Sulphide ore of lead and zinc containing considerable silver was submitted for testing with the purpose of determining a flowsheet for the production of separate lead and zinc concentrates for marketing at their respective smelters. It is necessary to recover as much silver as possible in the lead concentrate as a higher return for this silver is realized than for the silver in the zinc concentrate. The ore contained sphalerite, a portion of which was easily floatable but difficult to depress in the lead flotation circuit.
Also, the recovery of silver minerals occurring in a lead, zinc sulfide ore is efficiently accomplished using Flowsheet #2. The process consists of selective flotation to produce a mixed silver, lead concentrate for maximum smelter return and a separate zinc concentrate. Over-grinding of silver minerals is detrimental to efficient flotation recovery, so the Flash Flotation Unit-Cell is used in the grinding circuit to recover a large part of the silver and lead values as soon as liberated.The flowsheet is for a plant having a capacity in the range of 300 to 500-tons per day.
The crushing section of this 50-65 ton mill consists of a conventional layout of single stage crushing. The mine ore is fed from the coarse ore bin to a 9x 16 Forced Feed Jaw Crusher by means of a Apron Ore Feeder. The crushed ore is conveyed by a Belt Conveyor to the Bolted Steel Fine Ore Bin. A Adjustable Stroke Unit Flotation Cell are incorporated in the Belt Ore Feeder delivers the fine ore to the ball mill.
The Mineral Jig and the grinding circuit for immediate recovery of a substantial amount of the lead and silver at a relatively coarse grind. The 5 x 5 Steel Head Ball Mill discharges into an 8x 12 Selective Mineral Jig which in turn discharges into a small flashFlotation Cell. The tailings from the Unit Cell flow by gravity to the 30 Cross-Flow Classifier. The Mineral Jig and the flashcell treating an unclassified feed, produce high-grade concentrates of lead and silver with a minimum amount of zinc. Recovery of these important amounts of lead and silver at this point not only prevents detrimental sliming of the lead mineral and possible subsequent loss, but also increases the amount of new feed that can be fed to the ball mill. By taking advantage of recovering a clean product representing a high recovery of the lead leaves only a small amount of the lead to be recovered in the selective flotation section.
This section of the flowsheet uses two 6-cell (32 x 32) Flotation Machines. The classifier overflow is fed by gravity to the first rougher cell of the lead machine. Three rougher cells provide ample contact time for the flotation of the lead. This rougher lead flotation concentrate is then delivered by gravity to the cleaner cells. Three cleaner cells are used for triple cleaning of the lead concentrate. This triple cleaning was recommended because of the easily floatable zinc that could not be effectively depressed by conventional zinc depressant reagents. Roughing, plus triple cleaning in a 6-cell machine with no pumps or elevators is an example of flexibility a distinctive feature of Sub-A Flotation Machines.
The lead circuit tailing is then conditioned with reagents in a 6 x 6 Super-Agitator and Conditioner prior to zinc flotation. The conditioned pulp is then floated in a 6-cell No. 18 Special Sub-AFlotation Machine for the production of a cleaned zinc concentrate. This machine is arranged for four rougher cells and two cleanings of the rougher zinc concentrate.
Soda ash and zinc sulphate are fed to the ball mill by means of Cone Type Dry Reagent Feeders. Cyanide, sodium sulphite, MIBC frotherand xanthate (Z-3) are fed to the grinding circuit and lead flotation circuit using a multi-compartment Wet Reagent Feeder. Lime and copper sulphate (CuSO4) are added to the zinc conditioner and pine oil and xanthate (Z-5) are stage added to the zinc rougher circuit using Wet Reagent Feeders.
The Visual Sampler, consisting of a Suction Pressure Diaphragm Pump and a No. 13A Wilfley Concentrating Table, takes a portion of the final zinc tailing. This unit enables the operator to determine visually the results of flotation. Any necessary change of reagents is immediately indicated by observation of the concentrate streak shown on the table. Many installations of the Visual Sampler have proved this unit to be a money-saving necessity in any flotation plant.
Thickening, prior to filtration, was not recommended in this case because of the rapidity at which these concentrates filtered and the relatively small tonnage of this mill. Thickening is advisable on slower filtering ores and on larger tonnages.
The final lead-silver concentrates (including the Flash FlotationCell concentrate) are filtered on the 44-disc Filter, the filter cake discharging directly into concentrate bins. The dewatered Mineral Jig concentrate is combined with the filtered lead concentrate in the storage bin.
The above flowsheet incorporates the first rule of milling procedurerecover the mineral as soon as freedthis is accomplished by the Jig and Flash Unit Cell in the grinding circuit. Note that a high-grade lead product representing 2/3 of the total lead (very low in zinc), is recovered in the grinding circuit. This flowsheet successfully answers The Problem by recovering 84% of the total silver in the lead concentrate.
The recovery of silver minerals occurring in a lead-zinc sulfide ore is efficiently accomplished using the above flowsheet. The process consists of selective flotation to produce a mixed silver-lead concentrate for maximum smelter return and a separate zinc concentrate. Over-grinding of silver minerals is detrimental to efficient flotation recovery, so the Flash Flotation Unit-Cell is used in the grinding circuit to recover a large part of the silver and lead values as soon as liberated.The flowsheet is for a plant having a capacity in the range of 300 to 500-tons per day.
The crushing section consists of primary and secondary crushing with intermediate screening. Both crushers are located in the same building and conveniently attended by one operator. A minimum of conveying equipment is required by this arrangement. Dust collecting facilities are, likewise, limited to only one building.
The crushed ore after automatic sampling is subjected to two-stage grinding using a Rod Mill in open circuit and a Ball Mill in closed circuit with a Classifier. TheUnit Flotation Cell receives the discharge from the ball mill for recovery of a substantial amount of the granular silver minerals together with galena as soon as freed. Reagents are added to the ball mill. Tramp iron and occasional oversize gangue are removed from the circuit by the Spiral Screen attached to the ball mill and this prevents excessive wear or plugging of the unit cell. The classifier is of the latest design.
The Mineral Jig is not included in the flowsheet, but on many ores of this type it is applicable either alone or with the unit cell. The grade of jig concentrate is usually very high grade and ideal for blending with the flotation concentrate. If native silver or gold values are present, the jig is a very essential addition to the flowsheet and would be used on the rod mill discharge in this case.
The classifier overflow is treated in a conventional manner using Sub-A Flotation Machines of cell-to-cell design which enables double cleaning of the silver-lead and zinc concentrates without the need of pumps. For large tonnage operations the Sub A Free Flow Machine is optional for roughing and scavenging, but the cell to cell type is always used in the cleaner circuits where high selectivity is essential. The two flotation banks are arranged so that the banks face one another and can be conveniently controlled by one operator from a single aisle. Operation of the Conditioner can also be observed from this aisle. A Sampler is used on the zinc tailing to provide an instant means for the operator to evaluate plant results. Some plants find it beneficial to use a visual sampler on the lead tailing ahead of the zinc circuit. The Sampler is also useful for evaluating the lead or zinc concentrate.General view of the flotation section at a modern silver-lead-zincmill. The lead circuit is on the left and the zinc circuit ison the right.
The silver-lead concentrate (including the unit cell concentrate) and the zinc concentrate are separately treated through wet cyclones to remove the coarse sulfides as thick underflow products suitable for direct filtration. The cyclone overflow products are ideally suited for thickening and subsequent filtration with their respective cyclone underflows. This procedure avoids any overload of heavy sulfides in the thickeners and, therefore, simplifies the operation of the thickeners. SRL Pumps are engineered for use with wet cyclones and give trouble-free service.
In addition to the feed sample, which is cut by means of a Type C Automatic Sampler, the final silver-lead and zinc flotation concentrates are sampled using Type B cutters. The final plant tailing is also sampled in the same manner.
This flow-sheet incorporates all features of a modern day mill for optimum efficiency and general simplicity for ease of operations. Instrumentation devices can be included to facilitate automatic control of the plant circuits if desired.
Many factors affect the metallurgical results of every plant. However, in a study of this type it is interesting to note the recoveries and grades that are actually being made at successful mills. The figures of these two plants are included for their value in making economic studies of new deposits.
The data recorded by Statistics in 2020 shows that although in 2019 manganese ore price fell to the bottom, the price in 2020 still gets increased to 4.5 U.S. dollars per metric ton unit CIF even under the impact of COVID-19. Manganese ore prices are forecast to remain at global prices by 2020 over the next two years, which is good news to manganese ore suppliers.
Besides, Justin Brown, managing director of Element 25said Manganese has the traditional end uses in steel, and that market is fairly stable". As people's demand for laptops and electric cars increases, the output of lithium batteries has also soared, and the most important element in lithium batteries is manganese.
Manganese ore after the beneficiation process is applied in many respects in our daily lives. Of annual manganese ore production, 90 percent is used in steelmaking, and the other 10 percent is used respectively in non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical industry, electronics, battery, agriculture, etc.
In the metallurgical industry, manganese ore is mostly used for manganese-forming ferroalloys and manganese metal. The former is used as deoxidizers or alloying element additives for steelmaking, and the latter is used to smelt certain special alloy steels and non-ferrous metal alloys. Manganese ore can also be used directly as an ingredient in steelmaking and ironmaking.
When smelting manganese-based iron alloys, the useful elements in manganese ore are manganese and iron. The level of manganese is the main indicator for measuring the quality of manganese ore. The iron content is required to have a certain ratio with the amount of manganese.
Phosphorus is the most harmful element in manganese ore. The phosphorus in steel reduces the impact of toughness. Although sulfur is also a harmful element, it has a better desulfurization effect during smelting, and sulfur is volatilized into sulfur dioxide or enters the slag in the form of calcium sulfide or manganese sulfide.
Applications in Metallurgy Manganese content (%) Ferromanganese (%) Phosphorus manganese (%) Low carbon ferromanganese 36%40% 68.5 0.0020.0036 Carbon Ferro Manganese 33%40% 3.87.8 0.0020.005 Manganese Silicon Alloy 29%35% 3.37.5 0.00160.0048 Blast Furnace Ferromanganese 30% 27 0.005
In the chemical industry, manganese ore is mainly used to prepare manganese dioxide, manganese sulfate, and potassium permanganate. It is also used to make manganese carbonate, manganese nitrate and manganese chloride.
Since most manganese ore is a fine-grained or fine-grained inlay, and there are a considerable number of high-phosphorus ore, high-iron ore, and symbiotic beneficial metals, it is very difficult to beneficiate.
At present, commonly used manganese ore beneficiation methods include physical beneficiation (washing and screening, gravity separation, strong magnetic separation, flotation separation, joint beneficiation), chemical beneficiation (leaching method) and fire enrichment, etc.
Washing is the use of hydraulic washing or additional mechanical scrubbing to separate the ore from the mud. Commonly used equipment includes washing sieves, cylinder washing machines and trough ore-washing machine.
The washing operation is often accompanied by screening, such as direct flushing on the vibrating screen or sifting the ore (clean ore) obtained by the washing machine to the vibrating screen. Screening is used as an independent operation to separate products of different sizes and grades for various purposes.
At present, the gravity separation is only used to beneficiate manganese ore with simple structure and coarse grain size and is especially suitable for manganese oxide ore with high density. Common methods include heavy media separation, jigging and tabling dressing.
It is essential to recover as much manganese as possible in the gravity concentration zone because its grinding cost is much lower than the manganese in the flotation process, and simple operations are more active.
Because of the simple operation, easy control and strong adaptability of magnetic separation can be used for dressing various manganese ore, and it has dominated the manganese ore dressing in recent years.
Gravity-magnetic separation plant of manganese ore mainly deals with leaching manganese oxide ore, using the jig to treat 30~3 mm of cleaned ore can obtain high-quality manganese-containing more than 40% of manganese. And then can be used as manganese powder of battery raw material.
The jigging tailings and less than 3 mm washed ore are ground to less than 1mm, and then being processed by strong magnetic separator. The manganese concentrate grade would be increased by 24% to 25%, and reaches to 36% to 40%.
Adopting strong magnetic-flotation desulfurization can directly obtain the integrated manganese concentrate product; the use of petroleum sodium sulfonate instead of oxidized paraffin soap as a collector can make the pulp be sorted at neutral and normal temperature, thus saving reagent consumption and energy consumption.
The enrichment of manganese ore by fire is another dressing method for high-phosphorus and high-iron manganese ore which is difficult to select. It is generally called the manganese-rich slag method.
The manganese-rich slag generally contains 35% to 45% Mn, Mn/Fe 12-38, P/Mn<0.002, and is a high-quality raw material to manganese-based alloy. Therefore, fire enrichment is also a promising method for mineral processing for low-manganese with high-phosphorus and high-iron.
Manganese ore also can be recovered by acid leaching for production of battery grade manganese dioxide for low-manganese ores. Leaching of manganese ore was carried out with diluted sulphuric acid in the presence of pyrite in the temperature range from 323 to 363 K.
After processed by hydraulic cone crusher, the smaller-sized manganese ore would be fed to grinding machine- ball mill. It can grind the ore to a relatively fine and uniform particle size, which lays a foundation for further magnetic separation of manganese ore.
It is indispensable grading equipment in the manganese ore beneficiation plant. Because by taking advantage of the natural settling characteristics of ore, a spiral classifier can effectively classify and separate the manganese ore size to help control the amount of grinding required.
The flexibility of flotation is relatively high. You can choose different reagents according to the type and grade of the ore. Although the entire process of froth flotation is expensive, it can extract higher-grade manganese ore.
The magnetic separator is a highly targeted magnetic separation device specially developed for the properties of manganese ore. The device not only has the advantages of small size, lightweight, high automation, simple and reasonable structure, but also has high magnetic separation efficiency and high output.
If you want to beneficiate high-grade manganese ore and maximize the value of manganese concentration, Fote Company is an ore beneficiation equipment manufacturer with more that 35-years designing and manufacturing experience and can give you the most professional advice and offer you all machines needed in the ore beneficiation plant (form crushing stage to ore dressing stage). All machines are tailored to your project requirements.
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In 2015, a copper mine customer came to our company and hoped that we could help him flotation of the copper mine in Tanzania. Before doing the formal beneficiation, the customer brought his ore to our factory and did the ore taste analysis and flotation experiment. The experimental results are as follows:
Combining the above experimental results and the customer's strength of our factory, the customer decided to choose us to do the copper ore dressing test for him. The experiment process is as follows: feeding-crushing-grinding-flotation.
The main equipment included are:Feeder-Jaw Crusher-Hammer Crusher-Ball Mill-Spiral Classifier-Mixing Barrel-Flotation MachineAt the same time, flotation reagents are also used.The project began infrastructure construction in April 2016 and successfully ran in May. The highest taste of copper and gold powder can reach 52%.
The minerals consisting of silver element are mainly divided to silver-gold minerals and lead-zinc-copper associated minerals. The sliver productivity from these minerals per year is about 99% of the total amount.
The minerals consisting of silver element are mainly divided to silver-gold minerals and lead-zinc-copper associated minerals. The sliver productivity from these minerals per year is about 99% of the total amount. The silver ore beneficiation plant or the silver ore separation process or the silver ore processing line is made up of jaw crusher, hammer crusher, dry-wet ball mill, ceramics ball mill, magnetic separator, flotation separator, spiral classifier, drum sieve, high frequency screen, chute feeder, rotary dryer, and mixer, etc.
Our company, as one of the most advanced silver ore separation plant manufacturer in China, has developed two high efficient methods for the silver ore processing: the flotation separation method and the cyanide processing method. Which method should we adopt is based on the composition of the minerals consisting of silver ore. When the minerals mostly consist of argentite and native silver, both the flotation separation and the cyanide processing method are advisable. When there is too much pyrargyrite, proustite and selenium silver remaining in the minerals, we can just adopt the flotation silver ore beneficiation plant.
Henan Fote Heavy Machinery Co., ltd. is a large-scale and professional manufacturer of mining machinery and general machinery. With continuing development in the international market, the sales network of products produced by Fote Machinery has been steadily expanded, and products produced by Fote Machinery have been sold to more than 90 countries and regions all over the world, such as Russia, United States, Kazakhstan, India, Indonesia, South Africa, Libya, Sudan, Iran and so on.
The magnetic separation process, also named the magnetic separating production line and made up of jaw crusher, ball mill, classifier, magnetic separating equipment, concentrator and dryer, is a wet and dry separation combination method of magnetite.
The flotation separation process also known as the flotation separating production line realizes the mineral particle separation based on the working principle of different physical and chemical properties of the minerals leading to different floatability.
Henan Fote Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd.,the former Henan First Machinery Factory,founded in Henan Zhengzhou- China machinery manufacturing capital in 1982,is a large joint-stock company specialized in manufacturing heavy mining machinery and civilian machinery; it has six production bases with an area of 240,000 m, more than 2000 existing employees, 160,000 m standardized....
Beneficiation methods of lithium minerals from hard rock ores were reviewed.Spodumene is currently the main source of lithium from ores.Flotation, DMS and magnetic separation are the main beneficiation methods.Similarities between lithium minerals and gangue makes beneficiation complicated.Significant research in lithium minerals other than spodumene is needed.
The demand for lithium minerals has increased considerably in recent years due to the application of lithium compounds in lithium ion battery technology, portable electronic gadgets and power storage systems. Spodumene is the main lithium bearing mineral which is currently being explored and processed due to its high lithium content and the extensive occurrence of deposits. This literature review focuses on the various techniques used in the beneficiation of lithium minerals from hard rock pegmatite ores. Dense media separation and flotation are the main beneficiation methods used for the separation of lithium minerals from ores. The close similarity in chemical and physical properties between lithium minerals and associated gangue minerals complicates the beneficiation of lithium minerals from ores. Surface chemistry of minerals, type of collector, pulp pH, chemical pre-treatment methods, and the presence of slimes play key roles in lithium minerals flotation. This review also deals with the beneficiation flowsheets employed at some of the larger lithium processing plants in the world. Spodumene from pegmatite deposits is expected to be the main source of lithium from ores at present although future sources would most probably include other minerals such as lepidolite, petalite, zinnwaldite, jadarite and hectorite.Get in Touch with Mechanic