring extras. Many women suggest bringing a small supply of baby wipes. We provide some feminine products on most trips for emergencies.

We provide a small waterproof bag (17 tall x 9 diameterapproximate sealed size) to hold your camera and other items you might need during the day. While these bags are designed to be waterproof, you may wish to place your camera in a zip-lock plastic bag or waterproof casing for additional protection. We also strongly recommend you take out a rider on your homeowners policy to cover your cameraespecially if its fine equipment. Make sure to bring additional memory cards, batteries and any other extras you will need.

The use of electronic devices, especially music players and flying drones, on your trip may represent an intrusion into the wilderness experience of your fellow guests. We ask that you be mindful of the impacts to others and respect the wilderness nature of the trip. Please bring headphones if you intend to listen to music during the trip and leave your drone at home*.

Many of our guests travel with their smartphone even though there is no cell service. On a trip like this, there is always the risk of water damage to smartphones and other electronic devices, even when they are stowed in a dry bag. If you intend to take your phone with you on the river, consider investing in a small, waterproof container just for your phone.

We are not able to provide a power source for recharging devices. To keep cameras, phones, GPS and other devices working you may need spare batteries or portable power. Options include compact portable solar panels that can recharge devices directly, portable power banks that store power, or a combo unit that can be charged before the trip and recharged with a built-in solar panel.

Once you are on the river there is limited communication with the outside world. Cell phone service is not available. Our guides carry satellite phones which are strictly used to call out in case of an emergency situation on the river. They can call out, but we cannot call them. Periodically the trip leader will check in with our office. If you have someone that needs to contact you about an emergency at home, they should call our office (800-346-6277). If possible, we will relay the message to you. Keep in mind, however, it could be several days or longer before the message actually reaches you. For your family at home you should define for them what you consider an emergency and provide them with instructions to call our office in the event one occurs during your vacation.

Fire activity frequently impacts the air quality on our trips, and occasionally wildfires may be present in the immediate vicinity of where were traveling. Smoke impacts are more likely in the latter-half of the summer season, so those with asthma or other respiratory conditions may wish to steer clear of this time frame. In general, we will not cancel a trip on account of smoky conditions, except in cases of clear danger to life or property. Necessary changes to logistics and/or destination may occur with very short notice as fire conditions are constantly changing. We will do our best to keep you apprised of excessively smoky conditions that can be foreseen for your upcoming trip, but we also encourage you to stay informed about local fire activity: https://inciweb.nwcg.gov/

Our standard cancellation terms & conditions apply should you choose to cancel due to environmental conditions resulting from a wildfire near to where our trip operates. Please review our Terms & Conditions section in this document, below. Furthermore, we recommend you consider investing in a comprehensive Travel Protection Plan that provides you the ability to cancel for any reason should you feel conditions from a nearby wildfire may result in you canceling your reservation.

If you require the use of a CPAP machine and intend to bring one with you, be sure to alert your OARS Adventure Consultant prior to your trip to let us know the dimensions of the machine, description of battery(s), and any protective case(s). Travel-sized CPAPs are readily available and often come with a battery kit. You must assess the power needs of your CPAP and bring the battery(s) needed to operate it for each night of your travels. If this is a challenge for you please contact your OARS Adventure Consultant and our team will work to ensure youre able to power the machine during the trip. Were able to accommodate the transportation of your machine and accessories on the trip in metal dry boxes or soft dry bags; however,pleaseunderstand that despite efforts to protect your equipment we cant guarantee your machine and accessories wont suffer water or impact damage and therefore we recommend additional protective case(s) for your machine & accessories.

Our guides do not carry firearms on our trips, and in most cases are prohibited from doing so by the managing agency. As a matter of preference, we ask all our guests to kindly leave your own firearms at home or in your vehicle.

You may want to check one week prior to your trip for an up-to-date weather forecast. We recommend the following website: www.wunderground.com for weather in Lewiston, Idaho. Average Air & Water Temperatures

The above criteria, if not met, will disqualify a person from participating in a river trip with OARS. The criteria exist for your own safety and that of all trip participants. None of the criteria are meant to discriminate on the basis of any physical or mental disability, and are applied uniformly to all potential trip participants, irrespective of the presence or absence of any disability. OARS is committed to making reasonable modifications to any trip for any persons with a disability, so long as they do not fundamentally alter the nature of the trip.

The following paragraphs are meant to further inform all potential participants of the expectations for all participants in order to promote a safe, enjoyable experience for everyone on a trip. There may be requirements, whether physical or mental, that are not specifically applied essential eligibility criteria, but that help our guests understand the reality of being on a wilderness river trip.

Our primary goal is to minimize the risks associated with adventure trips in a wilderness environment. The trip involves physical exertion and exposure to the elements, including cold water and the potential for heat, sun, wind, rain and snow. We have experience accommodating people with a wide range of physical disabilities and/or health conditions. However, individuals who are overweight, lack conditioning, or have other physical limitations or ailments that interfere with the realistic encounters on a wilderness river can endanger themselves, other guests, and the guides. Please consult your doctor if you have medical or health conditions that could impact your ability to participate in this outdoor adventure.

It is very important that each trip participant take an active role in their own safety. You will likely encounter wilderness conditions that you are unfamiliar with, and those conditions may change rapidly. It is critical to pay attention at all times, to be aware of your surroundings, and to avoid taking unnecessary risks. Even a non-life threatening injury in a wilderness setting can become a major emergency for you, and can endanger the entire group. Swimming alone or hiking alone is discouraged. Excessive alcohol consumption or illicit drug use is not tolerated. Using common sense, and following both the explicit instruction and the lead of your guides can go a long way towards keeping yourself and the group safe. Some obvious things to avoid in camp and on shore (by way of example) are: walking around without shoes in camp, approaching wild animals, not paying attention to what is above or around your tent site that could harm you, not paying attention to hazards such as poison ivy and rattlesnakes, and walking near precipitous ledges.

River trips, particularly those involving whitewater, are inherently risky. While the risk of a trip is part of what makes it an exciting adventure, you must be entirely respectful of the risk that such a trip poses. It is important that you are confident in your swimming ability, and your ability to stay calm in the event you become a non-voluntary swimmer. Your odds of becoming a non-voluntary swimmer change with the classification of a rapid, boat selection and environmental factors. On class IV and greater whitewater, the probability that you will become a non-voluntary swimmer is significant. A swim in whitewater is much more difficult and physically draining than swimming in flat water. Swimming in cold water can cause a gasping effect on your respiratory system. This can be overcome by focusing on your breathing and calming yourself down. Swimming in cold water will also much more quickly sap your energy and decrease muscle function than swimming in warmer water. While our guides are highly trained and will do their absolute best to rescue you, a successful rescue is greatly hampered by a swimmer who is unprepared for a swim in whitewater, who fails to actively participate in their own rescue, and who is not able to follow directions while under stress. You will receive a detailed orientation talk at the start of your river trip, but you can get a better idea of what to expect by watching a version of an orientation talk here: http://www.oars.com/videos/oars-whitewater-orientation.

Due to the physical nature of this trip, we highly recommend that you engage in regular exercise for at least three months prior to departure to ensure preparedness. No gym membership required! Simple exercises like push-ups, sit-ups and squats go a long way to improving core fitness. Start with these exercises and do three sets of ten repetitions each, three to four times per week. Aerobic training is also easy to accomplish without expensive equipment. Take 30 40 minutes two to three times a week and go for a brisk walk, easy jog or bike ride around town. If you have access to a pool, lake or the ocean, swimming is obviously an ideal choice for aerobic exercise. It provides a full-body workout and is training that is useful in the event of an involuntary swim in a whitewater rapid. It is important to push yourself in the months leading up to your trip by increasing your strength training repetitions and the pace of your aerobic training. Check with your doctor prior to beginning any exercise program to be sure you are medically safe to participate. Starting an exercise program that is more strenuous than you are ready for may result in injury or risk exacerbating existing health conditions. Getting in shape will certainly add to your enjoyment of the trip.

All guests must supply their own hand sanitizer and reusable/washable face coverings (minimum of two) consisting of two or more layers. A clean face covering should be used each day of your trip; masks may be reused if they are washed.

During the dayStart with a swimsuit and/or swim trunks and synthetic or merino wool shirt as a base layer. Additional layers, like long underwear, fleece and rain gear, can be added and subtracted depending on the weather, temperature and how wet youre getting in the rapids.

In campWhen the weather is warm, lightweight cotton pants/skirt or shorts and shirt make great campwear. Those inclined may enjoy wearing a cotton skirt or sarong on summer evenings. In the spring and fall, or on trips at the higher elevations, a dry set of long underwear is the perfect base layer under long pants and a fleece sweater.

During the dayThe best choice is an amphibious shoe that drains water, protects your toes and wont come off in swirling current. A retired pair of athletic shoes can work well, too. Sport sandals with a heel strap are a good option, especially on rivers with sandy beaches. Find professional-grade options made by Chaco at www.chacos.com, the official footwear sponsor ofOARS guides.

In campWe recommend wearing shoes in camp due to risk of kicking a rock buried in the sand, or stepping on a sharp stick. The athletic shoes or light hikers you bring for hiking can double as your camp shoes. Its nice to put on dry socks and shoes after a day on the water. Flip flops or Crocs are OK for wearing in camp only.

In campWhen the weather is cool or cold, youll want a non-cotton beanie-style hat to wear in camp. They are the perfect remedy for bed-head as you rise from your sleeping bag to secure your morning cup of coffee or tea, or for retaining warmth in the evening hours after the sun sets.

A good way to keep cool is with long-sleeved cotton shirts. They can be soaked in the water and worn in the raft or carried on a hike for later use. This method of evaporative cooling is very effective. Bandanas are another useful item that can be used in this manner. During summer months, conditions on the river may be hot and sunny. These trips require less gear than spring or fall trips, but thoughtful packing is still required. Protection from the sun and heat will be critical to your enjoyment and health while on the river and during side hikes. To protect yourself from the suns rays, consider bringing long-sleeved shirts and pants. Lightweight, nylon safari shirts are readily available and often come with a UPF rating for reflecting harmful ultraviolet rays. These pack small, light, are quick drying and often offer ventilation to help keep cool.

Synthetic or merino wool long underwear is a must-have on river trips. It can be worn under shorts, rain gear, T-shirts, etc., then stripped off when the chill of the morning has worn off. It keeps you warm even if its wet (which can happen easily), dries quickly, and its compact enough to be stuffed into your small waterproof bag or daypack after you take it off. It can be layered under your waterproof rain jacket and pants. In cooler weather a rain jacket and pants work better than a wetsuit, because the jacket and pants can be put on when its cold, or when youre going through whitewater, then easily taken off when the sun comes out and its hot. Some folks find that wetsuits dont work as well as they are tedious to put on and take off. During early season or high-water trips we do provide wetsuits for paddlers. Be aware that cotton items, once wet, do not insulate; only synthetic and wool materials will keep you warm during cool, wet weather.

Something warm for your top & bottom: You need to be prepared for inclement weather. Bring a good fleece or wool top and bottom, along with a warm hat and gloves. Youll want to double up on your synthetic layers so that youll have a set to wear in the boat and a set of warm, dry clothes for camp.

Late May, June, and September Trips: These are surely some of the most beautiful months to be on the river, but they can also produce some surprisingly chilly times. During the fall, the sun is not far enough north in the sky for its warming rays to reach down into the river canyon for as many hours a day as it does in the summer. This means more shady areas, fewer sunny ones. Therefore, when you are splashed (drenched) going through the rapids and youre in a shady area, you will get very cold unless you are prepared.

Rain gear protects you from rain, wind and the splash of the rapids. It is one of the essential items that all passengers should have no matter what time of year you are traveling. Look for jacket and pants that are 100% waterproof, not just water resistant. A hooded jacket is recommended as well as good secure closures around your head, neck, wrists and ankles. Do not bring a rain poncho as it cannot be worn under your PFD.

Protecting yourself from the sun should be taken very seriously. A hat, sunscreen, lip balm and sunglasses are a must. Rheos, the official sunglasses sponsor of OARS guides, offers polarized floatable nautical eyewear with 100% UV protection at www.rheosgear.com. Use promo code OARS15 to save 15% on any purchase from The Nautical Eyewear Collection.

In many cases, a long-sleeve shirt is the best method for preventing sunburn on your upper body. Light-weight long pants may also be appropriate to protect your legs. Be sure to bring a good hat that offers full coverage, such as a wide-brimmed hat.

Bugs and mosquitos vary depending on location and time of year. Its a good idea to come prepared with insect repellent. Long sleeved shirts and pants may be desirable at times. Occasionally on a very hot, dry year there are yellow jackets present. If you are allergic, please bring an epi pen.

We supply a professionally laundered sleeping bag with liner, a pillow with a freshly laundered pillowcase, a sleeping pad, a ground tarp as well as a shared tent. The complete customized sleep kit that we provide is designed for your comfort and maximizes available luggage space. Our sleeping bags are degree rated depending on the season and are 33 x 84, which is longer than the normal (80).

Equipment and Personal Items: Two 1-liter water bottles: durable and reusable, insulated bottles recommended for trips in hot climates to prevent water from becoming too hot to drink Locking carabiner (for clipping a water bottle or personal dry bag into a raft or inflatable kayak Hand sanitizer Face coverings (2) Headlamp or flashlight (consider bringing extra batteries) Sunglasses (preferably polarized such as Rheos floatable eyewear www.rheosgear.com) with securing strap (consider bringing a spare) Small, quick-drying towel (a sarong makes a great alternative and can also be worn around camp) Toiletries, including biodegradable soap (such as Campsuds or Dr. Bronners) Sunscreen and lip protection: waterproof & SPF 30 or higher (aerosol sprays not recommended) Moisturizing lotion or cream Insect repellent Personal first aid kit (Band-aids, antibiotic ointment, ibuprofen, moleskin, eye drops, etc.) Spare pair of glasses and/or contacts Cash for gratuities

Clothing: Long-sleeved shirt: lightweight and light color for sun protection (old dress shirts work well) Long pants: lightweight and light color for sun protection Shade hat or visor with securing strap flexible enough to fit under your helmet Rain jacket & pants: waterproof (not water resistant). A hooded jacket with secure closures is recommended Swimwear: a two-piece is recommended for women for changing and using the restroom. Tankinis and board shorts are a great option Underwear Shorts: 1 pair T-shirts/tops: 1-2 Synthetic long underwear top & bottom: 1 set light to mid-weight Jacket: fleece or down/synthetic fill puffy (depending on the time of year, weather, location) Camp clothes: comfortable and appropriate for season. Cotton recommended for hot weather trips. Women may prefer an athletic skirt or dress

Optional Items: Camera and accessories Sarong: useful for sun protection, evaporative cooling, changing clothes, etc. Small day pack, waist pack or hydration pack for side hikes Carabiner Bathing wipes: pre-moistened disposable towels Small bags: stuff sacs, zip locks or similar for organizing items in your dry bag Large empty bag: laundry bag, pillow case or similar for putting clothes into after your trip Ear plugs Binoculars Splash jacket and pants Lightweight cord and clothespins for drying clothes Sketchbook, notebook and pen, paperback book Bandana Feminine Urinary Device (for women only)

At the pre-trip meeting each person will be given one large waterproof bag (approximate sealed size: 13 diameter x 25 tall; 3318 cu in; 54.4 L), for your clothing and personal items. A second bag for your sleeping gear (sleeping bag, sleeping pad, ground tarp, sheet and pillow) will be packed and waiting for you. Tents are stowed separately.

We also provide a small waterproof bag per person for day use, where you can keep items such as raingear, camera, sunscreen, lip balm, etc. (approximate sealed size: 17 tall x 9 diameter; 1081 cu in; 17.7 L). The bags are cylindrical in shape and pack from the top. Please pack light, and keep in mind that river attire is casual: comfort, convenience and boat space take precedence over style. At the end of the trip, you will return to Lewiston with your waterproof bags, where you will be able to unpack your gear before your trip home.

Please note: You are limited by Gem Air to 35 pounds of baggage per person on the flight to Halfway, Oregon before our put-in. Baggage handling on the small aircraft is made much easier if your luggage is soft-sided.

We recommend that you leave your valuables at home. For personal items like wallets, purses and cell phones, we recommend putting them in a zip-lock bag at the bottom of your waterproof bag with your clothing.

Tipping is optional, but appreciated by our staff. If you are wondering how much to tip, you may consider that we operate in a service industry with a host of behind-the-scenes contributors in addition to the guides on your trip. In general, we suggest a gratuity based on 10 15% of the trip cost. It is customary onOARS trips for gratuities to be given to the Trip Leader in the form of cash or personal check, who will then distributeappropriately amongst all the guides and support staff.

In reviewing your statement, youll note a $1/person/day donation to Hells Canyon Preservation Council, a non-profit defending the Snake River through Hells Canyon and the Lower Salmon River. One-hundred percent of these funds go directly to the river protection work of Hells Canyon Preservation Council, and your contribution is tax-deductible. Please notify our office if you would prefer to delete the donation from your balance.

If you enjoyed your trip, consider donating to The Pam & George Wendt Foundation. This organization is a not-for-profit 501 (c) 3 organization with the express goal of providing opportunities for young people to experience the magic of the outdoors. Visithttps://www.oars.com/oars-foundation/to learn more about how a tax-deductible donation can change young lives for the better.

A $400/person deposit is required at the time of booking. Deposits may be made by check, money order or Visa/Mastercard(American Express and Discover incur a 3% processing fee). Prices are in US Dollars and all payments must be made in US Dollars. Payment of the deposit establishes your acceptance of our complete Terms and Conditions. Individual departures and trip capacity are strictly limited by the managing agency.

Cancelling your trip after your deposit is processed will incur cancellation fees because OARS has absorbed costs on your behalf and will turn others away who would like to book the spaces were holding for you. Final payment is due 60 days prior to departure. Accounts on which final payment has not been received 50 days prior to the departure date will be cancelled without exception.

If you must cancel your reservation after the rescission period described above, your cancellation fee will be determined according to the schedule below. We do regret we cannot make exceptions to the cancellation policy for any reason, including foul weather, poor air quality, wildfire activity, acts of terrorism, civil unrest or personal emergencies. There is no refund for arriving late or leaving a trip early. For these reasons, we strongly urge you to consider purchasing a travel protection plan (see Travel Protection below).

180 or more days prior to your trip $50/person 179 90 days prior to your trip $100/person 89 60 days prior to your trip $200/person 59 days or less prior to your trip Full Fare

OARS reserves the right to cancel any trip due to insufficient registration or other factors that make the trip impractical to operate. In such instances, we will inform you at least 45 days prior to departure. Do not make nonrefundable travel arrangements unless you have spoken to your Adventure Consultant regarding the status of your trip.

If a trip must be cancelled or postponed due to force majeure (factors outside the control of OARS), OARS will provide full credit for payments made toward future travel, or a refund less a 5% service fee plus any nonrefundable payments made on your behalf to 3rd-party suppliers. OARS will make good faith efforts to recover deposits made on your behalf to 3rd-party suppliers, however we cant guarantee recovery of any or all of the advance payments made. OARS is not responsible for expenses incurred by participants in preparation for a cancelled trip.

If you need to move your reservation to a different trip during the same season, or to a credit account for the following year, there is a $25/person fee up until 90 days prior to departure for a one-time transfer of your payment. Transfer requests made 89 days or less prior to departure will be treated like a cancellation according to the schedule above.

Under most circumstances, if you are of an adventurous spirit and in reasonably good health, you should have no problem enjoying an OARS trip. People with medical conditions, including pregnancy, should have a physicians approval before taking an adventure travel trip.

Because there are costs that you will incur if you cancel the spaces on this trip that were now holding for you, or in the event you need to be evacuated during the trip due to an unforeseen illness or injury, we strongly encourage our guests to purchase an optional travel protection plan. A travel protection plan may help reimburse the cost of your pre-paid, non-refundable payments in the event you are prevented from taking your trip for a covered reason. Trip participants must understand that in the event of an illness or injury on a wilderness trip, evacuation can be prolonged, difficult and expensive. For complete details and to purchase the plan we highly recommend, visit: https://www.oars.com/tpp

Please note: To be eligible for coverage for pre-existing medical conditions, you must purchase the plan within 21 days of your initial trip payment and you must be medically fit to travel at the time you pay for the plan.

Everyone is required to sign a standard liability release / assumption of risk form before the trip, confirming awareness that there are inherent risks associated with the trip. Due to the nature of the activities, a condition of your participation is that you will sign this form and return it to our office before the trip begins. Anyone who refuses to sign the form will not be allowed to participate, and consistent with OARS cancellation policy, there will be no refund of the trip fees at that time.

O.A.R.S. West, Inc. and cooperating agencies act only in the capacity of agent for the participants in all matters relating to transportation and/or all other related travel services, and assume no responsibility however caused for injury, loss or damage to person or property in connection with any service, including but not limited to that resulting directly or indirectly from acts of God, detention, annoyance, delays and expenses arising from quarantine, pandemics, strikes, theft, pilferage, force majeure, failure of any means of conveyance to arrive or depart as scheduled, civil disturbances, government restrictions or regulations, and discrepancies or change in transit over which it has no control. Reasonable changes in itinerary may be made where deemed advisable for the comfort and wellbeing of the participants, including cancellation due to water fluctuation, insufficient bookings (this trip requires a minimum of 4 guests 6 for gourmet, craft beer and wine trips), and other factors. There is risk in whitewater rafting, particularly during high-water conditions. Rafts, dories and kayaks do capsize. You could be swept overboard. Your guide will make every attempt to assist, but you must be strong and agile enough to self-help and float-it-out without further endangering yourself or others. We reserve the right not to accept passengers weighing more than 260 pounds or with a waist/chest size exceeding 56 inches. We may decide, at any time, to exclude any person or group for any reason we feel is related to the safety of our trips. We are experienced at accommodating people with various disabilities. Please give us an opportunity to make you feel welcome. We need to discuss any special requirements ahead of time.

OARS trips occur in areas where unpredictable environmental conditions are to be expected. To moderate dangerous situations for our guests and guides, all travelers must obey the rules and regulations as determined by the managing agencies and the Trip Leader and demonstrate reasonable consideration for other guests and OARS employees. We reserve the right to remove any guest from a trip if, in our opinion, that guests actions or behaviors pose a threat to the safety of her/himself or others, or if those actions or behaviors compromise the enjoyment of the trip for others. Should a guest be asked to leave a trip, there will be no refund for the unused portion, nor will OARS be responsible for additional expenses incurred by the guest for accommodations, return transport, change fees, etc. Prices subject to change without notice. Upon advancement of deposit the depositor agrees to be bound by the above recited terms and conditions. OARS is an equal opportunity provider.

OARS is proud to be an authorized concessioner of the National Park Service and a permitted outfitter under the National Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management. OARS is an equal opportunity provider.

the best (and worst) whey protein powders | muscle & fitness

the best (and worst) whey protein powders | muscle & fitness

How do you choose a whey protein powder? Do you go on the recommendation of your buddy at the gym and take what he takes? Do you pick the bottle with the shiniest, most cutting-edge label? Do you go by what tastes good or whats on sale at your local GNC?

The truth is, these are serious questions. You know that taking whey protein at the right times of day can make all the difference in between building an extra half-inch on your arms or adding 20 pounds to your personal best on the bench press. But not just any whey will do. There are great whey protein products and there are not-so-good whey protein products. And being able to tell the difference between them can be critical to your gains.

The first step in determining whether your protein is worthy is to give yourself a pat on the back. Youve recognized wheys benefits and have included it in your daily regimen. Just to review, whey is enormously beneficial for several reasons, including amino acid and microfraction content (more on that in a minute) and digestion rate.

Whey is one of the richest sources of BCAAs, which include the three amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine. These bad boys have been shown to be absolutely critical for muscle growth, and even for energy during workouts. Whey protein also contains biologically active protein microfractions such as alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, glycomacropeptides, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and various growth factors. These provide antioxidant benefits, boost immune function and enhance muscle recovery and growth.

But probably the most critical factor that puts whey protein miles ahead of other forms of protein is digestion rate. Whey digests very rapidly. In fewer than 30 minutes it can fast-track a good portion of its aminos to your muscles, and that rapid delivery of amino acids to muscle cells has been shown to be important for pushing muscle growth.

If you know that whey is one of the proteins found in milk, then it should be obvious that whey protein production starts with dairy cows. Cows are milked on the farm, and this milk is the starting source for most protein powders. But if you think that supplement companies like Optimum, Cytosport or Natures Best are out in the back milking cows to make their protein powders, youve got another think coming.

Way back when, whey was actually considered a waste byproduct of cheese production and was routinely dumped. These days, dairy companies recognize the value of whey and have set up factories to concentrate and purify it. Every supplement company that sells products that contain whey buys raw protein from a dairy manufacturer, and there are only so many of those.

That means that multiple supplement companies acquire raw whey protein powder from the same handful of manufacturers. Two of the major protein manufacturers are Glanbia, with main headquarters in Ireland, and Hilmar Ingredients, in California. These are the places where milk actually undergoes rigorous processing that involves various forms of filtering and purification to produce specific protein powders.

Supplement companies like Optimum or Dymatize order raw protein powders, such as whey protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, whey protein hydrolysate and, yes, calcium caseinate or micellar casein, from companies such as Glanbia or Hilmar. These raw, unflavored protein powders are shipped to the supplement companies in massive containers. Each company then adds its own often proprietary blend of ingredients, including flavorings, colorings and other ingredients (extra aminos, say, or enzymes to help digest the protein) to produce their final blend, which ends up in the jug on your kitchen counter.

Whey protein powder is far more effective than any other protein form out there, but its effectiveness can vary widely. Often the limiting factor of a whey protein product is the other ingredients companies add to it. But the type of whey and the amount of each type present in a product can also affect effectiveness.

When you buy a protein powder your intention is to buy protein, not carbs and not fat. Carbs and fat are easy to get in your diet, so when youre laying down your hard-earned cash for a jug of protein, you want it to have as much protein in it as possible. A quick glance at the Supplement Facts panel will let you know how many carbs and how much fat are in the product.

But youre not done yet. Keep scanning down the label until you get to the ingredients list. The information contained here is the key to knowing whether a protein powder is really amazing or just simply passable. First you might notice that most whey protein products contain more than one type of whey. You might see whey protein isolate, whey protein hydrolysate (or hydrolyzed whey protein) or whey protein concentrate. To be considered a great whey protein the product MUST list whey protein isolate or hydrolyzed whey protein isolate as the very first ingredient. Thats because whey protein isolates are the purest form of protein you can get, with some being more than 90% protein. And hydrolyzed whey protein isolate means that that high-quality whey has been pre-digested into smaller protein fragments for even faster digestion than regular whey isolate. Whey protein concentrate, on the other hand, goes through less filtering, which means fewer of the natural carbohydrates found in milk are removed. The result is a whey product that is much lower in protein content. Although most whey protein concentrates are somewhere between 70-80% protein, some can be less than 35% protein. This is why most companies make a big deal about their whey protein isolate powders. (This is also why isolates and hydrolysates generally cost more.)

But to really know if a whey protein powder is top notch, youll need to do some math. Take the grams of protein per serving listed on the supplement facts panel and divide it by the serving size (in grams). This will give you the percentage of protein in each serving. To be considered a great whey protein powder, the percent protein per serving (or scoop) should be 80% or greater. For example, if a whey protein powder provides 25 grams of protein per 28-gram scoop, that protein powder is about 90% protein and is a great whey protein for the money.

The power source that has fueled a generation of phenomenal physiques. NytroWhey Ultra Elite combines the highest-quality whey isolate and hydrolysate proteins with a cutting-edge leucine peptide technology that jumpstarts tremendous growth like no other protein in existence. Absolutely delicious, too. This ones the gold standard.

This gem includes an amino acid Power Complex with 10 grams of leucine and 4 grams of both isoleucine and valine, all primed to give you enough BCAAs to keep you powering through workouts and enhancing your recovery time.

Isoflex delivers a 27-gram protein bomb in only one scoopall with zero grams of fat, no sugar, and only one gram of carbs. The four propri- etary delivery systems work fast to fuel your muscles post-workout.

Impact Whey Protein is 100% whey protein concentrate with no other proteins added and is also low in fat and carbohydrates, which makes it a perfect source of whey protein for those looking to reduce body fat levels but increase lean mass.

Each scoop of Nitro-Tech contains 30 grams of protein, primarily from whey protein isolate and whey peptides. Nitro-Tech is also enhanced with the most studied form of creatine for even better gains in muscle and strength and contains only 1g of sugar and 3g of creatine.

Companies like Glanbia and Hilmar start with high-quality milk. And what they charge for the protein powders that come from that high-quality milk is based on what the milk costs. In todays market, that means that the prices for raw milk-based protein powders are high. Protein manufacturers will pass that cost on to consumers, meaning youll pay more for protein powders that use high-quality raw protein from reputable protein manufacturers.

Unfortunately, not every supplement manufacturer goes to the reputable protein manufacturers. To cut costs and make their protein powders more affordable, some supplement manufacturers use questionable protein suppliers. Sure, they pay much less for the raw protein, which saves you a ton of cash when you buy their jug of protein powder, but the problem is that that protein powder likely contains far less protein and far more carbs and fat than claimed on the label. More frighteningly, these lesser-quality protein powders may also contain impurities and contaminants.

Remember the melamine-contaminated milk scandal in China? Because melamine is high in nitrogen content, as is protein, it can be added to milk that has been diluted to bump up the nitrogen (protein) content of the milk.

The easiest way to spot a protein powder that is using cheap raw protein is its price. If its much cheaper than the major brand protein powders, you better suspect that something is up. If you think that youre getting a great deal on a cheap protein powder, thats all that youre getting. You are NOT getting a good-quality protein powder. There is only one way for a company to undersell all other reputable companies, and that is by buying inferior protein. So be careful of protein powders that are not major brands, that you cant find on bodybuilding.com, GNC or The Vitamin Shoppe, and are incredibly cheap. As they say, you get what you pay for.

In addition to price, you can also distinguish a low-quality protein powder by its percent of protein. While most quality whey protein concentrates are somewhere around 70-80%, there are also whey protein concentrates that are as low as 35% protein. That means the majority of the protein powder is carbs (lactose) and fat. If a protein powder lists whey protein concentrate first on the ingredients list, followed by whey protein isolate and/or whey protein hydrolysate, but has less than 70% protein per serving, then it only has a very small amount of whey protein isolate and/or hydrolysate in it. Some companies add minuscule amounts of whey protein isolate and hydrolysate just to claim their products contain them, but the amounts are so small that theyre not going to do much for your body.

which one direction member is your soulmate? | howstuffworks

which one direction member is your soulmate? | howstuffworks

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