As one of the countries along with One Belt and One road, Malaysia is rich in tin, iron, gold, tungsten and other mine resources. Among these resources, the reserve of tin is at the second of the world. There is not enough mine equipment in Malaysia for current mineral processing demand, although with rich mine resources. Therefore, Malaysia is highly depending on import mine equipment and the mineral processing market is highly potential. China became the best choice of import mine equipment source for Malaysia depending on advantage geography position mature mine industry experience.
At the same time, CNMC Goldmine Holdings Limited (CNMC), as the top mine company in Malaysia, is looking for a strategy cooperation partner to provide professional mine technology consultant service and high-quality mineral processing equipment for them, depending on the experience and knowledge of mining producers, as well as the rich market resources and mine resources accumulated over the years. They need a partner who can help them extending the market of Malaysia mine industry.
The natural ore of this project includes pyrite, quartz, calcite, mica, etc. The raw ore has 4.70g/t gold, 4.63g/t silver, 20.10% iron, and 20.55% sulphur in it. Gold is available for recovery of valuable elements.
Wet energy-saving grid ball mill, wet energy-saving overflow ball mill, updated high-efficiency thickener, double-impeller leaching agitation tank, XPA high-lifting wear-resistance rubber slurry pump, filter press, XPA wear-resistance rubber slurry pump,etc.
The ore characteristic of this project is simple. After mineral processing experiment the process flow was determined as raw ore grinding to 85% -200 mesh, lime as protective alkali, and add sodium cyanide agitating and leaching. Under the consider that pulp concentration is 40%, lime is 7kg/t, and sodium cyanide is 4kg/t, leaching for 24 hours, the final leaching rate of gold is 93.40%.
Grinding stage uses two-block close circuit grinding and classification, grinding production flows to thickener after screening by dust screen. The underflow is pumped to leaching operation. Through leaching, absorption, carbon lifting, get gold carbon product. The gold carbon products are transported and dealt in gold desorption plant.
The design and research service of Malaysia CNMC gold processing plant project was responsible by the professional project group from Xinhai Mine Design and Research Institute. The professional project group finished the project experiment and design task in limited time, and defined the process flow and process index according to the ore samples from clients.
The installation and debugging staffs from first line of mine production participated in and managed the installation and commissioning of project equipment in the whole process, quickly solved the routine problems in the field civil engineering and installation work, and adjusted the construction scheme in real time. Xinhai Mining finished the installation and commission of CNMC project in high quality during limited time.
To ensure the successful operation and to reach predicted recovery rate as soon as possible, the technics of Xinhai Mining trained and instructed the workers in processing plant. So that the workers could be familiar with the operation of processing plant as soon as possible.
This is the first project under the cooperation between Xinhai Mining and CNMC. According to processing experiment through the sample ore from clients, the process flow and index was confirmed after the comparing gravity separation and all-sliming cyanidation technology.
During the construction design, the relevant aboveground part of the bunker, platform, design foundation, pool design was designed into steel structure as far as possible, so that in the mine site was very flexible assembly, not only reduced the civil work load and construction time, and reduced investment, but also easy to disassemble and move.
Since May 2017, when Xinhai Mining accepted Malaysia CNMC gold project, it put into production in only six months. The origin capacity is 600t/d, but the real capacity is up to 700t/d. The predicted gold recovery rate is 93%, while the real recovery rate is up to 95%, which received a good profit for this project.
Malaysia CNMC 700t/d gold project has successfully reached the standard and put into production in a short period of time, which not only fully reflects the excellent mineral processing technology strength and the overall service advantages of Xinhai technology and mineral processing EPC+M+O service, but also wins further recognition for Xinhai Mining. After the project was successfully put into production, Xinhai Mining and CNMC became stategy partners and once again joined hands with Malaysia 500tpd lead-zinc project, leading the development of dong mineral processing industry in Southeast Asia to a new peak. With the "One Belt And One Road" initiative, Xinhai Mining has successfully served many countries along the line, mineral processing EPC services all over the world, in the future, Xinhai Mining will also strive to create customized mineral processing EPC+M+O service for each customer.
As one of the leaders of mineral processing industry in the world, Xinhai firstly gained Class-A design qualification, and possessed mine design institute and beneficiation research institute to provide technical support for mineral processing service, aiming at customizing professional mineral processing process for each mine and help customers to maximize mineral processing benefit.
During more than 20 years, Xinhai has always been at the forefront of global ore concentration industry, and constantly devoted itself to the research and innovation of mineral processing technologies and equipment. After many years of study, we have independently produced a series of efficient and energy saving ore beneficiation equipment, which helped our global customers finish mineral processing EPC projects one by one.
Xinhai mineral processing EPC service includes "mine design and research - complete equipment manufacturing and procurement - commissioning and delivery" three parts. Xinhai devotes itself to providing modern, efficient, energy-saving mine construction and solution and creating a world-class mining enterprises for you.
Guidance of plant construction and equipment installation, achievement of equipment commissioning, training of plant staff providing of spare parts, plant consumables, equipment repair and maintenance, etc.
We are focusing on millions of customized mineral processing production lines and equipment, and have successfully built mineral processing EPC project one after another. This is not only the affirmation and recognition of Xinhai, but also the strongest indicator of their confidence in Xinhai's technology. Today, Xinhai has developed to a credit brand in the global mineral processing industry.
Xinhai has successively obtained more than 112 patents, Class-A design qualification, and has firstly passed EU international quality certification, ISO9001:2008 product quality management system certification.
Xinhais business is around the world. Our products have exported to more than 90 countries and regions in Southeast Asia, South America, Africa, Europe and Asia, and Xinhai also has established multi-overseas offices all over the world.
SOUTH COTABATO, Philippines A court in the Philippines has dealt another setback to the company looking to mine Southeast Asias largest untapped deposits of copper and gold, ruling to uphold a ban on the type of destructive mining being proposed.
In its Oct. 12 ruling, the court in South Cotabato province dismissed a petition for an injunction against the ban on open-pit mining that has been in effect in the province for the past 10 years. Sagittarius Mines, Inc. (SMI), the developer of the planned mine in the South Cotabato town of Tampakan, was not a petitioner in the case.
The ruling comes two months after councilors in Tampakan, where the deposits are located, terminated the towns municipal principal agreement (MPA) with SMI.The agreement, governing the development of the proposed mine, laid out the rental rates for the land under the Indigenous Blaan communities, among the companys other financial and social obligations.
In its Aug. 10 resolution, the municipal council announced it was no longer interested in reviewing or updating the 2009 MPA with the company, but was still open to creating or formulating a new agreement, which meant SMI could still pursue the $5.9 billion Tampakan project under a new municipal agreement.
But the recent court ruling makes that prospect less likely. It comes in response to a petition lodged in January 2019 by pro-mining groups seeking to rescind the ban on open-pit mining thats been enshrined in South Cotabatos environmental code since 2010. SMI had acknowledged before the ban was imposed that the most viable way to get at the copper and gold reserves in Tampakan would be through open-pit mining. Despite being awarded its permit in 1995, the company but has never begun operations.
The dismissed petition was filed by the original Tampakan concession holders from the 1980s, SouthCot Mining Corp. and Tampakan Mining Corp., along with the government-recognized Indigenous cultural communities of Bongmal, Danlag and Fulo Bato. The latter are not necessarily the formal leadership structures as recognized by the Indigenous communities. Another petitioner is Kiblawan CADT-26, the titled holder of a certificate of ancestral domain for part of the land that the project would occupy.
The Tampakan project has the potential to yield an average of 375,000 tons of copper and 360,000 ounces of gold in concentrate per annum over the proposed 17-year life of the mine. The site straddles the provinces of South Cotabato, where the bulk of deposits lie, and Sultan Kudarat and Davao del Sur, all on the southern island of Mindanao.
In the South Cotabato courts 31-page ruling, a copy of which Mongabay obtained on Oct. 16, Judge Vicente Pea ruled that the provincial ban on open-pit mining is not invalid, as the petitioners had argued, and is in fact consistent with higher laws and regulations, including the Philippine Constitution. He added its also in line with a 2017 order from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Banning the Open-pit Method of Mining for Copper, Gold, Silver and Complex Ores in the Country.
In Central America, Costa Rica and El Salvador have imposed restrictions on future mining in their territories, with the former imposing a nationwide ban on open-pit gold mining while the latter was the first country to impose a blanket ban on all forms of metal mining, Pea wrote.
The history of mining in the Philippines shows that most, if not all, open pits have ended up as perpetual liabilities, causing adverse impacts to the environment, the judge added, particularly due to the generation of acidic and/or heavy metal-laden water, erosion of mine waste dumps and/or vulnerability of tailings dams to geological hazards.
He also chided the petitioners for failing to submit certified copies of documents and other exhibits during the hearing. In his final ruling, he denied the petitioners bid for an injunction against the ban.
The decision comes days after the revival of the Tampakan Forum, a coalition of various organizations, including the local diocese of the Catholic Church, that are staunchly opposed to the mining project. Bishop Cirilo Casicas, who heads the Diocese of Marbel, said the coalition has been revived to ignite a systematic and sustained opposition to the project.
SMI has not issued a response to the court ruling or the revival of the Tampakan Forum. It also didnt respond to the termination of its MPA by the Tampakan municipal council. Bae Dalena Samling, chieftain of the Danlag tribal council, which supports SMIs venture, said they were perplexed to learn that the court had rejected their petition.
The decision comes at a propitious time when our natural resources need the most protection, when the natural environment is threatened by human actions, he said, adding that the ruling coincides with the Catholic ChurchsSeason of Creation, in which Pope Francis has called on the faithful the world over to pray and care for nature.
Maya Quirino,advocacy coordinator of the Legal Rights and Natural Resources CenterFriends of the Earth Philippines, said the ruling is heartening and gives courage to other local governments to follow suit.
Also welcoming the decision is the Philippine Misereor Partnership, Inc. (PMPI), a network of some 250 civil society organizations advocating for the protection of peoples rights, especially in small communities, and the rights of nature.PMPI said in a statement that South Cotabatos ban on open-pit mining has for many years protected the community from being fully plundered by SMI.
It added, this victory will help efforts to save Mindanao biodiversity of both land and water resources, the very source of life and culture for the Blaan ethnic tribe, Muslims and Christians, and the source of livelihood for South Cotabato farmers and fishers.
A risk-mapping assessment by the Jesuit Institute of Environmental Science for Social Change (ESSC) and World Resources Institute (WRI) found that the Tampakan project site belongs to an area of high ecological values, high groundwater vulnerability, medium-high vulnerability to watershed stress, medium social vulnerability, and high seismic risk.
It said the mining project, which would cover around 10,000 hectares (24,700 acres),will remove topsoil and destroy wildlife in an area with high unique biodiversity, with over 1,000 floral species and 280 recorded fauna species, of which 30% are endemic to the Philippines, and over 50 species are already under threat of extinction. Theexcavation itself will break into, disrupt, de-water and degrade the aquifer in the area.
Chinas industrialisation transformed global markets for mineral commodities. As growth in China slows and becomes less material intensive, the question arises whether countries of South and Southeast Asia can take up the baton from China and give a further boost to global mineral demand. The economic prospects of South and Southeast Asia are undoubtedly promising, helped by growing populations and a fast-expanding middle class. However, the model of growth being embraced by these countries is different from that of China and likely to be less material intensive. Also, many of them are economically coming off a very low base. With respect to the supply of minerals to the region, the impact of Indias growth on global mineral markets will be limited by the fact that many of Indias mineral needs can be met from domestic sources. In Southeast Asia, some of the mineral requirements will be met from domestic resources while some of its requirements for finished metals will likely continue to be met from China which is a heavy investor in the region and which has massive surplus metallurgical capacity.
Asia has reshaped the global demand for minerals over the past 20years and is set to play a big part in shaping it over the next 20. International forecasting agencies suggest that economic growth and growth per head of population will be faster in Asia than in any other region. The population across South and Southeast Asia is also projected to grow strongly, while the middle classes of Asia should more than double over the period, contributing significant spending power. So understanding what is happening here is of crucial importance to the global mining industry.
Up until now, the narrative of Asias mineral demand growth has been wholly dominated by China. Driven by rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, Chinas demand for minerals soared, helping to trigger the largest commodity price boom of recent times. In the mid-1990s, China accounted for some 1015% of global mineral demand. Twenty years later, it accounted for 50%, a position of dominance unmatched since the US domination of global mineral markets in the years immediately following World War II.
Given this degree of dominance, what happens in China clearly remains extraordinarily important to the performance of metal and mineral markets. However, since 2010, Chinas economic growth rate has been slowing and government policies have been increasingly focused on trying to promote growth in domestic consumption and in services, which are, by their nature, less material intensive than exports and investment, the drivers of Chinas earlier growth. This is potentially a problem for suppliers of mineral raw materials.
Alongside closely monitoring Chinas economy, industry observers have begun to ask the question, what happens next? As demand from China slows, who will pick up the baton and drive things forward? Which countries should we be looking at if we are seeking to forecast future demand for minerals? In short, who, or where, is the next China?
India is the country most frequently mentioned in this context. It has a population very similar in size to China but an income per head (in PPP terms) almost 60% lowerUS$6616 vs US$15,399 in 2016 (IMF 2017)so it has a lot of headroom for growth. The other countries of the India sub-continent, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, represent a further 377 million people (Table 1). Also of growing interest economically are the countries of Southeast Asia, specifically the ten member countries of Asean (the Association of Southeast Asian Nations). Although the Asean countries are highly varied in terms of their income per headranging from rich Singapore to the very much poorer Cambodiacollectively they constitute another 638 million persons. In total, therefore, in South and Southeast Asia, one is looking at a region with a population of over 2.3 billion, almost a billion more than the population of China.
From the perspective of economic performance, as important as the size of a population is the composition of that population. One aspect of this is the populations age structure and the proportion of the population available to the labour force. Through much of South and Southeast Asia, and in contrast to China, populations are young and the proportion of the population accounted for by working-age people is rising. More than half of Aseans population is under the age of 30 (Asean Secretariat 2017). This is a hugely positive indicator for future economic growth.
Another aspect is the growth in the proportion of the population deemed middle class. The definition of what constitutes middle class varies, but generally it covers those having a daily income in the range US$10US$100 a day (Yueh 2016). It is typically the case that as incomes rise above a certain point then consumers are relieved of having to devote their entire income to buying essentials with the result that a disproportionate amount of any income above this level is spent on consumer durables. Historically, this has proven highly supportive of mineral demand.
The last point, and it is an important one, is that a number of countries in South and Southeast Asia have in recent years elected, or else acquired by other means, business-friendly governments which have set themselves the objective of using their competitive labour forces as a platform for boosting the living standards of their peoples through the encouragement of enterprise and the flow of inward investment. The economic potential of this region and the possibilities offered by regional integration to boost this potential still further currently constitutes the most compelling growth story in the world.
For much of the last 20years, growth in the Indian economy has lagged behind that of China. However, this is changing. Since 2015, GDP growth in India has begun to push ahead of that in China and projections by international agencies such as the IMF show the gap between growth rates in the two countries widening (in Indias favour) in coming years (Fig.1).
The reasons behind this are several fold. A key driver of GDP growth is population, and Indias population growth is significantly outstripping Chinas. Indias population is currently growing at 1.3% a year against Chinas 0.4%. According to the UN Population Division, Indias population will overtake Chinas in 2022 (UN 2017). Even more importantly from an economic perspective, the same data source shows the proportion of Indias population of working age rising until the 2030s while Chinas, largely because of its one child policy, started to decline in 2015.
A second factor is simply that India is coming off a much lower base than China. One of the key factors driving growth in emerging economies is their capacity to rapidly increase productivity by importing technologies and work practices from elsewhere, in other words, to exploit the opportunities of economic catch-up. As the gap with technologies and work practices employed elsewhere diminishes, and as local wage costs rise, so rapid productivity growth becomes harder to sustain. China is facing this reality now. India has a long way to go before this becomes a problem.
The other factor, already alluded to above, is the prospective growth in the middle class. Growth in Indias income per head in coming years is expected to dramatically expand its middle class, and, with it, the countrys demand for improved residential properties and consumer durables. This is not just significant at a national level, it has global significance too. Research by The Brookings Institution indicates that between 2015 and 2030, the global middle class will grow from 3 million to 5.4million. Much the biggest contributor to this growth will be Asia with an increase of 2.1 million. Within that Asian number, the biggest increase will come from India. By 2030, India will have a middle class similar in size numerically to that in China. In terms of consumer spending power (PPP based), it is estimated that Indias middle classes will account for 17% of the global total, and will be second only to China, at 22% (Kharas 2017).
The difference between Chinas and Indias use of minerals is far greater than can be accounted for by the relative sizes of their GDP. While Indias GDP is currently 40% that of China, its use of minerals is only 510% that of Chinas, at least for industrial metals (Fig.2). Gold is a bit different as discussed below.
The simple fact is that Chinas recent growth has been unusually material intensive, and that, by comparison with most other countries, India included, it uses far more mineral raw materials per unit of economic growth. Figure 3 shows how much more metal China uses in generating a million dollars of GDP than India. For example, China uses eight times as much aluminium to generate a million dollars of GDP than does India.
It has long been understood that the stage of a countrys development has important implications for its use of mineral raw materials (Malenbaum 1978). As an economy moves from an agricultural to an industrial basis, its use of materials accelerates rapidly, with rates of materials use typically outstrippingsometimes substantiallythe rate of growth in the economy as a whole. As an economy matures, and development becomes more focused on service sector activities, so the material intensity of economic growth diminishes. The stylised version of this process shows mineral raw material use of a country progressing in an elongated S-shaped fashion.
In practice, there is significant variation between countries in how this model applies (Crowson 2017). Small industrialised export-oriented countries like South Korea and Taiwan show unusually high levels of material use, while countries whose competitive advantages lie in producing raw materials rather than manufacturing, like Australia and Canada, follow a flatter path. Although a continental-scale economy, Chinas use of mineral raw materials has, up to now, followed a path surprisingly close to that of its smaller Asian neighbours.
Part of the explanation for this is structural. Chinas growth has over the past 20years given emphasis to exports of manufactured goods and to the infrastructure and plant necessary to support the growth of these exports. It has thus had to build not just the factories to make manufactured goods and to supply them with raw materials, but has had to build the roads, railways, ports, airports, power stations and power networks to supply those factories and carry their goods away, as well as building accommodation and services for the many millions of people flowing from the countryside to the cities to work in the factories.
The effects of this can be seen in the composition of Chinas economy. Although the service sector in China has latterly been growing fast, 40% of its GDP is still accounted for by industry. In India, the share is just under 30%. Indias agricultural and service sectors are commensurately larger (at 17 and 54% of GDP respectively). While in China exports are equivalent to 19% of GDP, in India the proportion is only 12%. Indias economy is thus more domestically driven (World Bank 2017).
Levels of investment are another point of difference between the two countries. Looking at GDP from the perspective of expenditure, it is clear that investment in Chinas economy represents a much higher proportion of GDP than is the case in India. Since 2003, Chinas investment as a share of GDP has averaged 44%, at the peak of the boom rising to 48%. In India, investment as a proportion of GDP has averaged 35%, a figure more in line with the average of other emerging economies in Asia, but well below China (Fig.4). In short, India has pursued a rather different, and significantly less mineral intensive, form of growth than China.
While it is likely that Indias economic growth will continue to contribute to growth in future global mineral demand, the chances of it following the pattern of mineral use in China are slim. The focus of growth is likely to continue to be on the domestic economy. Private consumption accounts for almost 60% of Indias GDP against less than 40% in China. As a democracy, it is less practical for India to prioritise export growth over domestic demand and then salt away the gains from this in foreign exchange reserves under the control of the state as occurred in China. Growth has to be more socially inclusive. It is also likely that India will continue to give emphasis in its growth to agriculture and to service sector activity, the former for political reasons, the latter because this is an area where India has been highly successful in establishing global competitive advantage, helped by the less burdensome regulation of the service sector compared with manufacturing and by the widespread use of the English language in the country. India, in short, is unlikely to follow the same pattern of industrialisation as China (Nageswaran and Natarajan 2016).
Another point of difference is that India does not have Chinas capacity for top-down, central economic direction. Availability of financial resources along with the need to maintain a fragile political consensus restricts the ability of the government in India to promote centrally directed investment-led growth. Its economically more liberal model requires a more demand-led approach, one that gives primary emphasis to encouraging the bottom-up growth of private, often family, businesses, and domestic consumer demand. The ability of the government to direct the economy centrally is also restricted by the fact that states in India have very significant economic discretion (Anand 2013). Thus, while it may be true that India desperately needs massive investment in infrastructureand the government has many initiatives to promote such investment, including a US$60 billion commitment to infrastructure in the February 2017 budgetthe complexities of government in India and the reality that such infrastructure building tends to come in response to demonstrated economic need rather than anticipated future requirements (as is often the case in China) makes it unlikely that India will emulate Chinas sky-high levels of investment.
A particular area of promise for mineral demand in India follows directly from the rapid growth in its middle class. Given its different social-economic structure, Indian citizens are likely to be able to retain a higher proportion of national income for personal expenditure than has typically been the case in China. And, as noted above, as incomes rise, so discretionary spending on consumer and luxury goods increases at a proportionately faster rate.
One commodity where India is already a major global consumer is gold. Although it varies year to year which country is the largest consumer of gold, between them India and China account for around half the worlds demand for gold for fabrication. For cultural and economic reasons, India has long been one of the worlds biggest buyers of gold. Indians like gold as a store of value but also for gift-giving and as an adornment. As Indias middle class grows and disposable incomes rise, so there is potential for this market to grow significantly furtheror so the World Gold Council believes at least (WGC 2017).
To assess the likely impact of Indias economic growth on global mineral markets, it is necessary to consider Indias resource endowment and how much of its growing demand for minerals it is likely to be able to supply from domestic sources.
Part of Chinas impact on global mineral markets arose from the fact that for certain key minerals necessary for its industrialisation, Chinas domestic mineral resources are somewhat limited, requiring it to turn to international markets for supplies. Thus, for commodities such as iron ore, bauxite, copper and nickel, Chinas demand has had a dramatic effect on global markets and on mine producers in other parts of the world.
India can generally be considered a mineral-rich country, although, as with China, it inevitably has some gaps in its endowment. Given the relatively low levels of its mineral use in the past, it has not on the whole needed to rely too heavily on imported supplies (Table 2). It has also traditionally been somewhat protectionist in its thinking, preferring self-sufficiency where it could be achieved, and history offers several instances where India has discouraged exports of minerals for fear of running down its domestic resources and also of encouraging the use of minerals which occur locally over those which have to be imported.
India is reasonably well endowed with iron ore, having 6% of the worlds iron ore reserves by iron content according to the US Geological Survey (USGS 2017). For years, the government has restricted the export of Indias better-quality ores (notably those from Bailadila) on the grounds that they are, or will be, required for domestic steel production. In more recent years, Indias exports of lower-quality iron ore rose rapidlyfrom 31 million tonnes in 1999 to 101 million tonnes in 2008 (WSA 2016)to meet Chinas burgeoning demand for imported ore before falling away sharply as the government intervened to constrain these exports, this on the grounds that a lot of the trade was being conducted by unregulated and environmentally destructive operators.
India is significantly less well-endowed with copper resources. Historically, this led the country to discourage the use and import of the metal, and to encourage instead the use of aluminium, where India was better endowed. With copper such a critical metal in so many modern electrical and electronic applications, this was clearly sub-optimal economically and in recent years India has relaxed its attitude to copper imports. India, like China, has become a major importer of copper concentrates for processing in its domestic smelters and refineries. The Indian mining company, Vedanta, has also sought to bolster the countrys access to copper by investing in copper overseas, most notably in the Konkola copper mining and smelting operations in Zambia.
Amongst other metallic minerals, India has substantial resources of bauxite. Based on these, it has long had an aluminium industry and the country is typically a net exporter of aluminium. A broadly similar situation exists for lead and zinc where India is a world-class producer and where domestic mine and metal production are usually (albeit not in 2016) sufficient to meet domestic market requirements.
For other commodities, India is less well endowed. India is not a major producer of nickel, and most of the nickel required for its large stainless steel industry has to be imported in the form of refined nickel or ferronickel. India is almost wholly reliant on imports for its substantial requirement for gold and platinum group metals, but it has a modest production of silver. For coal, the situation is a bit more complex. While India has substantial domestic resources of thermal coal, some of this coal is of poor quality and needs to be blended with higher-quality coal from elsewhere, so the country is typically a net importer. For coking coal, used in its steel industry, India has limited local resources and is a significant importer.
The impact of Indias growing demand for mineral products on global mineral markets is thus likely to be mixed amongst commodities, with the biggest impacts likely to be felt in the markets for copper, nickel, precious metals and coking coal.
As a large and diverse region, Southeast Asia is rather harder to generalise about than India with respect to its mineral requirements and mineral endowment. The region includes large resource-rich countries like Indonesia and the Philippines, resource-poor but otherwise rich city states like Singapore and countries in the early stages of their economic development like Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos. There are also significant differences in the politics of the countries, some being democratic, some avowedly communist and some authoritarian.
The economic outlook for the region is considered, however, to be prospectively very promising as noted earlier. Along with India, the IMF sees the Asean 5 (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) as the fastest-growing region in the world over the period to 2022. The other Asean countries, those often referred to as the CLMV countries (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam), are, however, forecast to grow even faster (Table 3) (Note that the tenth member of Asean, Brunei, has been excluded from this analysis.). The potential of the Asean region is considered massive.
CLMV countries have an aggregate population of 170 million and, with wages significantly below those in China, have begun to draw manufacturing industry away from the China mainland. Moreover, whatever the ostensible differences in their politics, most governments in the region are keen to present themselves as business-friendly and supportive of industry and enterprise. Exports from the region are growing strongly. According to the Asean Secretariat, total trade in the region increased by US$700 billion between 2007 and 2015 with intra-Asean trade comprising the largest share of total Asean trade (Asean Secretariat 2017). As these data imply, this is also a story about regional economic integration.
While the USA has shown its disinterest in further deepening its trade relationships in the region with its withdrawal from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), this is likely simply to create a bigger opportunity for other countries, including China, to step up their role as trade leaders in the region. Quite separate from the TPP, there is currently an Asean-led discussion on multilateral trade liberalisation, entitled Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), taking place across the wider region. Unlike the TPP, this initiative includes China. Asean has also been seeking to promote integration within the Asean region through initiatives of the Asean Economic Community (AEC). These include a package of measure entitled AEC Blueprint 2025, adopted by the Asean leaders at their summit in Kuala Lumpur in November 2015.
Investment is the key to sustaining the regions growth outlook. The Asian Development Bank says Southeast Asia needs to spend US$210 billion a year to 2030 (5.7% of GDP) on infrastructure (defined as transport, power, telecommunications, water supply and sanitation) if it is to maintain its growth, tackle poverty and deal with the effects of climate change (ADB 2017). Fortunately, levels of public debt across Asean are low by international standards (the average across the region is 39% of GDP), leaving central and local government free to borrow to invest in much-needed infrastructure without unduly squeezing out private investment. Some of the targets for infrastructure building are ambitious. The Indonesian government is committed to a large programme of infrastructure building, with plans over 3years (starting 2016) to build 35,000MW of electricity generating capacity, 2850km of new roads and 3200km of railways, together with new seaports and airports. The Philippines in 2016 increased infrastructure spending to the high level of 5% of GDP. In Thailand, it is claimed that some US$51 billion of infrastructure projects will be underway before 2018. By 2020, Malaysia will have invested another US$44 billion in upgrading transport links and inbuilding new roads and railways.
The situation with respect to foreign direct investment (FDI) is equally positive. North Asia, which is to say, China, Japan and South Korea, enjoys a surfeit of capital, and significant amounts of this capital are being directed towards the capital-poor but labour-rich countries in the south of Asia where returns on capital are prospectively greater and markets are seen as having substantial potential for growth. Between 2012 and 2015, around US$120 billion a year of net FDI flowed into Asean, of which 40% was accounted for by investment coming from countries of North Asia (Asean Secretariat 2017). Major recipients of this FDI in 2015 were, according to UNCTAD, Singapore (US$65bn), Indonesia (US$16bn), Malaysia (US$11bn), Thailand (US$11bn) and Vietnam (US$12bn) (UNCTAD 2016). Some of these investments are of a sizeable scale. Vietnam in April 2017 acquired its second billion dollar investment, the Japanese-backed LotB-O Mon gas pipeline project in Kien Giang province. The first was Samsung Displays investment in Bac Ninh province (VietNamNet 2017).
A large boost to the cause of regional economic integration and to regional growth is expected to be provided by Chinas one belt, one road (OBOR) initiative, launched in 2013. This comprises a massive infrastructure programme to connect China with Europe overland through central Asia and to connect Chinas maritime routes to east Africa and the Middle East through to the Mediterranean. While the project is touted as an opportunity to use Chinas own development experience to leverage development in adjacent economies, it is obviously also an opportunity for Chinese businesses to draw benefit from the lower labour costs in Southeast Asia, to create new markets for its own goods and services and for the country to project its political and military influence in Asia.
The scale of OBOR is significant. As of mid-2017, some US$900 billion worth of FDI infrastructure projects were in construction or in detailed planning under the OBOR programme according to the China Development Bank. In 2015, a record year for China outward FDI, with a total FDI spend of US$146 billion, investment in OBOR countries showed a 39% increase on 2014 (Xinhua 2016). The effect of this expenditure should be to knit large tracts of Asia together economically and also to provide access to markets further west. The maritime road passes through the South China Sea and up into the Bay of Bengal, and incorporates two the OBORs six development corridors, the China-Indochina Peninsula Corridor and the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Corridor.
The countries of Southeast Asia are generally embracing the opportunity which the OBOR programme creates. In view of its geographic location, greater economic maturity and its large ethnic Chinese minority, Thailand has been busy positioning itself as the hub of CLMV trade and investment and as the gateway to Chinas development road (Theparat 2017). On the Indian sub-continent, Pakistans response has also been positive with the leadership of Pakistans mineral-rich Baluchistan province welcoming OBOR as an opportunity to have China assist with the opening up of its undeveloped mineral resources (Yousufzai and Jorgic 2017). India, unsurprisingly, is much less comfortable with Chinas political growing influence throughout the region.
The rate of future growth in Southeast Asia will be key to determining its mineral raw material requirements as will the composition of that growth. Clearly, the large amount of money being committed to investment in infrastructure will be a driver of mineral demand, as will growth in the regions manufacturing industries and the development of its real estate market.
For the present, the region is a relatively modest user of mineral commodities, its combined consumption of steel and aluminium, for example, being similar to that in India (at 5 and 3% of global demand respectively). However, as in India, demand is on a rising trend (Fig.5). Growth in the regional use of steel has averaged 7.5% a year in the last decade while growth in the use of aluminium has averaged 4.5%. Copper growth has been slower (1.5%). This may be because of differences in end uses (steel and aluminium are more heavily employed in construction) or because copper imports to the region have been entering in the form of copper semi-manufactures as opposed to unwrought refined metal. The major consumers of these products within the region are, roughly in order of scale, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam. Clearly there is some way to go before demand in Asean will be able to exercise a major impact on global markets. But there is no doubting the economic vibrancy of the region or its potential.
Indonesia is a major producer and exporter of mineral commodities. In addition to being one of the worlds largest producers of coal, Indonesia is a significant producer of copper, nickel, gold, tin and bauxite. The decision of the Indonesian government to ban the export of unprocessed minerals in 2014 unsurprisingly frightened off many foreign investors, but Chinese companies took the opportunity to increase their investment in the local production of nickel, aluminium and electrical power. Mining elsewhere in the Asean region is generally on a smaller scale, although there is mine production in the Philippines (notably copper, nickel and gold), Malaysia (tin and bauxite), Vietnam (coal, bauxite, copper and tin), Myanmar (tin and copper), Laos (copper and nickel) and Thailand (zinc and tin).
In the northern part of Asean, which is to say in the CLMV countries, although there may well be scope for increased mine production, the emerging economic model appears to be more focused on manufacturing activity and in keying this manufacturing into the supply chains of the more northerly parts of Asia. For which reason, it may well follow the development pattern of the countries of North Asia and import the greater part of its raw material requirements.
Of some interest in this regard is what is happening with steel. With the demand for steel in the Asean countries rising at 7.5% a year over the past decade, it might be expected that production of steel in the region would have grown commensurately. However, it has not; it has grown scarcely at all. Asean steel production is around 20 million tonnes a year against a consumption of 70 million tonnes a year.
In fact, the greater part of Aseans demand for steel is being met by imports from China (Fig.6). Of the 50 million tonnes which the region was required to import in 2016, 40 million tonnes was sourced from China, the biggest importers being Vietnam (11.7 million tonnes), Philippines (6.5 million tonnes), Thailand (6.2 million tonnes) and Indonesia (5.8 million tonnes). Collectively, Asean was Chinas largest export market for steel.
There is some logic to this. Steel-making benefits from economies of scale and building small high-cost steel plants to meet the relatively limited demand arising in local markets is not particularly attractive when Chinas low-cost, large-scale steel producers to the north have substantial overcapacity. It may be that for some time to come this will represent a pattern for other metals such as aluminium too, with China using its massive might in mineral raw material markets to furnish supplies to its low-wage neighbours in the south, particularly since some of these investors will be other Chinese companies.Footnote 1
This may represent the pattern for OBOR investment too. Given that most of the money for OBOR projects is coming from China and that a big role will be played by Chinese contractors in building out the infrastructure under the programme, it may be assumed that many of the mineral raw materials required for these investments will be sourced from China.
The development and economic integration of South and Southeast Asia is arguably the most interesting growth story in the world today. Although comprising countries highly disparate in their nature, and although obviously lacking the economic cohesion of China, collectively the region has simply enormous untapped economic potential. It will undoubtedly become a growing force in the global economy and take up part of the running in driving the global economy as Chinas domestic economy matures and slows.
However, it looks improbable that the growth of South and Southeast Asia will have the same impact on global mineral markets as China, at least not for many years to come. This is partly because, for the moment at least, the size of these economies is dwarfed by China and partly because of the lesser mineral intensity of these economies. The relative scale of demand for selected metals is vividly illustrated in Fig.7. While it certainly is the case that Asia is now the key regional market for minerals, with two thirds of total global demand, demand in South and Southeast Asia will have to travel a long way to represent a major offset to market developments in China and to achieve a number of years of the sort of double-digit demand growth that marked Chinas industrialisation.
In fact, Chinas model of raw material demand growth may not be wholly relevant to how mineral markets develop in South and Southeast Asia. It could be that the major mineral and metallurgical powerhouses in the region, certainly China, but perhaps India and Indonesia also, will use their resource endowments and scale to furnish many of the mineral raw materials that the other countries in the region will require for their industrialisation, removing the incentive for countries more focused on manufacturing to establish their own metallurgical and semi-fabricating industries. The competitive advantage of many of these economies, after all, lies more in low-wage manufacturing and services than in geologically dependent, energy-intensive, mineral production.
The switch in the focus of Chinese investment from the domestic arena towards FDI may not much change things either. This is partly because the scale of the outward investment, although unquestionably large, is nonetheless modest by comparison with the massive growth of Chinas domestic investment which drove the commodity boom in the 2000s (Robertson 2017). Moreover, much of the mineral consumption stimulated by the OBOR programme may report as increased consumption in China rather than in the countries where the investment is actually taking place, since it is likely that China will supply a lot of the raw materials for the investment.
In short, although the South and Southeast Asian region holds really positive implications for future mineral raw material markets, it may not be quite the next big thing that many in the mining industry might be hoping for. More than ever, it seems that Chinas extraordinary impact on mineral markets in the 2000s was a one-off event. There is no new China.
This said, Vietnams steel market has now grown to a size when it can support a large local steel producer and Formosa Plastics in 2017 started up a large (22 million tonnes a year) steel mill in central Ha Tinh province.
This article is dedicated to my dear friend Marian Radetzki whose relentless curiosity and infectious sense of fun have been a constant source of inspiration and enjoyment for me over 40 years in this intriguing business.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
The Malaysia 700t/d gold mineral processing plant was a symbol of Chine-Malaysia cooperation in the mining industry under the policy of The Belt and Road. The raw ore consisted of pyrite, quartz, calcite and mica, with gold being the valuable mineral. It had a gold grade of 4.70g/t, silver grade of 4.63g/t, iron grade of 20.10% and a sulfur grade of 20.55%.
Leaching tailings were dehydrated by filter press with water recycled and dry tailings stacked in the tailings pond.For civil engineering, steel structure was adopted for ore bins, platforms, foundations and water ponds as far as possible in order to achieve flexible assembly and removal on site, ease workload, shorten construction duration and cut costs.
The world's 20 largest copper mines produce nearly 9 million metric tons of the precious metal a year, about 40% of the world's total copper mine capacity. Chile and Peru, alone, account for more than half of the copper mines on this list. The U.S. makes the cut, as well, with two mines among the top 20.
Copper is expensive to mine and refine.The high costs of financing a major mine are reflected in the fact that many of the mines with the most production capacity are either state-owned or owned by major mining corporations like BHP and Freeport-McMoRan.
The list below is compiled from theInternational Copper Study Group'sWorld Copper Factbook 2019. Beside each mine's name is the country that it is located in and its annual production capacity in metric kilotons. Ametric ton is equal to about 2,200 pounds. A metric kiloton (kt) is 1,000 metric tons.
The Escondida copper mine in Chile's Atacama desert is jointly owned by BHP (57.5%), Rio Tinto Corp. (30%), and Japan Escondida (12.5%). In 2012, the massive Escondida mine accounted for 5% of total global copper mine production. Gold and silver are extracted as by-products from the ore.
Chile's second-largest copper mine, Collahuasi, is owned by a consortium of Anglo American (44%), Glencore (44%), Mitsui (8.4%), and JX Holdings (3.6%). Collahuasimine produces copper concentrate and cathodes as well asmolybdenum concentrate.
The Morenci mine in Arizona is the largest copper mine in North America. Operated by Freeport-McMoRan, the mine is jointly owned by the company (72%) and affiliates of the Sumitomo Corporation (28%). Morenci operations began in 1872, underground mining began in 1881, and open-pit mining began in 1937.
Cerro Verde copper mine, located 20 miles southwest of Arequipa in Peru, has been operational in its current form since 1976. Freeport-McMoRan, which holds a 54% interest, is the mine's operator. Other stakeholders include SMM Cerro Verde Netherlands, a subsidiary of Sumitomo Metal (21%), Compaia de Minas Buenaventura (19.58%), and public shareholders through the Lima Stock Exchange (5.86%).
The Antamina mine is located 170 miles north of Lima. Silver and zinc are also separated from the ore produced at Antamina. The mine is jointly owned by BHP (33.75%), Glencore (33.75%), Teck (22.5%), and Mitsubishi Corp. (10%).
The world's largest underground mine, El Teniente, is located in the Andes of central Chile. Owned and operated byChilean state copper minerCodelco, El Teniente has been mined since the 19th century.
Chile's state-owned Codelco owns and operates the Codelco Norte (or Chuquicamata)copper mine in northern Chile. One of the world's largest open-pit mines, Chuquicamata has been in operation since 1910, producing refined copper and molybdenum.
The largest copper mine in Africa, Kansanshi is owned and operated by Kansanshi Mining PLC, which is 80%owned by a First Quantum subsidiary. The remaining 20% is owned by a subsidiary of ZCCM. The mine is located approximately 6miles north of the town of Solwezi and 112milesto the northwest of the Copperbelt town of Chingola.
The Grasberg mine, located in the highlands of Indonesia's Papua province, boasts the world's largest gold reserve and second-largest copper reserve. The mine is operated by PT Freeport Indonesia Co., and the mine is a joint venture between regional and national government authorities in Indonesia (51.2%) and Freeport-McMoRan (48.8%).
Kamoto is an underground mine that was first opened by the state-owned company Gcamines in 1969. The mine was restarted under Katanga Mining LTD control in 2007. While Katanga owns the majority of the operation (75%), 86.33% of Katanga itself is owned by Glencore. The remaining 25% of the Kamoto mine is still owned by Gcamines.
TheBingham Canyon Mine, more commonly known asKennecott Copper Mine, is an open-pit mine southwest ofSalt Lake City. Kennecott is the sole owner and operator of this mine. The mine was started back in 1903. Operations continue through all hours of day and night, 365 days a year, but tourists can visit the mine to learn more and see the canyon in person.
Construction of the Sentinel copper mine began in 2012, and by 2016, commercial production was underway. The mine is 100% owned by First Quantum Minerals Ltd. The Candian company entered into Zambian mining in 2010, with the purchase of Kiwara PLC.
Olympic Dam, which is 100%owned by BHP,is a copper, gold, silver, and uranium mine. The dam operates both on the surface and underground, including more than 275 miles of underground roads and tunnels.
Since its establishment 20 years, Xinhai has been committed to the Research and development of extraction of gold, including gold extraction technology and equipment, after the constant study of Xinhai research technicians, Xinhai has formed a set of efficient, environmental, energy-saving and economic Xinhai CIL gold processing.
Process: Leaching Pulp Preparation Cyaniding Leaching and Carbon Adsorption Gold Loaded Carbon Desorption Pregnant Solution Electrodeposit Carbon Acid Regeneration Leaching Pulp
Add the gold ore slurry into 9 leaching agitation tanks, pour in cyanide solution in first 2 tanks, activate carbon in the following 7 tanks for the reverse-absorption process (the number of tanks depend on the capacity size).
In January 2015, Xinhai undertook Tanzania 1200tpd CIL gold processing plant of a mining company, the project adopted Xinhai gold CIL process, after construction design and installation, it has been put into production now, the recovery rate of gold production line reached expected goal, the final gold leaching rate was 91.5%, which brought large amount of economic benefits for clients and obtained high praise from clients.
In March 2015, Xinhai took charge of African Zimbabwe Huangzhi 700tpd CIL gold processing plant, the plant is mainly quartzite gold mine, most is oxidized ore or primary ore with low sulfur ore, so Xinhai chose gravity separation + all-sliming CIL process, which achieved efficient extraction of gold, save 15% cost. Equipment still operate smoothly after put into production one year, customer are very satisfied with this result.
Xinhai has make Class B design Qualification, set up mine design institute and mineral processing research institute, more than 200 professionals provide the technical support service for the extraction of gold, Since its establishment 20 years, Xinhai has been committed to the development and innovation of process and equipment used in the extraction of gold, and has formed the complete extraction of gold system. Xinhai concentrates on providing the Turnkey Solution for Mineral Processing Plant that is research and design- complete equipment manufacturing and procurement- commissioning and delivery, striving for building the international leading enterprise in the extraction of gold.
"Create a global brand, based on global gold markets " has been one of the strategic thought of Xinhai, depending on its professional gold processing service, Xinhai has got the EU certification, and ISO9001:2015quality management system certification, Xinhai is classified as the assured brand with advanced products and standard quality!
Xinhai currently has many patents technologies, the extraction of gold plants spread among China, Southeast Asia, South America, Africa, Russia, Mongolia, North Korea and other places, and Xinhai has established offices around the world.
Recently, Xinhai Mine Design Institute officially signed a feasibility study contract about a gold ore project with a mining company in Busia, Uganda. The gold ore project was located in the east of Kampala, Uganda with the whole plant covering 11.92 square kilometers. Because the deposit exploration was lower and the ore body was extending along the direction, this plant had good exploration potential. The research would be carried out strictly in accordance with Canadian NI43-101 standard and comply with the international standard for mining documentation. The feasibility study of this project will be completed in September 2017.
After communicating with the company, Xinhai Mine Design Institute set up the project management team in the first time and established feasibility study progress schedule & project rights and liabilities distribution system, refining the work content. Besides, Xinhai also assigned the work (geology, mining, beneficiation and economy included) to everyone, ensuring the effective project operation.
As the technical support of mineral EPC project, Xinhai Mine Design Institute has always followed the pace of overseas development strategy. The mine design business has spread over more than 30 countries in Southeast Asia, Africa, the Middle East, South America, and Eastern Europe. So far, Xinhai has completed more than 300 mining engineering designs in Indonesia, Burma, Pakistan, Mali, Sudan, Zimbabwe, Mongolia, Malaysia, Colombia, Nigeria, Uganda, Malaysia, Kyrgyzstan, Tanzania, Ecuador, Nicaragua, North Korea, Morocco, Vietnam, South Korea, Philippines, Cambodia, Peru, Guyana, Armenia, Ghana, Chile, Russia, Madagascar, Laos, Fiji and Alguinea.
Xinhai Mining Research & Design Co., Ltd is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shandong Xinhai Mining Technology & Equipment Inc. It is an integrated scientific and technological enterprise that includes engineering design in black, non-ferrous and gold mine, experimental research and mine consulting. What's more, it possesses A-Class design qualification on construction industry (architectural engineering) and metallurgical industry (metallurgical mine engineering).
The design department was equipped with 40 professional personnel who specialized in geology, mining, beneficiation, minerals, tailings, electricity, general drawing, budget, technology, construction, drainage, heating and ventilation. More than 85% researchers and the engineering technical personnel have the bachelor degree or above. By the division refining, global support and database optimizing, Xinhai promoted the technical level of technical engineers and formed strong technical supporting power.
Based on 20 years of mineral processing EPC service experience, Xinhai can offer customized design services according to customer's needs. Besides, Xinhai can adopt 3D interactive software to display the final effect picture, which improved customer's comprehensive experience.
Hainan province was very strict in approval of mining project, and this gold project was located in a forest reserve, which had high standards for environmental protection. Therefore, building a green mine became the important mission of Xinhai Mine Design Institute.
The mining site was equipped with slag discharge field, which avoided forest occupation and environment destroy. In the early stage, all of the rubble was transported to the ore processing system. Large particles of stone were sold as building materials, meeting the stone demand in Hainan construction market. Stone powder mixed with tailings, then both were used as other building materials. After a period of production, some waste stones and tailings can be filled in underground.
All tailings were sent to tailings dry stacking system, the tailings soil was sent to building material system, and the water entered into sewage treatment system. Adding a certain proportion of coagulant to stone power can be made into various building materials, such as baking-free brick, hollow brick, cement block, colored floor tiles, water permeable brick, road traffic stone (these products were a set of mechanical system, the customer just transform the different molds), which not only solved many problems, such as large area tailing pond, great investment, serious environmental influence, but also provided high-quality building materials for surrounding urban and rural construction and brought certain benefits for enterprise.
Xinhai Mine Design Institute divided the plant into different modules, including steel raw material bin and feeding machine module, crusher combination module, screening system combination module, belt conveyor module, steel silo and feeding machine module, ball mill module, separating system module, etc.
These modules were processed, assembled and debugged uniformly. After the debugging, the modules were apart then put into the container to the plant site for reassembling, which the completion of installation and debugging in the shortest time. Because all equipment was placed on the steel module, the construction project was finished fast and saved the investment. The module plant can guarantee the period of site construction, equipment installation and commissioning decreased by more than half.
The gold ore of this project contained arsenic, antimony, carbon, super-argillization, fine grain, which belonged to refractory ore. The flotation reagents needed various kinds and they woould interacted with each other. Moreover, some agents need sufficient reaction time. Finally, Xinhai Mine Design Institute strengthened the design of pulp and agitation tank, and adopted multi-section efficient agitation tank. After the design optimization, the recovery rate was up to 90%.
Xinhai Mining Research & Design Co., Ltd always takes innovation as the core concept of company, constantly focuses advantage resources, and enhances core competence, further contributions to engineering technology innovation and development.
What you need is what we can do! Xinhai not only offers high-quality equipment, perfect configuration, and reasonable technological process, but also provides the perfect service. We're looking forward to collaborating with you!
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Acting for the mandated lead arrangers and bookrunners on a USD2.85bn standby senior financing to fund the Indonesian governments acquistion (through its state-owned entity, PT Indonesian Asahan Aluminium (Persero) (Inalum)) of the majority stake in the Grasberg copper mine in the Papua province. The deal is a record corporate acquisition in Indonesia.
Advised the mandated lead arrangers and bookrunners on financing the acquisition by a wholly owned subsidiary of Indonesias top cement maker, the state-owned PT Semen Indonesia (Persero)Tbk (Semen Indonesia) of shares in PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk.The financing included: (i) a USD1.052m facility for the purpose of financing the acquisition of approx. 80.64% shares in PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk held by LafargeHolcim; and (ii) a USD253m facility for the purpose of financing the mandatory tender offer which Semen Indonesia is required to make under Indonesian law for the remaining shares in PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk.
Advised the mandated lead arrangers and bookrunners in relation to a USD450m syndicated financing to PT Titan Infra Energy, one of Indonesias fastest growing infrastructure, energy and logistics companies, with expertise stretching across the value china from energy resource production, hauling road, port to sea and river transportation, for the refinancing of existing mezzanine and working capital facilities and to complete certain corporate reorganisations within the group as part of a pre-IPO/bond issue clean-up process. The financing was highly secured and involved over 300 separate security documents, with numerous existing security pools (which had to be released and retaken in favour of the new lenders as part of the refinancing) and different types of security interests over a wide range of assets eg accounts, inventories, receivables, vessels, barges and land. The transaction also involved a complex cashflow model and bespoke security sharing mechanics in relation to future hedging and ancillary facilities to be granted to the borrower.
Advised Tokopedia, a leading Indonesian online marketplace and one of Indonesias four unicorns, on its USD1.1 bn Series H fundraising led by Softbank Vision Fund (SVF) and Alibaba Group, and various other strategic corporate matters.
Advised GO-JEK, one of Indonesias four unicorns, on its first series F funding round led by Google, JD.com and Tencent, as well as several other investors including Mitsubishi Corporation and Provident capital. As at the date of this transaction, GO-JEK is the largest provider of mobile on-demand and payment facilities in Southeast Asia.
Advised HSBC, Mandiri Securities, MUFG Securities, SCB Singapore Branch and Standard Chartered Bank as the arrangers and the dealers on the establishment by PT Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk of its USD2bn euro medium term note programme and the inaugural drawdown of USD750m 3.75%. notes due 2024 thereunder. This marked the first EMTN programme establishment by a quasi-sovereign Indonesian bank and the first time the bank has tapped the international bond markets since 2009.
Advised BNP Paribas, HSBC, Mandiri Securities and MUFG on PT Wijaya Karya (Persero) Tbks high yield Rule 144A/Reg S IDR5.4tn 7.70% senior notes due 2022. This is the second Komodo bond (Indonesia offshore Rupiah-denominated bond) issued.
Advised CIMB, Barclays and Citi as the joint lead managers together with SMBC Nikko Securities as the co-manager and Citicorp as the trustee on LLPL Capital Pte. Ltd.s debut 144A/Reg S high yield offering of USD775m 6.875% Guaranteed Secured Senior Notes due 2039, unconditionally and irrevocably guaranteed by PT Lestari Banten Energi, an Indonesian company. Banten 1 (an Independent Power Producer IPP), a subsidiary of Lestari Listrik, owns a supercritical, coal-fired steam power generation facility with pulverized boiler technology with an installed capacity of 670 MW (gross)/635 MW (net) located in Banten Province, Indonesia.
Advised FWD Group, the pan-Asian insurance business of Pacific Century Group, on its acquisition of PT Commonwealth Life, the Indonesian life insurer, from Commonwealth Bank of Australia and its local partners.
Advised JBIC, NEXI, ADB and the commercial lenders on the USD1.8bn 2x800MW Jawa 1 FSRU and gas-fired IPP project, the first LNG-to-Power project in Asia employing an FSRU. Awarded Project Finance Deal of the Year, IFLR Asia Awards 2019; Power Deal of the Year, PFI Awards 2018; and Asia Pacific Power Gas Deal of the Year, IJ Global Asia Pacific Awards 2018.
Advising PT Pembangkitan Jawa Bali on the proposed development of the 800MW Jawa 3 gas combined-cycle power plant, one of the first projects to be developed under the 51-49% collaboration scheme between PLNs subsidiaries and private developers.
Mitsui & Co Ltd. and Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. on the acquisition of a 30% stake in a subsidiary of the IDX-listed renewables energy producer PT Terregra Asia Energy Tbk. for the development of Batang Toru 3 10 MW Mini Hydro Power Project in South Tapanuli Regency, North Sumatera Province, and the drafting and negotiation of the EPC contract with an Indonesian state-owned contractor, PT Barata Indonesia (Persero).
Advised JBIC, ADB, 14 international banks and four Indonesian banks on the USD3.745bn financing of an expansion of LNG Train (Train 3) of Tangguh LNG Project in Papua Barat province, Indonesia, under a Trustee Borrower Scheme.
Advised the three largest Indonesian state-owned lenders Bank Mandiri, Bank Negara Indonesia and Bank Rakyat Indonesia, as senior lenders to an Indonesian consortium, on the acquisition financing of a majority interest (worth USD2.6bn) in Newmont Mining Corporations Indonesian copper and gold assets.
Advised the lenders on the IDR8.8 trillion (USD616.9m) financing of the Airport Link BIJB Kertajati Toll Road, arranged by PT Bank Central Asia Tbk., to PT Lintas Marga Sedaya. The financing was divided into two tranches. Tranche B is for financing the construction of a toll road between the Cipali Expressway and the Kertajati Airport in West Java, Indonesia under a 35-year PPP BOT-concession. Tranche A is to refinance the existing IDR8.8trn facility. The project is a key infrastructure link to the new Kerjati Airport.
Advised a consortium of international and local investors on the proposed 750 litre per second water project (tendered under the PPP framework with the first viability gap funding) in Bandar Lampung. This greenfield project is a PPP project tendered out by a regionally owned water company who will enter into a water concession agreement with the project. Advice includes structuring the project and reviewing the water concession agreement and risk matrix.
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If not, the calculus of its environmental jobs push that dirty old stuff like coal and copper mining can be replaced by new green infrastructure projects like building windmills (that hopefully dont freeze) might be a bit problematic.
In any event, its not particularly popular with a lot of local politicians looking at huge job losses, particularly after President Joe Biden pulled the plug on the Keystone XL pipeline on his first day in office.
On Monday, The Arizona Republic reported, the U.S. Forest Service withdrew a decision based on a final environmental impact statement issued in January that would have allowed a copper mine project near Superior, Arizona. The Resolution Copper Project involves a land swap involving more than 2,000 acres of land that several Native American tribes consider sacred.
The Forest Service, an agency of the Department of Agriculture, had already ruled the ground could be mined ethically and safely, but the Biden administration is looking to Keystone XL this shindig, apparently.
In a statement, the USDA said it had concluded that additional time is necessary to fully understand concerns raised by Tribes and the public and the projects impacts to these important resources and ensure the agencys compliance with federal law.
Arizona has a long history of responsible mining, showing that we can have a robust mining sector while protecting our environment and cultural history, Ducey said in a statement. My thanks to the USDA Forest Service for their partnership on a project that will benefit our mining industry, mining professionals, and entire state.
In the statement, the governors office said that the mine would ensure a reliable supply up to one billion pounds of copper annually and would create one of the largest copper mines in the United States.
The mine is projected to create about 1,450 jobs and pay about $149 million annually. The Draft EIS estimated that the total direct and indirect economic impacts to the state will total more than $1 billion per year, the statement read.
#BREAKING: The U.S. Forest Service has withdrawn an environmental review, temporarily halting the transfer of Apache sacred site Oak Flat to Australian mining company Resolution Copper. https://t.co/uQmictgMbz
I am extremely disappointed in the Administrations decision to cease progress on Arizonas Resolution Copper project, which is set to grow jobs and is estimated to create a direct and indirect economic impact of more than $1 billion to Arizonas economy every year, Ducey said in a Monday statement.
An effective and predictable regulatory environment is a critical factor in Arizonas booming economy. In Arizona, we follow what works. Undoing lengthy, comprehensive, and already-completed federal environmental studies on a whim with the changing of federal administrations doesnt work, the statement continued.
This type of activity threatens an untold number of major projects in Arizona and around the country. I am calling on the USDA to reissue these crucial documents in a timely manner and continue progress on this job-creating project.
Because the Resolution Copper Mine and Land Exchange Project was directed under the 2015 National Defense Authorization Act, long term protection of the site will likely require an act of Congress, the statement from the USDA read.
The wording there should give you pause. First, a quick primer: The land exchange which allowed the Resolution Project to proceed was included as a provision in the 2015 National Defense Authorization Act. Yes, it had nothing to do with defense authorization, but we live in a world where Democrats are trying to funnel money to a troubled, over-budget public transit project in the Bay Area as part of a COVID-19 relief bill, so this should surprise no one.
However, the USDAs statement says that long term protection of the site will likely require an act of Congress. Does this mean that an act of Congress to provide the long term protection the USDA suddenly feels is necessary is a prerequisite for the Resolution Copper Project going forward?
If so, this is tantamount to a cancelation; why would the Democrats who now control Congress even bother taking the issue up? Major copper mining initiatives are about as radioactive as Andrew Cuomo right now, no matter what the economic benefit might be. Even if its not, the USDA under the Biden administration could simply sit on the re-approval process indefinitely, essentially killing the project.
Oh, and this isnt a matter of opening up an unspoiled area to copper mining; The Arizona Republic noted that copper mining under Oak Flat had been going on for over a century. The Resolution Copper Project would use whats known as block cave mining, which can extract ore from up to 7,000 feet below ground level.
Resolution has stated that the block cave mining method is safe, environmentally sound and cost-effective, The Arizona Republic reported. But Resolution and the Forest Service have also said that Oak Flat would eventually sink, creating a crater nearly 2 miles in diameter and about 800 to 1,000 feet deep, according to the study mandated by the National Environmental Protection Act.
This is hardly earth-shattering stuff. Furthermore, the impact has already been studied for nigh on six years now. The reason the permits are being revoked is not because they were hastily given or the studies were incomplete. The difference is Democrat Joe Biden is in the White House now, and vocal activists now have the ear of the administration, which will likely either stall or insist the environmental or cultural impact is too great.
Meanwhile, the estimated $1 billion in direct and indirect economic impact to Arizona will disappear as well those nearly 1,500 jobs. Its yet another slap in the face after the estimated 11,000 jobs that were axed via the cancelation of the Keystone XL pipeline.
In this blog, well take a look at 24 of the most popular (and some of the coolest) fish for freshwater tanks. Well also go over a few specifics about keeping certain freshwater fish. Because as it turns out, not all fish get along with each other. Having a fish tank is a fun hobby and can actually become a bit of an obsession if you arent careful. When I got my first fish tank, all I could think about was getting it set up and all of the fish for my new freshwater fish tank. There are so many types of fish for freshwater tanksdifferent fish with different colors, temperaments, sizes, and other attributes. Lets take a look.
The hatchetfish, from the family Gasteropelecidae, was one of my first fish for my 10-gallon fish tank years back. I always thought he was an interesting looking fish and noticed how he liked to swim around the top of my tank. This worked out great because I also had a blue crayfish on the bottom of my tank that would have loved a snack.
These fish are from South and Central America. They can actually jump out of the water and catch insects. Hatchetfish also come in many cool colors such as black, silver, gray, and other brighter colors. They are pretty easy to keep and can be fed fish flakes. They usually get along with most fish in the tank but might have problems with other male hatchetfish.
Danios, from the family Cyprinidae, are very popular freshwater fish and a great addition to community fish tanks in most cases. These fish are from Eastern India. They like to swim near the surface and middle of the tank and are pretty hardy fish. Actually, their swimming near the surface and middle of the tank is the reason I got mine because I also had my crayfish.
Danios come in many different variations, such as the zebra danio, gold danio, blue danio, etc. Personally, Im a fan of the zebra. Another good pick for the beginnera great fish for freshwater tanks.
When it comes to feeding, these fish need lots of protein in their diets. Although some fish flakes will work, its best to include a mix of live food sources that come from worms, daphnia, bloodworms, brine shrimp, mosquito larvae, and other fish.
Ive kept mollies over the years in my fish tanks. Ive always thought there were very pretty fish. Plus, they can be another great addition to community fish tanks. Mollies are from the Poeciliidae family and come from North and South America. Their name is derived from the Greek word Poecilia, which means many-colored.
These fish come in vibrant colors of orange, red, black, and silver. Rasboras have a great temperament, are pleasant, and, therefore, great for community fish tanks. They do best in small schools (seven or more).
Barbs are a schooling fish and do best when kept in schools of 10 or more. When it comes to feeding, Tiger Barbs are omnivores. They are fine being fed fish flakes. Ideally, though, feeding these fish a combination of plant-based food and occasional live food works best.
The Rainbowfish is a beautiful freshwater fish from the Melanotaeniidae family. This fish is known for its iridescent coloration. And, because of this, the color of the Rainbowfish changes when viewed from different angles in the light. Pretty cool eh?
Because of their aggressiveness, they are known for fighting other fish in fish tanks. Also, these guys grow to be 14 to 18 inches and can get up to three pounds. So, getting a tank that is very large is imperative. By large, try 100+ gallons.
Note, these fish put out a great deal of waste. Because of this, if you plan on keeping an Oscar, you will needy a pretty sturdy filtration system for your tank. When it comes to tank mates, youll need to pair Oscars with other aggressive to moderately-aggressive fish.
Also known as the common pleco, the Plecostomus is from Northeastern South America and is a pretty cool fish for freshwater tanks. Its of the Loricariidae family. These catfish come in several different colors such as spotted, striped, different shades of brown, etc.
The Jack Dempsey is known for being pretty aggressive and doesnt do so well with many fish. However, there are still tank mates out there for the Jack Dempsey. Its best to keep these fish with other aggressive fish.
Red tail shark, or epalzeorhynchos bicolor, are originally from Thailand. However, these fish are completely extinct in that region. But, thanks to the aquarium trade, these fish are making a comeback.
These guys are omnivores from the Cyprinidae family. I currently have a rainbow shark in my tank (thats him in the pic). Rainbow sharks can be pretty territorial but when paired with the right types of fish, there shouldnt be any problems.
These fish are really fun to watch as they glide through the tank from one side to the other effortlessly. They are dark gray and orange in color and omnivores. They will do just fine feeding on algae tablets.
Rainbow sharks need about a 55-gallon tank to truly be comfortable. They grow to be roughly six inches long and can live for as long as 8 years. Note, never put this fish in a tank with another rainbow shark or a fish that looks similar.
The blue crayfish is another great addition to an aquarium, although these guys are not fish. Blue crayfish are of the family Cambaridae and are native to Florida. However, these crayfish are also found in the states of Tennessee, Kentucky, North Carolina, and others.
Blue crayfish have personalities of their own and are very interesting to watch. They like to burrow, build their own hideouts, and hunt. They are very hardy and pretty easy to keep. However, because of their aggressive nature, they cant just be kept with any fish. Heres a list of some good tankmates for blue crayfish.
Additionally, remember that these guys are semi-aggressive even though they arent so big. Pea puffers grow to be 1 inch and can live for up to 10 years. Thats a long time for such a small fish. For many, the pea puffer is a favorite fish for freshwater tanks.
This is a really cool fish with a unique and beautiful look all its own. The cory, from the callichthyidae family, and native to South America, also has a great temperament. This means its a good fish for most community tanks as long as the other fish also have good dispositions and arent aggressive. Id suggest tank mates such as tetras, danios, and mollies for the cory.
This fish can live off of flakes, sinking pellets, and bloodworms. But, its probably best to switch up their diet a bit. When it comes to fish tanks, ideally, Id say that a 20-gallon fish tank is going to work best, especially if you plan on keeping any other fish.
Unlike other types of crayfish, the red swamp crayfish, and the blue crayfish, the Mexican dwarf crayfish has a pretty good temperament. The Mexican dwarf crayfish, from the cambaridae family, is obviously native to Mexico.
The red Texas cichlid is an intergeneric hybrid. They are bred from green Texas male cichlids and female blood parrots. Female blood parrots are hybrids themselves. So they are not found in nature. But, of course, the green Texas male cichlid is found in northern lakes and rivers of Mexico and also in southern parts of Texas.
Red Texas cichlids are aggressive fish, very aggressive actually. So if you are going to keep them with other fish, youll want a bigger tank and youll also want to keep them with fish that are also aggressive. They can work well with fish like the large catfish, the Jack Dempsey, and Oscars.
Elephantnose fish are inhabitants of the Niger River. The elephantnose fish is obviously named for its long elephant-like trunk. This trunk is pretty interesting, too. Not only do they use it to eat with, but they also use their trunks to communicate and for self-defense.
Elephantnose fish have an electrical field that they use to detect what is going on in their surroundings. This works out well because this fish is known for liking muddy dark waters that are filled with plants and cover. These guys are also known for being active at nighttime. So a little help with direction and detection of surroundings is great for the elephantnose fish.
If you plan on keeping an elephantnose fish, just remember that these guys are also semi-aggressive. So you will need to be careful about what other fish you keep in the tank. Its also recommended that their fish tanks be no smaller than fifty gallons.
The discus can grow to be roughly five to six inches in length. So its recommended they be kept in about a 75-gallon fish tank. The tank can also be decorated with plants, driftwood, and even a couple of cool fish tank ornaments.
The discus is not only picky with its water, but also with its tank mates. Generally speaking, the discus is a peaceful fish. However, these guys can become a bit aggressive when mating. The discus can be kept with tank mates like clown loaches, dwarf cichlids, and cardinal tetras. Be sure not to keep the discus with fish that cant hold their own, though.
The blue alien hybrid betta or alien betta blue hybrid will make you do a double-take. Sometimes called the royal blue, blue aliens are a hybridization of different wild bettas and they are absolutely stunning.
The swordtail is a beautiful fish that comes in quite a few colors. Its a member of the Poeciliidae family and is found in North and Central America. These fish come in orange, black, striped, and then there is the hamburger swordtail. The hamburger swordtail is a hybrid.
Killifish are great for community tanks. For the most part, they are peaceful fish and can be kept in tanks with other smaller freshwater fish. There is one catch, though. Killifish can be a bit aggressive with other male killifish.
There is a large selection of fish for freshwater tanks out there to choose from. All types of beautiful fish with different dispositions, colors, and other attributes. But, before you buy any fish, its extremely important to plan out your tank out. You want to ensure that your fish will get along with each other. Also, you want to ensure your fish tank is big enough. And, if you are a beginner, make sure that you condition the water and cycle the tank before adding fish. This is critical if you want to have a successful fish tank.
If you are just getting started in the aquarist hobby, Id suggest starting off with a 20-gallon fish tank and a few hardy fish. Fish like danios, tetras, tiger barbs, and guppies would be great choices. As you progress in the hobby, youll learn more about fish and fish care and can decide if you want to turn things up a notch with some of these other exciting freshwater fish.
Crayfish Dude enjoys writing about crayfish, fish tanks, and other aspects of the aquarium world. When he's not writing, he can be found at the gym or searching for nerdy documentaries on Amazon Prime.Get in Touch with Mechanic