Clothes dryers have replaced outdoor clotheslines in most homes. Dryersare a convenience that matches the rushed lifestyles to get laundry done quickly and easily. But whether you are doing laundry at home or in a laundromat, there are clothes and accessories that can't stand up to the heat of a clothes dryer and should always be air-dried. (And for the record, air-drying is generally better for most fabrics, and it saves energy.)
If you are caught in a pinch and need to dry one of these items quickly, you can give it a head start in the dryer with the air-only cycle (no heat). Add the item to the dryer with a couple of clean, dry cotton towels and allow the cycle totumble for only 5 to 10 minutes.
Bras use spandex and elastic tostretch and provide support. Unfortunately, high temperatures break down those materials and will quickly ruin the shape of bras. Wash them correctly and air-dry to help them maintain theirshape.
If you think about all the things that end up in backpacks, lunch bags, and reusable shopping bags, it's easy to see that they need to be washed and cleaned often. But none of these things should be placed in a clothes dryer unless they are made of 100 percent cotton.
Delicate fabrics such as silk, lace, and sheer net should never go into the dryer. The high heat can set in wrinkles that are almost impossible to remove. But, the biggest danger is something such as a zipper snagging the fabric and leaving a hole or pull.
Just like lingerie, most of today's activewear is made from high-tech, synthetic fibers designed to support muscles and wick away moisture during exercise. To help these garments hold their shape and wicking qualities, avoid the dryer and allow them to air-dry after washing.
Tennis shoes can be made out of simple canvas, leather, or high-tech performance fabrics. Afterwashing athletic shoes, skip the dryer. The high heat can cause the soles to separate and materials to become distorted.Allow them to air-dry for at least 24 hours before wearing again.
Sweaters are created from knitted yarns that can lose their shape if washed incorrectly.And the final insult can come if they are tossed in a hot dryer. The heat can cause natural and human-made fibers to shrink or stretch and increase pilling. Returning a synthetic fiber sweater to its original shape is impossible, but some natural fiber sweaters can besavedso theycan be worn again.
Whether your fur got caught in the rain or needs cleaning, stay away from the high heat of the dryer. Excessive heat can cause the hide of a natural fur to crack and the fur to fall out. Simply hang the fur to air-dry away from direct heat or sunlight.
Bath mats can harbor bacteria that spreadathlete's foot and odor; so they should be washed and disinfected often in hot water. However, they should never be put in the clothes dryer on high heat. The rubber backing can crumble and even melt.
Swimwear needs to be washed after every wearing to remove body soil, sunscreen oils, sand, salt, or chlorine. But after washing, allow it to air-dry. Dryer heat will cause the fabrics to distort and ruin thatsummer look.
If you have clothes or home accessories with sequins or beading, keep them away from the dryer. If the embellishments are glued on, the heat can cause the glue to melt, and beads and sequins can become distorted.
Some wool clothing can be tossed in the washer or hand washed easily at home. However, nothing made out of wool should be placed in the dryer. Wool is a natural fiber from sheep or goats, and the outer layer contains scales that interlock and shrink whensubjected to excess moisture and high heat. Once the scales interlock, it can be quite difficult to return the fabric to its original size.
You probably won't be washing a big load of oily work rags, but even a load of laundry that includes oily kitchen towels or clothes splashed with gasoline can cause a problem if you put them in the dryer. The high heat can cause residual oils in the fabric to combust and start a fire, and oily materials can easily transfer to dryer surfaces. Always air-dry, preferably outside but out of direct sunlight.
Don't put anything in the dryer until you've checked the pockets for common items like crayons, gum, lip balm, jewelry, and even cell phones. The very best way to prevent disasters is to turn every pocket inside out before you put clothes in the washer. If you hear or see some evidence that pockets didn't get emptied before the wash cycle, check again before putting wet clothesin the dryer.
VIDEO TRANSCRIPT Creating your own paver patio is a great way to improve the looks of your backyard and the value of your home. The key to achieving a smooth, level surface for the pavers is preparing a solid base, followed by a layer of sand.
To ensure that the sand is a consistent depth, lay two pieces of metal pipe in the space and screed the sand off level with the top of them. Then you can remove the pipe and fill in the voids with a little more sand. Once the pavers are laid, the surface will be flat and even.
Frac sand: Close-up view of frac sand (on the right) and a typical sand of similar grain size (on the left). Notice how the frac sand has a more uniform grain size, nicely rounded grain shapes, and a uniform composition. It is also a very tough material that can resist compressive forces of up to several tons per square inch. Grains in this image are about 0.50 millimeter in size. Photo copyright iStockphoto / BanksPhotos.
Frac sand production: This chart illustrates the amount of natural industrial sand that has been used as proppant in the hydraulic fracturing process. It does not include man-made materials that have been used as a proppant (such as ceramic beads, aluminum beads, or sintered bauxite. Data is from the United States Geological Survey Minerals Yearbooks and the United States Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries, 2005-2020.
"Frac sand" is a high-purity quartz sand with very durable and very round grains. It is a crush-resistant material produced for use by the petroleum industry. It is used in the hydraulic fracturing process (known as "fracking") to produce petroleum fluids, such as oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids from rock units that lack adequate pore space for these fluids to flow to a well.
The demand for frac sand exploded in 2010, when the use of hydraulic fracturing became the standard method of producing oil and gas from tight rock formations such as the Marcellus Shale and Utica Shale of the Appalachian Basin. Today, thousands of oil and natural gas wells are stimulated every year using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing.
A hydraulic fracturing job on one well can require a few thousand tons of sand. This surge of specialized drilling has created a billion-dollar frac sand industry in a very short time. Between 2005 and 2014, the amount of frac sand used by the oil and gas industry has increased dramatically.
Millions of tons of frac sand are now used every year. That trend will continue as long as the hydraulic fracturing process is used to stimulate wells, or until man-made proppants become more effective or less costly substitutes.
Some subsurface rock units such as organic shale contain large amounts of oil, natural gas, or natural gas liquids that will not flow freely to a well. They will not flow to a well because the rock unit either lacks permeability (interconnected pore spaces), or the pore spaces in the rock are so small that these fluids cannot flow through them.
The hydraulic fracturing process solves this problem by generating fractures in the rock. This is done by drilling a well into the rock, sealing the portion of the well in the petroleum-bearing zone, and pumping water under high pressure into that portion of the well. This water is generally treated with chemicals and thickeners such as guar gum to create a viscous gel. This gel facilitates the water's ability to carry grains of frac sand in suspension.
Large pumps at Earth's surface increase the water pressure in the sealed portion of the well until it is high enough to exceed the breaking point of the surrounding rocks. When their breaking point is reached, they fracture suddenly and water rushes rapidly into the fractures, inflating them and extending them deeper into the rock. Billions of sand grains are carried deep into the fractures by this sudden rush of water. A few thousand tons of frac sand can be required to stimulate a single well.
Hydraulic fracturing: Simplified diagram of a natural gas well that has been constructed with horizontal drilling to increase the length of penetration through the Marcellus Shale. Hydraulic fracturing is typically done in the horizontal portion of the well to stimulate a flow of gas from the shale. This well configuration is used in shale plays of the United States.
When the pumps are turned off, the fractures deflate but do not close completely - because they are propped open by billions of grains of frac sand. This only occurs if enough sand grains to resist the force of the closing fractures have been delivered into the rock.
The new fractures in the rock, propped open by the durable sand grains, form a network of pore space that allows petroleum fluids to flow out of the rock and into the well. Frac sand is known as a "proppant" because it "props" the fractures open.
Other materials that have been used as a proppant include ceramic beads, aluminum beads, and sintered bauxite. Frac sand generally delivers the highest level of performance, and it is currently the proppant most frequently used by the petroleum industry.
Jordan Sandstone map: Many of the rock units that are currently being mined for frac sand are also aquifers. This makes groundwater research publications, such as the groundwater atlas series of the United States Geological Survey, valuable prospecting documents for determining the presence, thickness, and structure of sandstone rock units. This map is from the Ground Water Atlas of the United States for Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. It shows the geographic extent and thickness of the Jordan Sandstone in Minnesota and Iowa. Similar maps have been published in this series for other sandstone rock units and other geographic areas.
Frac sand is produced in a range of sizes from as small as 0.1 millimeter in diameter to over 2 millimeters in diameter, depending upon customer specifications. Most of the frac sand consumed is between 0.4 and 0.8 millimeters in size.
Rock units such as the St. Peter Sandstone, Jordan Sandstone, Oil Creek Sandstone, and Hickory Sandstone have been potential sources of frac sand material. These rock units are composed of quartz grains that have been through multiple cycles of weathering and erosion. That long history has removed almost all mineral grains other than quartz and produced grains with very round shapes. This is why sand dredged from rivers, excavated from terraces, or removed from beaches is unlikely to produce a good product.
Where these rock units are produced, they are usually soft, poorly cemented, and sometimes lightly weathered. This allows them to be excavated and crushed with minimal damage to the quartz grains. High-purity sand from areas such as the Appalachians is often not suitable for frac sand because it has been subjected to tectonic forces which have deformed the rock and weakened the sand grains.
Frac sand mine in Wisconsin: Aerial view of a frac sand mining operation in Wisconsin. Frac sand is a highly specialized product that can only be produced from a small number of sand deposits. Photo copyright iStockphoto / BanksPhotos.
After washing, the sand is stacked in piles to allow the wash water to drain off. This operation is done outdoors and is restricted to times of the year when temperatures are above freezing. After the sand is drained, it is placed in an air dryer to remove all moisture. The dry grains are then screened to obtain specific size fractions for different customers.
Sand that is not suitable for fracking is separated and sold for other uses. Some frac sand might be resin coated to improve its performance in the fracking operation. This material will be sold as a premium product. After processing, most sand is loaded directly into train cars for rail delivery.
Some processing plants are located at the mine site. However, processing plants are very expensive to build and are sometimes shared by multiple mines. These are centrally located to several mines, and the sand is delivered by truck, train, or conveyor.
A few years ago producers in Wisconsin and Texas were supplying much of the frac sand used by the oil and gas industry. However, a huge spike in demand caused by the natural gas and shale oil boom has motivated many companies to provide this product. Many of these companies are in the central part of the United States where the St. Peter Sandstone and similar rock units are close to the surface and easily excavated.
These areas are also where tectonic forces have not caused severe folding of the rock units and weakened the sand grains. The prime area is in the midwestern states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, and Wisconsin).
Most of the high-purity silica sands in the United States have been known for decades. They have been used for glass making and metallurgical uses. The current search for frac sand is not about "discovering new sources of sand" - it is instead about determining which sources produce superior materials.
Frac sand is used to produce natural gas, natural gas liquids, and oil from shales and other tight rocks where hydraulic fracturing is required. These include: the Marcellus Shale, Utica Shale, Bakken Formation, Haynesville Shale, Fayetteville Shale, Eagle Ford Shale, Barnett Shale, and many other shale plays throughout the United States.
The demand for frac sand in North America has risen sharply in the last few years in response to numerous shale plays developing in many parts of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The United States Geological Survey reports the source of this production:
Reported average prices for frac sand in the U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook and Mineral Commodity Summary are volatile. Between 2016 and 2018 the price ranged from $35 to $56 per ton - at the mine site. Delivered prices can be enormously higher depending upon the distance the sand has to be transported and the number of times that it must be handled on the way.
Powdered bauxite can be fused into tiny beads at very high temperatures. These beads have a very high crush resistance, and that makes them suitable for use as a proppant. The specific gravity of the beads and their size can be matched to the viscosity of the hydraulic fracturing fluid and to the size of fractures that are expected to develop in the rock.
Manufactured proppants provide a wide selection of grain size and specific gravity compared to the natural proppant known as frac sand. Frac sand is currently used instead of manufactured proppants because it has a cost and transportation advantage.
In this article I have listed the 8 most common reasons lavenders die or appear to be dying and have the solution to each problem. So keep on reading to find out why your lavender is dying and what you can do about it.
The most likely reason your lavender is dying is because of over watering. Lavenders thrive in the scorching dry summer weather in the Mediterranean region of Europe. Therefore lavenders are exceptionally tolerant to droughts and require relatively little water to be healthy and produce flowers.
It is very common to mistake the drooping appearance and brown foliage as an under watered plant at which point a lot of gardens compound the problem with more water and consequently the root rot becomes worse and the plant dies quickly.
Lavenders roots need to live in dry soil that drains quickly and holds little moisture around the roots. If you water your lavender as frequently as other plants in your garden you will eventually kill the plant.
In fact established lavenders (more the 2 years old) are so hardy that in temperate climates will not need any additional water at all, attaining more then enough water from rainfall, even during dry spells in the summer.
If you lavender is showing the signs from being over watered then you will need to stop watering the plant for at least three weeks, and if possible protect the lavender from rainfall (move recovering potted lavenders inside during the rain).
Lavenders in the first two years of growth will need watering once every two weeks during the spring and summer months. If there has been significant rainfall and overcast days within a two week period then you can skip watering for the next two weeks.
How much water really depends on the soil type but if you have quick draining sandy soil (which lavenders prefer) then you can afford to give lavenders a good long soak so that water reaches the roots rather a light watering which may not infiltrate far enough into the soil.
Most lavenders will attain all the water they during their winter dormancy from occasional rainfall, but if you have had a dry winter or you have taken the lavender inside over winter as protection from frost the the lavender will appreciate watering once per month.
Lavender will not do well in clay soils, soils that are heavy and compacted or soil that contains a lot of organic matter as they will likely hold onto water which lead to the disease root rot and the plant will turn brown and slowly die.
The signs of stress from slow draining soil are the same as if the plant was over watered. A drooping appearance and a browning of the foliage will be the first symptoms and you should act immediately.
It is always better to have more sand or grit in the soil when growing lavenders then not enough as sand promotes good drainage and will be less fertile then other materials which replicates the natural lower fertility of soils in their native Mediterranean.
In terms of proportions, the planting area for lavender should be around 30% sand or grit to 70% soil. This should be ideal mixed to a depth of ideally 18 inches as this will accommodate the root system of lavender when it is fully mature.
To amend the soil of lavenders that are already planted in beds you should lift them out gently with a fork and dig or till the sand and grit into the bed to at least 18 inches and then replant the lavender.
Once you have either moved the lavender into a pot or amended the soil with sand and grit in the planting area then it should take around 3 weeks for the roots to dry out properly and the drooping appearance should alleviate.
In their native Mediterranean range (Italy, Southern France and Spain) lavenders enjoy full sun all day. You do not need a Mediterranean climate to grow lavenders but you must ensure that they are in the sunniest location of your garden.
Lavenders need at least 6 hours of direct sunlight per day during the spring and summer months to grow successfully. If they receive less the 6 hours of sun light lavenders will have disappointing growth, a lack of colour in the leaves poor fragrance and potentially die.
If your lavender is potted then this is very easy and just a case of finding an area of your garden that receives more the 6 hours of sun per day. If the lavender is planted in the ground then you will have to transplant the lavender.
The best time to transplant a lavender is in the late winter or early spring as this will limit the effects of transplant shock, although lavenders are hardy and will tolerate planting at anytime of year if necessary.
If you have re homed the lavender in the fall or winter then water well immediately after planting, and water once per week for three weeks. After three weeks, you will need to water the plant infrequently as rainfall is often higher in fall/winter and the soil tends to hold onto moisture for longer.
Most garden soils are either neutral or slightly acidic as this is the pH level that organic matter will be once fully decomposed and most potting mixes are usually pH 7 (neutral) and therefore will be suitable for growing lavenders in pots but you should always check the manufactures instructions.
If you have tested your soil and determined that it is too acidic, for growing lavender (less then pH 6.5) then I would recommend transferring the lavender to a pot with new soil (use 70% potting soil and 30% sand for drainage) as a matter of urgency.
Transplanting a lavender from the ground will be tolerated by the plant at anytime of year if necessary. However there are some steps you should take which will help minimize transplant shock. Take a look at my article on growing lavender in pots for the full care guide.
Once you have transferred your lavender to a pot, it will be perfectly happy as lavenders of all varieties do very well in pots or you can keep it potted temporarily, whilst amending the soil and then eventually replant the lavender in its original spot.
To raise the pH of soil from too acidic to the right range for lavenders you can add a lime amendment. Lime can be purchase online or from garden stores and added to the soil, to raise the pH towards neutral or alkaline depending on the quantity you use.
The application is relatively simple, all you will have to do is dig or till the lime into the soil to a depth of around 18 inches. The best time to do this is in the fall. Influencing the pH of garden soil for the long term will require patience and frequent retesting on the soil to ensure you have brought about a meaningful change in the soil that will last.
Lime is relatively inexpensive and you should always follow the manufactures guidelines for information on exactly how much lime you should add to the soil as you dont want to add too much and end up with soil that is far too alkaline.
However if you have any of the southern European varieties and you are in a cooler climate then you can re home them in pots and place them into a heated green house or bring them inside over winter to protect them from frosts.
Lavenders do prefer to grow in dryer climates with less moisture in the air, however they are tolerant of sea spray and if you make some adjustments to their conditions, they will be able to cope with some humidity.
Of course well drained soil and infrequent watering become even more important for lavenders in humid climates so consider lifting out your lavender carefully with a fork and amend the soil with more sand or grit for fast drainage and dryer roots.
Another great tip that I borrowed from commercial lavender growers is to use a white stone like a mulch surrounding the plant. You can purchase stone in modest quantities for a reasonable price from garden stores or building suppliers.
The reflected light benefits the lavender (as they love full sun) and it can create a micro-climate when the sun is shining as the intense light will drive evaporation from around the leaves and result in a dryer environment.
The number one golden rule when it comes to pruning lavenders is to only cut back into green foliage and never cut back into the woody growth. Cutting back into the woody growth will lead to the lavender splitting and forming a poor shape or dying from shock.
Pruning should take place when new leaves start to grow at the base which is usually very early spring. You can prune up to a third of growth from the top with the intention of shaping the lavender so it retains a rounded shape which prevents the plant from splitting.
Established lavenders will not need any additional fertilizer. This advice is verified by the English Royal Horticultural society and from personally speaking to commercial lavender growers in California as well as first hand experience.
In this situation you can either move the lavender to a pot with 70% potting soil and 30% sand or grit. Or you can dig up the lavender and add plenty of sand and grit to the planting area before replanting.
This is not an exact science but bear in mind the soils where lavenders originate can have a very high proportion of sand or gravel so adding a large amount of sand will not be to the lavenders detriment and will actually recreate their natural habitat.
If you are amending a flower bed the you will need to amend the soil to a depth of 18 inches with sand or grit (either works well). Sand does not contribute any nutrient value to the soil which will counteract soil that is naturally high in nitrogen.
In these situations I have personally seen soil that was amended so that it was around 50% sand 50% soil and lavender fully recovered by next year (after a regular late summer and early spring prune) and produced an bountiful bloom.
Lavenders will grow happily if you partially recreate some of their natural conditions of their Mediterranean home range (France, Spain and Italy). Full sun, with quick draining soil and infrequent watering are priorities for any lavender grower.
In almost every case I see the reason why lavender dying is due to over watering or soil that is too moist. For every reason a lavender is dying there is a solution, so just follow the steps in the article and you can not only save the lavender, but it should produce flowers, oils and aromas in abundance in the next growing season.
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Tasha has been an active herb gardener, foodie, and from-scratch cook since the year 2000. In 2014, she started homesteading for greater self-sufficiency in rural Surry County, North Carolina. She currently keeps dairy goats, chickens, ducks, a pet turkey, worms, and (occasionally) pigs. She gardens on about two acres and grows a large variety of annual and perennial edible, medicinal, and ecosystem support plants. She is an Extension Master Gardener Volunteer and teaches classes in her community related to Edible Landscaping, Organic Gardening, and Introduction to Permaculture. She has also co-authored several books about backyard chickens, livestock watering systems, and vinegar production.
Also, after you calculate your results, you can use our optional cost calculator. Just add in the price per unit on the results line next to the appropriate quantity to get an estimate of your total cost.
Disclaimer: Depending on the composition of the material from your supplier, the material density, the weight, and therefore, the total price you get from the calculator above may not be 100% accurate. Use the calculator only to get a rough estimation.
Bulk material distributors usually sell goods using measurements of tons and/or cubic yards. Lighter weight items such as compost, mulch, and amended garden soil are usually sold in cubic yards. Heavier items, like gravel, are often sold by weight in tons so that the person hauling the goods knows how much weight they will be carrying.
Our compost calculator gives measurements in both cubic yards and tons based on average dry weights. Note though, that if you are using gravel, such as for walkways and driveways, it may come pre-mixed with water.
The addition of water adds more weight even though the square footage covered remains unchanged. As such, if you are working with wet materials, priced by the ton, youll need to make some adjustments to get an accurate estimate.
Figuring out how much mulch or other material you need to fill your space is the easy part. Making sure you get a good price can be more complicated. Here are a few things to keep in mind when making bulk landscape material purchases.
Tractor buckets come in various sizes. So, make sure you ask how big the bucket is if you are paying by the scoop. Dont assume that a scoop is a cubic yard because many people use buckets that are equal to 3/4th of a yard.
Bagged landscape materials are also often sold by size or weight. Mulch, potting soil, and garden soil usually come in two or three cubic foot bags. Rocks and compost though are typically sold by weight.
To make things more confusing, bag size varies between manufacturers. Standard compost frequently comes in 40-pound bags, while organic compost might be sold in 1.5 cubic foot bags. Rocks in bags can vary from 30 to 60 pounds depending on whether they are more expensive decorative rocks or inexpensive fill rocks.
For convenience, our material calculator gives you 2 and 3 cubic foot bag estimates for your materials needs. We also list the amount needed in pounds so you can use that to help you figure out how many bags, by weight, you will need. However, to use that line item for price estimation, you will need to take the number of pounds on the bag and divide it by the bag price. Then plug in your per pound price to use our material calculator.
When you buy from bulk retailers, they often offer delivery services. Bulk materials are almost always significantly cheaper than bagged materials. But, the delivery fee sometimes negates those savings.
For your average home user, what you really need to know is how much it will cost to fill a certain area. Qualified bulk retailers regardless of what units they use for their pricing should be able to tell you how much of their material you need to fill your area and what the total cost will be.
Now that youve got the scoop on mulch, compost, and other material calculations, I hope this information will help you save money and improve your soil and landscape with less stress and faster results!
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Sand DryerBrief Description: Sand Dryeris widely used in construction materials, ore dressing, metallurgy, chemical industry, cement industry, etc. Sand Dryer are used for drying all kinds of sand such as river sand, yellow sand, silica sand, quartz sand, pomegranate sand, etc. Sand Dryer mainly consist of rotary drum, carrier roller, lifting boards, hot air furnace, electric control box, etc. Sand Dryer Features: New type rotary drum dryer, the flights structure in the cylinder of sand dryer is more advanced ; Inner temperature is 450-700, discharging temperature <= 60 , can send into storage room directly, and no need cool device; Made of wear resistant manganese plate, 3 to 4 times more hardwearing than ordinary steel plate ; 1/3 of the traditional drum dryer's coal consumption, electricity power saving 40%,standard coal consumption per tondried sand< 16 kg. Wet Sand Input Dried Sand Output Sand Dryer Workflow: Belt Conveyor or bucket elevator transports the wet sand into the hopper which is on the top of sand dryer. Hot air furnace supply the hot air for the sand dryer. Inside the sand dryer's cylinder, there are many flights, and these flights mix the wet sand and hot air sufficiently. The humidity in the wet sand is heated and evaporated into water vapour. At the end of the sand drying plant, there is one high pressure draft fan. Under the function of draft fan, the water vapour goes out of sand dryer in time. During the sand drying process, there is some dust mixed with the water vapour. In the cyclone separator, the dust is separated from the water vapour, and falls down. The dried sand goes out of the sand dryer machine from the outlet as product. Finally we can use one belt conveyor or bucket elevator to send the dry sand into silo or trucks. Fuel for Sand Dryer: Fuel for the heat source can be wood pellets, waste wood, coal, diesel, natural gas, biomass fuel, etc. The users can choose the most suitable fuel according the actual situation such as fuel available, fuel cost, local environment laws, etc. Partial Technical Data of Sand Dryer Machine: Model Processing Capacity Input Moisture Output Moisture MainMotor forSandDryer Coal CalorificValue Feedinlet Temperature 1.5X14M 10-12 17-23% <10% 15 >5500KCAL/KG 70050 1.8X14M 15-18 17-23% <10% 18.5 >5500KCAL/KG 70050 2.0X16M 20-25 17-23% <10% 18.5 >5500KCAL/KG 70050 2.2X18M 25-30 17-23% <10% 22 >5500KCAL/KG 70050 Notice: Any change ofSandDryertechnical data shall not be advised additionally. Sunco Machinerycan design and supply theSand Dryersystem according to the following information specially : 01. Initial moisture content %of wet sand ? 02. Final output moisture content (%) of dry sandneeded ? 03. Input Capacity (ton per hour ) needed ? 04. Prefered fuel such as coal, waste wood, diesel, or natural gas, etc ? 05. Other special requirements if have ? For detail and price of SandDryer, please refer to: Email:[email protected] Mobile / WhatsApp: Video:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hRbrEjSZFaA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IMF2nE7eAes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u1dgBh-JktI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQ-4iNnxekw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4RrghfR9PV4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3OkF8nPLuoQ
Sand Dryer are used for drying all kinds of sand such as river sand, yellow sand, silica sand, quartz sand, pomegranate sand, etc. Sand Dryer mainly consist of rotary drum, carrier roller, lifting boards, hot air furnace, electric control box, etc.
Fuel for the heat source can be wood pellets, waste wood, coal, diesel, natural gas, biomass fuel, etc. The users can choose the most suitable fuel according the actual situation such as fuel available, fuel cost, local environment laws, etc.
Model Processing Capacity Input Moisture Output Moisture MainMotor forSandDryer Coal CalorificValue Feedinlet Temperature 1.5X14M 10-12 17-23% <10% 15 >5500KCAL/KG 70050 1.8X14M 15-18 17-23% <10% 18.5 >5500KCAL/KG 70050 2.0X16M 20-25 17-23% <10% 18.5 >5500KCAL/KG 70050 2.2X18M 25-30 17-23% <10% 22 >5500KCAL/KG 70050
DCR, Inc is located in West Fargo, North Dakota and has over 30 years of experience providing the Midwest and Canada with innovative solutions in sand warming and drying. DCR specializes in the designing and engineering of asphalt plants, sand warmers, and glass recycling equipment.
Warming sand is 70% more efficient then heating water.The DCR Sand heater provides a more consistent blend, eliminating lumps, improves plant flow, which enhances the concrete mixes. This also improves plant capacity, lowers maintenance and labor costs. Hot sand has a longer retention of heat which mean more customers at a greater distance. Hot sand uses less energy then water and makes it easier to meet concrete specifications for those tough jobs.
We have used the DCR Inc.'s Sand Warmer for sand and concrete, as well as to dry sand for our potato sorting machine. The sand warmer worked very well. Joel Dahl helped us with any issues whenever we called, which were very few. I do not know the exact cost-per-hour for LP, but the machine certainly performed the expected duties. It is a quality-built machine.
The Stevens County Highway Department Asphalt Plant was purchased from DCR Inc. in 1999. We have been very satisfied with the plant, especially the rubber tire drum drive. We mix approximately 40 to 50 thousand tons of asphalt through the DCR Asphalt Plant yearly. With the EZ-Blend electronics, it has been virtually trouble-free.
Silica sand low in iron is much in demand for glass, ceramic and pottery use, and for many of these applications clean, white sand is desired. Impurities such as clay slime, iron stain, and heavy minerals including iron oxides, garnet, chromite, zircon, and other accessory minerals must not be present. Chromium, for example, must not be present, even in extremely small amounts, in order for the sand to be acceptable to certain markets. Feldspars and mica are also objectionable. Generally, iron content must be reduced to 0.030% Fe2O3 or less.
Silica sand for making glass, pottery and ceramics must meet rigid specifications and generally standard washing schemes are inadequate for meeting these requirements. Sand for the glass industry must contain not more than 0.03% Fe2O3. Concentrating tables will remove free iron particles but iron stained and middling particles escape gravity methods. Flotation has been very successfully applied in the industry for making very low iron glass sand suitable even for optical requirements.Sub-A Flotation Machines are extensively used in this industry for they give the selectivity desired and are constructed to withstand the corrosive pulp conditions normally encountered (acid circuits) and also the abrasive action of the coarse, granular, slime free washed sand.
The flowsheet illustrates the more common methods of sand beneficiation. Silica may be obtained from sandstone, dry sand deposits and wet sand deposits. Special materials handling methods are applicable in each case.
The silica bearing sandstone must be mined or quarried much in the manner for handling hard rock. The mined ore is reduced by a Jaw Crusher to about 1 size for the average small tonnage operation. For larger scale operations two-stage crushing is advisable.
The crushed ore is reduced to natural sand grain size by Rod Milling. Generally, one pass treatment through the Rod Mill is sufficient. Grinding is done wet at dilutions in excess of normal grinding practice. A Spiral Screen fitted to the mill discharge removes the plus 20 mesh oversize which either goes to waste or is conveyed back to the mill feed for retreatment.
Sand from such deposits is generally loaded into trucks and transported dry to the mill receiving bin. It is then fed on to a vibrating screen with sufficient water to wash the sand through the 20 mesh stainless screen cloth. Water sprays further wash the oversize which goes to waste or for other use. The minus 20 mesh is the product going to further treatment.
The sand and water slurry for one of the three fore-mentioned methods is classified or dewatered. This may be conveniently done by cyclones or by mechanical dewatering classifiers such as the drag, screw, or rake classifiers.
From classification the sand, at 70 to 75% solids, is introduced into a Attrition Scrubber for removal of surface stain from the sand grains. This is done by actual rubbing of the wet sand grains, one against another, in an intensely agitated high density pulp. Most of the work is done among the sand grains not against the rotating propellers.
For this service rubber covered turbine type propellers of special design and pitch are used. Peripheral speed is relatively low, but it is necessary to introduce sufficient power to keep the entire mass in violent movement without any lost motion or splash. The degree of surface filming and iron oxide stain will determine the retention time required in the Scrubber.
The scrubbed sand from the Attrition Machine is diluted with water to 25-30% solids and pumped to a second set of cyclones for further desliming and removal of slimes released in the scrubber. In some cases the sand at this point is down to the required iron oxide specifications by scrubbing only. In this case, the cyclone or classifier sand product becomes final product.
Deslimed sand containing mica, feldspar, and iron bearing heavy minerals can be successfully cleaned to specifications by Sub-A Flotation. Generally this is done in an acid pulp circuit. Conditioning with H2SO4 and iron promoting reagents is most effective at high density, 70-75% solids. To minimize conditioning and assure proper reagentizing a two-stage Heavy Duty Open Conditioner with Rubber Covered Turbine Propellers is used. This unit has two tanks and mechanisms driven from one motor.
The conditioned pulp is diluted with water to 25-30% solids and fed to a Sub-A Flotation Machine especially designed for handling the abrasive, slime free sand. Acid proof construction in most cases is necessary as the pulps may be corrosive from the presence of sulfuric acid. A pH of 2.5-3.0 is common. Wood construction with molded rubber and 304 or 316 stainless steel are the usual materials of construction. In the flotation step the impurity minerals are floated off in a froth product which is diverted to waste. The clean, contaminent-free silica sand discharges from the end of the machine.
The flotation tailing product at 25 to 30% solids contains the clean silica sand. A SRL Pump delivers it to a Dewatering Classifier for final dewatering. A mechanical classifier is generally preferable for this step as the sand can be dewatered down to 15 to 20% moisture content for belt conveying to stock pile or drainage bins. In some cases the sand is pumped directly to drainage bins but in such cases it would be preferable to place a cyclone in the circuit to eliminate the bulk of the water. Sand filters of top feed or horizontal pan design may also be used for more complete water removal on a continuous basis.
Dry grinding to minus 100 or minus 200 mesh is done in Mills with silica or ceramic lining and using flint pebbles or high density ceramic or porcelain balls. This avoids any iron contamination from the grinding media.
In some cases it may be necessary to place high intensity magnetic separators in the circuit ahead of the grinding mill to remove last traces of iron which may escape removal in the wet treatment scrubbing and flotation steps. Iron scale and foreign iron particles are also removed by the magnetic separator.
In general most silica sands can be beneficiated to acceptable specifications by the flowsheet illustrated. Reagent cost for flotation is low, being in the order of 5 to 10 cents per ton of sand treated. If feldspars and mica must also be removed, reagent costs may approach a maximum of 50 cents per ton.
Laboratory test work is advisable to determine the exact treatment steps necessary. Often, attrition scrubbing and desliming will produce very low iron silica sand suitable for the glass trade. Complete batch and pilot plant test facilities are available to test your sand and determine the exact size of equipment required and the most economical reagent combinations.
Silica sand for making glass, pottery and ceramics must meet rigid specifications and generally standard washing schemes are inadequate for meeting these requirements. Sand for the glass industry must contain not more than 0.03% Fe2O3. Concentrating tables will remove free iron particles but iron stained and middling particles escape gravity methods. Flotation has been very successfully applied in the industry for making very low iron glass sand suitable even for optical requirements.
Sub-A Flotation Machines are extensively used in this industry for they give the selectivity desired and are constructed to withstand the corrosive pulp conditions normally encountered (acid circuits) and also the abrasive action of the coarse, granular, slime free washed sand.
The flowsheet illustrated is typical for production of glasssand by flotation. Generally large tonnages are treated, forexample, 30 to 60 tons per hour. Most sand deposits can be handled by means of a dredge and the sand pumped to the treatment plant. Sandstone deposits are also being treated and may require elaborate mining methods, aerial tramways, crushers, and wet grinding. Rod Mills with grate discharges serve for wet grinding to reduce the crushed sandstone to the particle size before the sand grains were cementedtogether in the deposit. Rod milling is replacing the older conventional grinding systems such as edge runner wet mills or Chilean type mills.
Silica sand pumped from the pit is passed over a screen, either stationary, revolving or vibrating type, to remove tramp oversize. The screen undersize is washed and dewatered generally in a spiral type classifier. Sometimes cone, centrifugal and rake type classifiers may also be used for this service. To clean the sand grains it may be necessary to thoroughly scrub the sand in a heavy-duty sand scrubber similar to the Heavy-duty Agitator used for foundry sand scrubbing. This unit is placed ahead of the washing and dewatering step when required. The overflow from the classifier containing the excess water and slimes is considered a waste product. Thickening of the wastes for water reclamation and tailings disposal in some areas may be necessary.
The washed and dewatered sand from the spiral-type classifier is conveyed to a storage bin ahead of the flotation section. It is very important to provide a steady feed to flotation as dilution, reagents and time control determines the efficiency of the process.
Feeding wet sand out of a storage bin at a uniform rate presents a materials handling problem. In some cases the sand can be uniformly fed by means of a belt or vibrating-type feeder. Vibrators on the storage bin may also be necessary to insure uniform movement of the sand to the feeder. In some cases the wet sand is removed from the bin by hydraulic means and pumped to a spiral-type classifier for further dewatering before being conveyed to the next step in the flowsheet.
Conditioning of the sand with reagents is the most critical step in the process. Generally, for greater efficiency, it is necessary to condition at maximum density. It is for this reason the sand must be delivered to the agitators or conditioners with a minimum amount of moisture. High density conditioning at 70 to 75% solids is usually necessary for efficient reagentizing of the impurity minerals so they will float readily when introduced into the flotation machine.
The Heavy-duty Duplex Open-type Conditioner previously developed for phosphate, feldspar, ilmenite, and other non-metallic mineral flotation is ideal for this application. A duplex unit is necessary to provide the proper contact time. Circular wood tanks are used to withstand the acid pulp conditions and the conditioner shafts and propellers are rubber covered for both the abrasive and corrosive action of the sand and reagents.
Reagents are added to the conditioners, part to the first and the balance to the second tank of the duplex unit, generally for flotation of impurities from silica sand. These reagents are fuel oil, sulphuric acid, pine oil, and a petroleum sulfonate. This is on the basis that the impurities are primarily oxides. If iron is present in sulphide form, then a xanthate reagent is necessary to properly activate and float it. The pulp is usually regulated with sulfuric acid to give a pH of 2.5-3.0 for best results through flotation.
A low reagent cost is necessary because of the low value of the clean sand product. It is also necessary to select a combination of reagents which will float a minimum amount of sand in the impurity product. It is desirable to keep the weight recovery in the clean sand product over 95%. Fatty acid reagents and some of the amines have a tendency to float too much of the sand along with the impurities and are therefore usually avoided.
After proper reagentizing at 70 to 75% solids the pulp is diluted to 25 to 30% solids and introduced into the flotation machine for removal of impurities in the froth product. Thepulp is acid, pH 2 .5 to 3.0 and the sand, being granular and slime free, is rapid settling so a definite handling problem is encountered through flotation.
The Sub-A Flotation Machine has been very successful for silica sand flotation because it will efficiently handle the fast settling sand and move it along from cell to cell positively. Aeration, agitation and selectivity due to the quiet upper zone can be carefully regulated to produce the desired separation. The machine is constructed with a wood tank and molded rubber wearing parts to withstand the corrosive action of the acid pulp. Molded rubber conical-type impellers are preferred for this service when handling a coarse, granular, abrasive sand.
Flotation contact time for removal of impurities is usually short. A 4, and preferably a 6 cell, machine is advisable. Cell to cell pulp level control is also desirable. A 6 cell No. 24 (43 x 43) Sub-A Flotation Machine in most cases is adequate for handling 25 to 30 tons of sand per hour. If the impurities are in sulphide form a standard machine with steel tank and molded rubber parts is adequate provided the pulp is not acid. Otherwise acid proof construction is essential.
The flotation tailing product is the clean sand discharging from the end of the flotation machine at 25 to 30% solids and must be dewatered before further processing. Dewatering can be accomplished in a dewatering classifier and then sent to storage or drying. Top feed or horizontal vacuum filters are often used to remove moisture ahead of the dryer. Dry grinding of the sand to meet market requirements for ceramic and pottery use is also a part of the flowsheet in certain cases.
This particular sand was all minus 20 mesh with only a trace minus 200 mesh and 70% plus 65 mesh. Iron impurity was present as oxide and stained silica grains. The plant which was installed as a result of this test work is consistently making over a 95% weight recovery and a product with not over 0.02% Fe2O3 which at times goes as low as 0.01% Fe2O3.
Si02, minimum..99.8 per cent Al2O3, maximum..0.1 percent Fe2O3, maximum..0.02 per cent CaO + MgO, maximum.0.1 percent For certain markets, a maximum of 0.030 per cent Fe2O3 is acceptable.
Natural silica-sand deposits generally contain impurityminerals such as clay, mica, and iron oxide and heavy iron minerals which are not sufficiently removed by washing and gravity concentration. Flotation is often used to remove these impurity minerals to meet market specifications.
Anionic-type reagents, such as fatty acids, are used to float some impurities in alkaline pulp. Cationic-type reagents such as amines or amine acetates are also used with inhibitors such as sulphuric or hydrofluoric acids to float certain impurity minerals and depress the silica.
DCRs mini sand dryer is built with a heavy duty design. They come complete with burner, feed bin, and a screen on the discharge end to keep over size material from product. The DCR mini sand dryer will dry approximately 5 tons of sand per hour. The system is all mounted on a goose neck trailer with tandem axle.
Our sand heaters incorporate the Rubber Tire Drive System minimizing horsepower use and maintenance. DCR Inc. sand dryers use half the electric power of any other heater. We designed our sand heaters and dryers to stand only 7 feet off the ground, reducing the need for ramps for set-up. CSA or UL Approved
Recovering oil prices have again made the extraction of oil and natural gas from shale formations profitable, prompting another surge in activity around recovering hydrocarbons via hydraulic fracturing.
This has created a subsequent increase in the need for sand dryers, particularly as companies look to build new facilities to support the in-basin sand trend. And while frac sand drying may appear a simple task, the industry has learned through experience that there is much more to this industrial process than meets the eye.
When it comes to frac sand drying, there are a number of factors that will need to be considered throughout the dryer design process, making dryers not designed around these characteristics especially inferior.
Note: The considerations listed below are specific to rotary dryers, which have become the industry standard in drying frac sand. For more information on the shift from fluid bed dryers to rotary dryers and the changing trends around frac sand drying, see our article, Evolution of the Frac Sand Dryer.
With the frenzy around frac sand, it might seem that just about any sand can be pumped down a hydraulically-fractured well, but on the contrary, sand is required to meet a number of stringent standards in order to be considered suitable for use as a frac sand proppant.
Frac sand presents a number of characteristics that can make processing it efficiently a difficult endeavor. Its critical that the drying system is designed with these considerations in mind to allow for maximum equipment life, efficient processing, and a quality frac sand product.
Not surprisingly, sand destined for use as a proppant is highly abrasive. Unfortunately, this abrasiveness can wreak havoc on an ill-prepared industrial dryer (among other processing and handling equipment), requiring careful modifications during the design phase to minimize its effects.
Silica/Quartz sand rates at 6-7 on the Mohs hardness scale, right alongside porcelain and titanium dioxide. When combined with the high throughput of frac sand drying plants, this abrasivity can quickly lead to excessive wear if not prepared for.
For this reason, frac sand dryers need to be constructed of heavy-duty materials capable of withstanding these rigorous demands. This often means constructing the dryer shell and other components out of stainless steel or specialty alloys instead of the more commonly employed carbon steel.
The bulk density of a material, measured in pounds per cubic foot (lbs/ft3), will comprise the operational load placed on the equipment, thereby influencing the mechanical components such as bearings, drive train, trunnion wheels, tires, and the motor.
Frac sand has a high bulk density of approximately 100 lbs/ft3. Again, in combination with the high throughput, this high weight-per-volume ratio requires the drying system to be engineered and built for a substantial operational load.
For example, while there are many options to choose from for the equipments drive assembly, the gear and pinion assembly is the best choice in most cases. The gear and pinion drive is ideal in heavy-duty settings running above 75 horsepower. This drive assembly style not only wears better under rigorous conditions, but it also requires less maintenance ideal for the frac sand processing environment.
Frac sand carries its moisture largely on the surface of the particle. As the moisture drops below a critical point, however, it becomes harder to extract a phenomenon known as driving force. This means that a majority of the moisture is easily drawn out at the onset of drying, but after a certain point, the remaining moisture becomes more difficult to draw out.
In this case, a counter current air flow configuration optimizes drying efficiency by putting the driest material (or rather, the material at its most difficult drying point) in contact with the hottest combustion gases to help counteract this driving force.
FEECO also employs custom flight (material lifter) designs to further improve the heat transfer between the material and air flow. Flights affixed to the interior of the drum pick up material, carrying it as the drum rotates, and then dropping it through the air stream in a pattern known as the material curtain.
Frac sand is available in a number of grades, but in general, is a very fine material. This fineness, while optimal for use as a proppant, can cause problems if a dryer is not designed to work around it.
Many drying system providers will counteract this issue by utilizing a drum that is larger in diameter, so air flow velocity can be decreased to reduce the potential for entrainment. However, as FEECO has demonstrated, by manipulating these key design parameters and modifying the discharge breeching design (knockout chamber), this carryover can be significantly reduced, while still maintaining a high throughput (in excess of 300 TPH in a single unit). The smaller drum diameter also reduces the expense of the equipment.
As a naturally occurring mineral, sand exhibits variation in particle size distribution and moisture content. While this variation is to be expected, it can make processing a challenge in some cases, largely, if the appropriate dryer type has not been selected.
Rotary dryers and fluid bed dryers have traditionally been the primary industrial drying systems used for processing frac sand, but the industry is increasingly in favor of the rotary type, in large part, due to this unavoidable variation.
Fluid bed dryers are highly sensitive to variation in both particle size and moisture content. They require feedstock that is as uniform as possible; the more variation, the more upsets likely to be encountered. Conversely, rotary dryers are highly tolerant of such variation and are known for their ability to produce uniform results despite as much.
Dust emissions from a dryer can be curtailed through the selection of the proper seal where the dryer meets the inlet and discharge breechings, while CO and NOx emissions can be minimized through burner selection.
Its important when working with frac sand that critical breakdown temperature be avoided in order to maintain product integrity. This can be done through the use of a combustion chamber, which, when designed properly, prevents the contact between the flame and the material.
The frac sand drying process is far from the simple task that many perceive it to be, requiring an engineered drying system backed by experience in order to prolong equipment life, maximize efficiency, and produce a quality, uniform end product for use in the hydraulic fracturing process.
FEECO has been an industry expert in the production of high quality, efficient rotary dryers since 1951. With rotary dryers in use around the world in various industries, our custom dryers have become known for their quality craftsmanship, efficient operation, and superior engineered design, and have proven themselves to be the workhorse of the industry, time after time. Not surprisingly, our heavy-duty frac sand dryers have come to be relied upon by many of the industrys top producers.
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The Vulcan Drying Systems Frac Sand Drying System is custom-designed and manufactured to suit a customer's individual project needs. Most customers have sand ranging from 5-8% in moisture content. These drying systems consist of a rotary drum dryer and a burner mounted on a breeching plate. Vulcan Drying Systems Frac Sand Drying Systems are designed specifically to dry frac sands, making the material easy to transport, separate and handle.
Frac sand is fed into the rotary dryer. After passing through the dryer, the dried product is discharged to a transfer conveyor for further sorting and separation. The vapor from the process is pulled through a baghouse which removes fine particulates from the vapor stream.
Looking for a complete system to process your material? Vulcan Drying Systems designs and manufactures cost-effective solutions for any possible process. Our experienced team will create a system that will produce your desired result.
For years now, specialized sands known asfrac sands have been utilized to augment the production ofnatural gas and oil from wells. The mining and processing of sand for hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has grown into a booming industry in the Midwest.
Frac sand is used in the fracking process to create fractures in the rock to allow the free flow of oil, natural gas or natural gas liquids. The demand for frac sand is incredibly high, as a single well can use several thousand tons of the material.
The hydraulic fracturing process begins with the drilling of a well into a rock formation. A high-pressure fracking fluid is injected into the well. This fluid, made up of water mixed with frac sand and a blend of chemicals, acts as a propping agent, or proppant. The proppant prevents the fracture from closing and permits gas to flow through the well.
To ensure that the quality of sand is acceptable, mining companies wash and dry the frac sand to rid it of all possible impurities. Rotary dryers are the most proven and preferred method to dry frac sand. Dryers can be utilized at both the beginning and the end of the fracking process. Prior to its transportation to and use at a job site, frac sand must be dried and treated. Vulcan Drying Systems can supply a full range of equipment to dry, sort and move frac sand.Get in Touch with Mechanic