iron oxide mineral - an overview | sciencedirect topics

iron oxide mineral - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Magnetic iron oxide minerals occur in tiny quantities in most rocks. When tiny particles of these minerals settle to the sea bed, or when they solidify in a cooling lava flow, their magnetic polarity aligns itself with that of the earth's magnetic field at that time and place. This produces a preferential direction of magnetization in rocks that contain the minerals. This property of the rocks is called remanent magnetism. The record of remanent magnetism in Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks indicates that the earth's north and south magnetic poles have abruptly switched polarity numerous times in the geologic past. During these times of magnetic field reversals the north needle on a compass would have actually pointed to the south pole. Each reversal simultaneously affected the field for the entire earth. Numerous magnetic field reversals have been recognized in Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks worldwide, and they have been tied accurately to the geologic time scale (Fig. 2). These reversals define magnetic polarity zones whose boundaries parallel those of chronozones based on fossils. Hence magnetic polarity zones represent a promising tool for correlation.

Although the method has worldwide potential, there are only two kinds of polarity zones; all the normal ones share the same kind of remanent magnetism and all of the reversed ones do also, so that a geologist must, already have a very good idea of the age of the rock, based on fossil data, in order to make use of them. The chief value of magnetic polarity zones in the future will be in the refinement of ages based on other criteria.

As a commonly occurring natural iron oxide mineral, -FeOOH is thermodynamically stable. The Fe octahedra with double chains (FeO3(OH)3) running along the [010] direction is formed by edge sharing (E2) (space group Pnma). Adjacent corner-sharing (CS) double chains are linked, with one being displaced by b/2 relative to its neighbors [45]. The three Fe-Fe distances are formed with two edge sharing and one CS [46]. The dominant (1 1 0) face leads to an acicular morphology [47]. To interpret RN sorption data on goethite, various reactive sites on the -FeOOH surface have been noticed and investigated over the years (Fig. 2.9) [4850]. Different hydroxyl groups present on the surface have been confirmed by infrared spectroscopy data [51, 52].

Fig. 2.9. Schematic representation of the {110} and {001} plane of the goethite surface, along with the distribution and density of singly (FeOH0.5), doubly (Fe2OH0), and triply (Fe3OIH0.5+ and Fe3OII0.5) coordinated surface oxygens with respect to underlying Fe(III) atoms [48].

Lepidocrocite (-FeOOH) is another commonly occurring iron mineral (space group of Cmc21) (Fig. 2.10). It is a less-stable phase compared with goethite [54]. Lepidocrocite exists in nature and has been derived from soils [55, 56] and deep-sea sediments [57]. It can be prepared easily by rapid oxidation and hydrolysis of Fe(II) solutions in laboratory experiments [58, 59]. The dominant exposed face is the (0 1 0) surface.

Similar to Al2O3, Al(OH)3 is amphoteric in nature. Al(OH)3 commonly exists with a layered structure (Al(OH)6 octahedra layer), the surficial hydroxyl groups of which are stabilized by hydrogen bond [60]. The different stacking sequence of the aluminum octahedra layers accounts for the polymorphs of Al(OH)3. Both bayerite and gibbsite have the same space group of P21/n, but with different stacking orders. The bayerite structure consists of these repeated double-layer stacking structures (ABABABAB) while for gibbsite, these double layers are stacked by reflection of the previous one (ABBAABBA). It should be noted that only 2/3 of the octahedral geometrical sites are occupied by Al ions in each double layer [61].

Most rocks contain minerals that are naturally magnetic, such as the iron oxide minerals haematite (Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4). In the crystals in which they are bound, minute grains of magnetic minerals act like tiny bar magnets, and these mineral grains can record the direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Thus, when lava flows cool, these magnetic minerals align themselves with the Earth's magnetic field. Magnetic mineral grains also align themselves with the magnetic field when they are deposited in sediments. These processes provide a record of the state of the magnetic field (normal or reversed polarity) when a rock is formed. This record is called the remnant magnetization.

Heat destroys the magnetization of a rock. Indeed, magnetic minerals lose their magnetization at a certain temperature (usually above 500C), called the Curie point (after the chemist Pierre Curie). The natural remnant magnetization is locked into a rock when it cools below its Curie point, which is approximately 650C for haematite and 580C for pure magnetite.

There are three kinds of remnant magnetization. Thermal remnant magnetization is the result of a molten rock cooling below its Curie point, at which magnetic minerals align with the current magnetic field and become locked into the crystal with that alignment.

Detrital remnant magnetization occurs when an igneous rock erodes, and its magnetic minerals become loose sedimentary particles. These tiny magnetic grains (which are only a few micrometres in diameter) act as bar magnets and align with the magnetic field as they settle through the water column and are deposited as sedimentary particles (detritus).

Chemical remnant magnetization takes place when iron weathers out of a rock, moves through groundwater, and precipitates elsewhere. Usually it precipitates as some form of haematite. During the precipitation, the magnetic minerals, which were initially aligned when the original rock was formed, realign themselves with the magnetic field at the time of precipitation. Thus, the new alignment is a younger magnetization than the original magnetization that was acquired when the rock formed.

Iron ore flotation is now well established commercially around the globe, where large tonnages are treated to provide economically viable upgrading for a variety of oxide ore types. In this chapter, a brief history of the development of iron ore flotation is first given and a number of commercial schemes are described to illustrate the uptake of the technology. The physical properties of the key iron oxide minerals (chiefly hematite, magnetite, and goethite), such as mineralogy, liberation, surface, and electrokinetic properties, are presented, together with data for the relevant gangue minerals and linked to the flotation processes and processing conditions commonly used. Cationic and anionic flotation routes are discussed in terms of reagent regimes, pulp chemistry, particle size and slimes effects, and effectiveness in removing key impurities such as silica, alumina, phosphorous, and sulfur. Finally, some remarks are made in respect to the key flotation challenges facing the iron ore industry and the areas that will need to be the focus of ongoing flotation research and development to maintain viability and relevance of the flotation process to the industry in the face of future ores that will be lower in grade, more complex in nature, and higher in the levels of deleterious impurities.

Deep-water pelagic clays (sometimes called red clay) are found only in deep-ocean areas, generally below water depths of 4000m, far from land. Such clays cover large areas of the seafloor, particularly in the Pacific, southern Atlantic, and southern Indian oceans (Figure 1), in areas remote from terrigenous sources and below the calcite compensation depth. The reddish-brown appearance of these clays, first noted on the Challenger expedition, is due to the presence of amorphous or poorly crystalline iron oxide minerals and grain coatings. Pelagic clays usually contain less than 10% biogenic material and are mainly composed of fine-grained quartz and clay minerals, the bulk of which is derived from aeolian fallout and has been slowly deposited from fine suspensions. Typically, 7595% of pelagic clay deposits consists of clay minerals with a grain size of less than 3m (Figure 4). These clay minerals are dominated by illite, smectite, kaolinite, and chlorite, with illite as the main type. Illite is, in fact, largely land derived and is transported to the ocean by rivers and glaciers and as windblown dust. Both kaolinite (a product of humid tropical weathering) and chlorite (typically derived from low-grade metamorphic rocks) are also mainly land derived. Smectite, however, is a low-temperature alteration product of volcanic ash and is particularly widespread on the Pacific Ocean floor. Wind transport is the major mechanism by which land-derived clay, fine-grained silt (commonly quartz), and dust reach the ocean surface, ultimately to be deposited in pelagic clays. The highest rates of aeolian dust deposition (up to 1000mgcm2ky1) are in the north-western Pacific downwind of far-east Asia. Substantial fluxes of windblown dust also enter the deep ocean offshore of the Sahara, South Africa, the Arabian peninsula, and the Horn of Africa and around Australia. The origin of wind-derived material in pelagic clays can be determined by rare earth geochemistry and study of Sr and Nd isotopes. Pelagic clays also commonly contain significant amounts of authigenic minerals, such as chert, zeolites, apatite, phosphorite, volcanic glass, and manganese micronodules, as well as indicators of slow sedimentation, such as fish debris and cosmic spherules. Pelagic clays may also contain varying amounts of feldspar, pyroxenes, and mica. In total, pelagic clays cover about 38% of the modern seafloor (Table 1).

Biogenic iron oxides display intimate association with microorganisms inhabiting the ore deposits. In natural sediments, iron oxide particulates are found to occur in close proximity to bacterial cell walls containing extracellular biogenic iron oxides and various biopolymers. Iron-oxidizing and iron-reducing bacteria colonize the biofilms formed on many iron oxide minerals [1420].

Several types of microorganisms growing under extreme environments altering between acidic to neutral pH, aerobic and anaerobic, as well as mesophilic and thermophilic conditions are capable of microbial oxidation of ferrous iron and reduction of ferric iron.

Some examples are Acidithiobacillus sp., Gallionella sp., Leptothrix sp., Leptospirillum sp., and Thermoplasmales (archea). Leptothrix spp. can form FeOOH sheaths around iron oxide minerals through production of exopolysaccharides as a protection mechanism.

Ancient biogenic iron minerals contain biosignatures as in banded iron formations (BIF). Nanocrystals of lepidocrocite on and away from the cell wall of Bacillus subtilis have been observed due to ferrous iron oxidation. Diverse group of Gram-negative prokaryotes such as Vibrio, Cocci, and Spirillum constitute magnetotactic bacteria which synthesize intra- and intercellular magnetic minerals (such as magnetite) and magnetosomes. Several magnetotactic bacteria (living under aerobic and anaerobic conditions) and their magnetosomes have been isolated and characterized from the Tieshan iron ore deposits in China [17]. Microbially induced iron ore formation has been confirmed at Gunma iron ore mine, Japan [21].

Ubiquitous microorganisms inhabiting iron ore deposits are useful in iron ore beneficiation (e.g., removal of alkalis, silica, clays, phosphorous, and alumina). Because the presence of phosphorous in the iron ore promotes bacterial growth (as an energy source), iron oxide particles having higher phosphorous contents were seen to be colonized by different bacterial cells. Microbial phosphorous mobilization in iron ores has been reported. A polymer-producing bacterium (B. caribensis) has been isolated from a high phosphorous Brazilian iron ore [19]. Microorganisms such as Acidithiobacillus, Clavibacter, and Aspergillus isolated from iron ores are good phosphate solubilizers, because they generate inorganic and organic acids.

Shewanella oneidensis, an iron-reducing bacterium which produces mineral-specific proteins exhibit surface affinity towards goethite under anaerobic conditions. S. oneidenisis are capable of recognizing (sensing) goethite under anaerobic conditions. Shewanella sp. prefers FeOOH and not AlOOH. Such a preferential microbialmineral affinity could be beneficially used to separate alumina, gibbsite, and aluminum silicates (clays) from iron oxides. Microbially secreted proteins are involved in metal reduction. Protein secretion and transport as well as biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides are very important and useful in iron ore transformation. Shewanella putrefaciens, a facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium can reduce ferric iron oxides and attach preferentially to magnetite and ferrihydrite. Enhanced adhesion of phosphate-utilizing organisms on iron oxides promotes formation of iron phosphate complexes [17, 18].

Magnetite particles formed by dissimilatory, extracellular iron reduction are generally poorly crystallized. Ferrous ions can react with excess ferric oxyhydroxides to form mixed Fe (II) and Fe (III) oxides as magnetite.

BIM of magnetite has been possible in the presence of cultures of Shewanella and Geobacter. Possibility of intracellular deposition of minerals also exists. For example, intracellular iron sulfide formation within cells of SRB such as Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum species has been reported [2224].

Biomineralization brought out by prokaryotes has practical significance in environmental ore deposit formation, mineral exploration through biomarkers, and also in bioremediation of metal-contaminated waters and soils. For example, formation of extensive Precambrian BIF has been attributed to iron-oxidizing bacteria. Biologically formed minerals may be useful as bioindicators on earth and ocean floors.

An example of BCM is the generation of magnetic minerals by Magnetotactic bacteria. Two types of such bacteria are often mentioned, namely, iron oxidetypes which mineralize magnetite (Fe3O4) and the iron sulfidetypes which mineralize greigite (Fe3S4) [25].

BIF are the largest iron sources distributed globally dating back to about 4 billion years. They contain up to 50% silica and between 20% and 40 % iron and are sedimentary in origin. Main iron minerals such as hematite and magnetite found in BIF are considered to be of secondary origin. Earlier categorization showed domination of carbonates such as siderite and ankerite. It is likely that different mechanisms might have prevailed in BIF [26].

One traditional model assumed the oxidation of hydrothermal Fe (II) through biotic and abiotic oxidation. Microfossils found in Australia suggested the existence of Cyanobacteria which display various potential biomarker molecules. The presence of oxygen also has been found from the composition of rocks. Formation of ferric iron oxides without oxygen, involving photo-oxidation of ferrous iron by UV radiation has also been suggested. Another recent hypothesis offers direct biological Fe (II) oxidation by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria.

The presence and nature of minerals of primary and secondary origin in BIF have been widely analyzed. The presence of iron phases such as magnetite, ferrosilicates, siderite, ankerite, and pyrite needs to be considered. Secondary origins of magnetite have been described. Magnetite could have been formed when microbially reduced ferrous iron reacted with initial ferric oxyhydroxides. Oxidation of siderite could also have occurred.

The mineralogical composition is a key determining factor in the microstructure of CS and its potential reactivity when used as a cementitious component in concrete, road pavements, geotechnical applications and ceramics. The mineralogy of the material has commonly been assessed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and differential thermal analysis methods.

In most cases, the researchers simply identified the main minerals found in CS. A list of these minerals, sorted according to the frequency at which they have been found, is provided in Figure 3.5. Not surprisingly, given the high Fe2O3 oxide content (see Table 3.1), the material is dominated by iron oxide minerals including fayalite, magnetite, hematite and wuestite. Quartz is another of the more common minerals in CS, found in 10 of 38 samples. Fayalite has been identified as the principal mineral in the vast majority of CS samples and occurs in the form of crystalline tubular needles. The mineral is part of the olivine group of minerals and is known to have quite a high hardness, reaching 6.5 on the Mohs scale.

The specific quantities of these crystalline phases present in CS have, on occasion, been determined and the results are presented in Table 3.2 for both air-cooled and quenched samples. Fayalite is clearly the most abundant mineral present in CS, with contents ranging from 45% to 57% in the air-cooled samples. However, the quantities of this mineral are considerably reduced in the two quenched samples, with contents of 4% and 15%, respectively. The rapid cooling during quenching does not allow time for crystallization to occur, which leads to the segregation of Al2O3, SiO2, CaO and K2O and the presence of a much greater proportion of amorphous phases.

The amorphous fraction, also known as the glass content, affects the material reactivity and as such can have important implications on the potential suitability of CS for use as a cementitious component. Data on the glass content of air-cooled and quenched CS samples is given in Table 3.3, along with additional remaining results.

With the exception of the result from Roper etal. (1983), there is a clear difference between the air-cooled samples and the quenched samples, with the latter found to have significantly higher glass fractions, as is to be expected. In particular, the results from De Schepper etal. (2015) and Douglas etal. (1986) provide a useful comparison of the effects of air-cooling versus quenching, as the CS samples for each have been collected from the same sources. The glass content of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), an established cementitious material (permitted for use as up to 95% of the cement mix according to BS EN 197-1, 2011), is usually above 70% and indeed frequently exceeds 90% (Poole and Sims, 2016) and as such is comparable to quenched CS in this regard.

Of the many origin of life ideas, the RNA-first idea (Gilbert, 1986) is worth noting in more detail: the idea that prior to DNA, the genetic code was held in RNA. This does not necessarily mean that life began as RNA (a takeover is possible), but at some stage it seems likely that life was RNA-based. All cells today use ribosomesa giant RNA enzymeto read the DNA tape, and RNA retains the key role of carrying messages in the cell. It may be that at one stage life was a few self-replicating RNA molecules.

If so, how did these RNA molecules exist? Possibly they were sophisticated enough already to have outer bags and thus containers for the protein they made. But it is also possible to imagine an early RNA world (Gilbert, 1986; Nisbet, 1986) in vesicles in a rock, where the container was provided either by the rock itself, or by minerals with large tubular shapes, such as faujasitic zeolites or some of the iron oxide minerals. Chemicals and redox drive would be provided by fluids flushing through the setting. Any RNA molecules that accidentally managed to self-replicate would be protected and would propagate; one might next accidentally develop the ability to synthesize proteins that could be assembled to act as enzymes aiding replication, increasing the population. Volcanic accident could spread the molecules from the first container into other parts of the system. Finally, any molecule that accidentally acquired the ability to enclose itself with a lipid bag would be pre-adapted to life in the open environment, away from the rock vesicle. But this is a notionmany other notions have equal or greater validity.

Geologically, some inferences can be made. The setting of the first life to use nucleic acids would presumably have had abundant local phosphate sources and accessible phosphorus, as well as sugars and nitrogen bases. Here the evidence of the existence of komatiite plumes and the antiquity of continents is just possibly relevant. Alkali volcanism is a feature of plume volcanoes (e.g., Mauna Kea in Hawaii). Carbonatite volcanism and associated very unusual rocks (such as phosphatites) occur today mainly on ancient continental crust. Whether phosphate-rich volcanism could have been possible as early as the Hadean is a moot point. Then the lithosphere may have been thin and limited to a segregated cooledmelt earliest crust, plus giant plume volcanic centers, fractionated in their upper stages. Assuming phosphate-rich igneous rocks did exist, then phosphorus-rich hydrothermal systems may have occurred.

More generally, alkaline hydrothermal systems would have occurred around the widespread cooling ultramafic rocks, such as the enormous komatiite flows that would have issued from komatiitic plume volcanoes, and also at distal sites near early mid-ocean ridges (themselves possibly fed by komatiitic basalt liquid). These hydrothermal systems would emit high-pH hot fluids. Here ammoniacal hydrothermal systems (Hall, 1989, Hall and Alderton, 1994) would probably have occurred. Under such high-pH conditions metal atoms (e.g., iron, copper) can form compounds within cages of four nitrogen atoms. Possibly the cytochrome family of proteins, which is clearly very ancient, may have had its origins in such a setting. These proteins have at their heart a metal surrounded by four nitrogen atoms: haem with iron and four nitrogens; chlorophyll with magnesium surrounded by four nitrogens.

Metal oxide minerals, e.g. iron oxide minerals, are electron acceptors. Thus using EC methods in a dual-chamber system of microorganism-iron oxide mineral, the redox properties of iron oxide minerals accomplishing the research of microorganism reduction in a new perspective was conducted. Therein, the iron oxide minerals acted as cathodes and were capable of accepting microbial electron. The results showed that microorganisms used iron oxide minerals as electron acceptors and hereby reduced them, and that iron oxide minerals could receive electron under the condition of 0.2mA cathodic constant current [13]. EC techniques are also supplementary tools for studying oxide minerals. For example, the SWV analysis demonstrated that iron in the South African chromite ore was as Fe(II). Together with techniques of XRF, XRD, SEM, etc., a strategy for calculating the composition of each mineral could be developed [1].

Recent studies have shown that iron oxide nanoparticles (Nano-FexOy) can become very promising materials in the road pavement industry. Anhydrous iron oxide minerals are a result of aqueous reactions under various temperature, redox and pH conditions [125127]. They have the basic composition of FexOy, but differ in the valency of iron and overall crystal structure. Some of the important polymorphs are magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (-Fe2O3), and hematite (-Fe2O3). These are very versatile nanomaterials that find applications in magnetic data storage, biosensing, drug-delivery, electrochemistry, and many others. Their widespread use is due to many advantageous properties, such as superparamagnetism, high values of saturation magnetization, easy control by low intensity magnetic fields, as well as non-toxicity, biodegradability and biocompatibility [128]. The magnetic properties of Nano-FexOy in combination to the thermoplastic nature of bitumen can prove useful for repairing micro- and macro-scale cracks that are generated in the asphalt during the service life of the road pavement. Crack-healing can be defined as the capability of a material to recover the original mechanical properties either autonomously [129] or by applying an external stimulus [130] due to its thermoplastic property, a potential strategy to promote crack-healing in bituminous materials would be to reduce the viscosity of bitumen by increasing the temperature or through the release of bitumen-miscible diluting agents. Hence, Jeoffroy et al. exploited the ability of Fe3O4 and -Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles to locally heating the surrounding medium when exposed to a high-frequency oscillating magnetic field (hyperthermia) [131]. The process investigated by the authors and sketched in Fig. 24, effectively triggers a rapid decrease of bitumen viscosity by means of pre-embedded iron oxide nanoparticles, previously coated with oleic acid to prevent the formation of particle clusters and agglomerates larger than 1m.

The most pronounced effect on thermal response was achieved by incorporating into bitumen 1vol% of -Fe2O3 nanoparticles with mean size of 50nm, showing the strongest local heating effect of 50C in about 8s under an alternating magnetic field with an amplitude of 30 mT. Other studies have focused on the rheological characterization of heavy and extra-heavy oils containing Nano-FexOy of different chemical nature, particle size, surface acidity, and concentration of nanoparticles. Taborda et al. have conducted a theoretical and experimental investigation on the effect played by certain types of nanoparticles including Nano-Fe3O4 as viscosity reducers for bituminous materials [24]. In particular, the inclusion of Nano-Fe3O4 into bitumen can lead both to adsorption of asphaltenes onto nanoparticles and a reduction of their mean aggregate size [132]. The results of this research on the phenomenological behaviour of the rheological properties of crude oil in the presence of nanoparticles, could prove useful in the industrial applications related to the mobility of heavy and extra heavy crude oil. Other tests have been carried out to investigate the capability of Nano-Fe2O3 as well as other types on nanoparticles to decrease the rutting potential of hot-mix asphalt. SEM images of asphalt binder modified by the nanoparticles demonstrated that the nanomaterial was properly distributed into the binder matrix and provided a positive effect on the rutting performance of the asphalt mixes.

france holds global talks to offer debt relief for sudan - the san diego union-tribune

france holds global talks to offer debt relief for sudan - the san diego union-tribune

French President Emmanuel Macron announced the cancellation of Sudans $5 billion debt to France in an effort to support the countrys transitional leadership and help its crippled economy recovering, at a Paris conference gathering African leaders and international creditors.

Macron hosted the event Monday for Gen. Abdel-Fattah Burhan, head of Sudans ruling sovereign council, and Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok. The heads of state of neighboring Egypt and Ethiopia were notably attending, as well as the International Monetary Fund Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva and African Union Commission Chairman Moussa Faki Mahamat.

The conference aimed at marking Sudans reintegration into the international community after three decades of isolation. A popular uprising in the African nation led to the militarys overthrow of longtime autocrat Omar al-Bashir in 2019.

We are in favor of entirely cancelling Sudans debt (towards France), Macron said in a news conference. We are expecting from other participants ... to make a similar effort, which is the needed effort to free Sudan from the debt burden.

Sudans transitional government has taken a set of measures in recent months to transform the countrys economy. That measures included a managed flotation of the Sudanese pound in an unprecedented step that led to hikes in the price of fuel and other essential goods.

Hamdok praised a milestone, historic conference and wished the conference will be a starting point for the return of private and international investments to Sudan in the wake of economic changes initiated by the transitional government.

Cash-stripped Sudan has for years struggled with an array of economic woes, including a huge budget deficit and widespread shortages of essential goods and soaring prices of bread and other staples. The countrys annual inflation soared past 300% last month, one of the worlds highest rates.

Former President Donald Trump removed Sudan from the blacklist after the transitional government agreed to pay $335 million in compensation for victims of attacks carried out by Osama bin Ladens al-Qaida network while the terror leader was living in Sudan. The removal also was an incentive for Sudan to normalize ties with Israel.

Dr. Suliman Baldo, senior advisor at The Sentry, a watchdog group, said the Sudanese transitional government continues to make encouraging progress but this progress risks being undone unless it is rooted in a tangible shift away from the opaque and corrupt system operated for decades by the former regime.

Chinas market regulator has blocked the merger of Tencent-backed game streaming platforms Douyu and Huya following an anti-monopoly investigation, as authorities ramp up scrutiny of some of the countrys biggest technology companies

A tentative labor deal between Volvo Trucks North America and a union representing nearly 3,000 workers who have gone on strike twice this year at a southwest Virginia truck plant has been rejected by the striking workers

The federal government is promising to spend $500 million to encourage the construction of smaller meat processing plants located closer to farmers who raise chickens, pigs and cows with the goal of diversifying the industry from the consolidation around large corporate owned processors

A report by an internal watchdog says two high-ranking political appointees of Donald Trumps at the Environmental Protection Agency engaged in fraudulent payroll activities that cost the agency more than $130,000

variation of microbial diversity in catastrophic oil spill area in marine ecosystem and hydrocarbon degradation of ucms (unresolved complex mixtures) by marine indigenous bacteria | springerlink

variation of microbial diversity in catastrophic oil spill area in marine ecosystem and hydrocarbon degradation of ucms (unresolved complex mixtures) by marine indigenous bacteria | springerlink

The study targeted an assessment of microbial diversity during oil spill in the marine ecosystem (Kaohsiung port, Taiwan) and screened dominant indigenous bacteria for oil degradation, as well as UCM weathering. DO was detected lower and TDS/conductivity was observed higher in oil-spilled area, compared to the control, where a significant correlation (R2=1; P<0.0001) was noticed between DO and TDS. The relative abundance (RA) of microbial taxa and diversities (>90% similarity by NGS) were found higher in the boundary region of spilled-oily-water (site B) compared to the control (site C) and center of the oil spill area (site A) (BRA/diversity>CRA/diversity>ARA/diversity). The isolated indigenous bacteria, such as Staphylococcus saprophyticus (CYCTW1), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (CYCTW2), and Bacillus megaterium (CYCTW3) degraded the C10C30 including UCM of oil, where Bacillus sp. are exhibited more efficient, which are applicable for environmental cleanup of the oil spill area. Thus, the marine microbial diversity changes due to oil spill and the marine microbial community play an important role to biodegrade the oil, besides restoring the catastrophic disorders through changing their diversity by ecological selection and adaptation process.

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