Coal gangue is an abandoned rock discharged during coal mining and processing. When mining coal, the rock layers or bottom plates from the roof of the coal seam, as well as the various types of rock excavated and blasted from around the coal seam during the excavation are all called coal gangue.
Coal gangue utilization is an important part of comprehensive utilization of resources. The utilization of coal gangue can increase the economic benefits of coal enterprises, improve coal mine production structure and environmental quality.
In China, the total installed capacity of generators of low calorific value fuel such as coal gangue reached 28 million kW, and the single unit capacity was from 6 to 300 MW. The annual utilization of coal gangue was 140 million tons, and the annual power generation was 160 billion kWh.
Since the 1970s, the US Bureau of Mines has sampled and analyzed all coal gangue hills and made comprehensive plans for coal gangue utilization. For example, the heat energy is directly recovered from the burning coal gangue mountain for both recovering the heat and controlling pollution.
Because coal gangue brick products have characteristics of lightweight, high strength, good load-bearing seismic performance, excellent thermal insulation, heat insulation and sound insulation, so it is a broad market.
Road construction and backfilling are also important ways for comprehensive utilization of coal gangue. The use of coal gangue as engineering packing materials do not require an increase in cost and need a large amount of use, which brings good economic efficiency to the coal mine.
There are three main types of coal gangue for chemical use: the first is to extract a rare element in coal gangue by various methods, such as Ga, Se, Ti, Co, etc. The second is to recover beneficial mineral products such as kaolin; the third is the production of silicon, aluminum, sulfur and other inorganic chemical products.
The use of coal gangue fertilizer is mainly based on the fact that coal gangue contains rich organic carbon, and the organic matter content in the soil can be greatly increased after being applied to the soil.
The roll crusher is mainly suitable for fine crushing operations with a feed size of less than 150 mm and a finished product size of 100 mesh to 2 mm. What are the advantages of the roll crusher in use?
Compared with the striking type crushing equipment, the biggest disadvantage of the roll crusher is that the "crushing ratio" is relatively small, the particle size of the product changes with the wear of the gap of the roller, and the crushing effect on the sheet-like material is poor.
Therefore, the most important thing about using the roll crusher is the method of stepwise crushing. When crushing coal gangue, it should go through three processes of "coarse-middle-fine crushing".
The surface of the roll crusher is easily worn to grooves and makes the gap between the rolls larger, thereby reducing the crushing effect. When the roller is new, the gap between the two rollers is the smallest, and the fineness of the crushing is the best.
Therefore, to obtain a good coal gangue crushing product, the work we have to do is to minimize the variation value from fine to coarse, and to control the crushing particle size within the allowable range to ensure the quality of the product.
When crushing coal gangue, to achieve the target particle size, three processes of "coarse-middle-fine crushing" are usually carried out. According to the previous configuration experience, we configure a detailed crushing production line for the 10t/h coal gangue:
Raw material warehouseGZD6502300 vibrating feederPE400600 jaw crusher2PG0640 roll crusher3YK1237 vibrating screenDMC64 dust collectorfinished silo (also several B500 conveyors of different lengths).
It can be seen from the above that when there are three specifications of the finished coal gangue, the jaw crusher can be used as the first crush, and the roll crusher is used for the medium and fine crushing.
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...Cone Crusher is widely used range, high efficiency crusher, cone crusher according to the scope of use, crushed into coarse, medium and fine crushing three pieces on the current situation of China crushed ore concentrator plant of view, broken equipment powered by the standard type cone crusher, crushing equipment uses a short head type cone crusher, has almost finalized. However, instead of using crushing equipment cone crusher, jaw crusher is to use. For proper selection and rational use of coarse crushing did not prepare, now they are briefly analyzed and compared as follows. Cone Crusher (compared with the jaw crusher) main advantages: 1, crushing chamber depth, continuous operation, high production capacity, low power consumption unit. Compared with the same width to the mine mouth jaw crusher, the production capacity is higher than the latter more than doubled, while electricity consumption per ton of ore is 0.5-1.2 times lower than the jaw; 2, work is relatively stable, vibration lighter, smaller basis weight of the machine equipment. Cone crusher weight basis, usually 2-3 times the weight of machinery and equipment, and basic weight jaw crusher machine was 5-10 times its own weight; quarry equipment http://www.quarry-equipment.com/ quarry plant...
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After crushing, grinding, magnetic separation, flotation, and gravity separation, etc., iron is gradually selected from the natural iron ore. The beneficiation process should be as efficient and simple as possible, such as the development of energy-saving equipment, and the best possible results with the most suitable process. In the iron ore beneficiation factory, the equipment investment, production cost, power consumption and steel consumption of crushing and grinding operations often account for the largest proportion. Therefore, the calculation and selection of crushing and grinding equipment and the quality of operation management are to a large extent determine the economic benefits of the beneficiation factory.
There are many types of iron ore, but mainly magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (Fe2O3) are used for iron production because magnetite and hematite have higher content of iron and easy to be upgraded to high grade for steel factories.
Due to the deformation of the geological properties, there would be some changes of the characteristics of the raw ore and sometimes magnetite, hematite, limonite as well as other types iron ore and veins are in symbiosis form. So mineralogy study on the forms, characteristics as well as liberation size are necessary before getting into the study of beneficiation technology.
1. Magnetite ore stage grinding-magnetic separation process The stage grinding-magnetic separation process mainly utilizes the characteristics of magnetite that can be enriched under coarse grinding conditions, and at the same time, it can discharge the characteristics of single gangue, reducing the amount of grinding in the next stage. In the process of continuous development and improvement, the process adopts high-efficiency magnetic separation equipment to achieve energy saving and consumption reduction. At present, almost all magnetic separation plants in China use a large-diameter (medium 1 050 mm, medium 1 200 mm, medium 1 500 mm, etc.) permanent magnet magnetic separator to carry out the stage tailing removing process after one stage grinding. The characteristic of permanent magnet large-diameter magnetic separator is that it can effectively separate 3~0mm or 6~0mm, or even 10-0mm coarse-grained magnetite ore, and the yield of removed tails is generally 30.00%~50.00%. The grade is below 8.00%, which creates good conditions for the magnetic separation plant to save energy and increase production.
2.Magnetic separation-fine screen process Gangue conjoined bodies such as magnetite and quartz can be enriched when the particle size and magnetic properties reach a certain range. However, it is easy to form a coarse concatenated mixture in the iron concentrate, which reduces the grade of the iron concentrate. This kind of concentrate is sieved by a fine sieve with corresponding sieve holes, and high-quality iron concentrate can be obtained under the sieve.
There are two methods for gravity separation of hematite. One is coarse-grained gravity separation. The geological grade of the ore deposit is relatively high (about 50%), but the ore body is thinner or has more interlayers. The waste rock is mixed in during mining to dilute the ore. For this kind of ore, only crushing and no-grinding can be used so coarse-grained tailings are discarded through re-election to recover the geological grade.
The other one is fine-grain gravity separation, which mostly deals with the hematite with finer grain size and high magnetic content. After crushing, the ore is ground to separate the mineral monomers, and the fine-grained high-grade concentrate is obtained by gravity separation. However, since most of the weak magnetic iron ore concentrates with strong magnetic separation are not high in grade, and the unit processing capacity of the gravity separation process is relatively low, the combined process of strong magnetic separation and gravity separation is often used, that is, the strong magnetic separation process is used to discard a large amount of unqualified tailings, and then use the gravity separation process to further process the strong magnetic concentrate to improve the concentrate grade.
Due to the complexity, large-scale mixed iron ore and hematite ore adopt stage grinding or continuous grinding, coarse subdivision separation, gravity separation-weak magnetic separation-high gradient magnetic separation-anion reverse flotation process. The characteristics of such process are as follows:
(1) Coarse subdivision separation: For the coarse part, use gravity separation to take out most of the coarse-grained iron concentrate after a stage of grinding. The SLon type high gradient medium magnetic machine removes part of the tailings; the fine part uses the SLon type high gradient strong magnetic separator to further remove the tailings and mud to create good operating conditions for reverse flotation. Due to the superior performance of the SLon-type high-gradient magnetic separator, a higher recovery rate in the whole process is ensured, and the reverse flotation guarantees a higher fine-grained concentrate grade.
(2) A reasonable process for narrow-level selection is realized. In the process of mineral separation, the degree of separation of minerals is not only related to the characteristics of the mineral itself, but also to the specific surface area of the mineral particles. This effect is more prominent in the flotation process. Because in the flotation process, the minimum value of the force between the flotation agent and the mineral and the agent and the bubble is related to the specific surface area of the mineral, and the ratio of the agent to the mineral action area. This makes the factors double affecting the floatability of minerals easily causing minerals with a large specific surface area and relatively difficult to float and minerals with a small specific surface area and relatively easy to float have relatively consistent floatability, and sometimes the former has even better floatability. The realization of the narrow-level beneficiation process can prevent the occurrence of the above-mentioned phenomenon that easily leads to the chaos of the flotation process to a large extent, and improve the beneficiation efficiency.
(3) The combined application of high-gradient strong magnetic separation and anion reverse flotation process achieves the best combination of processes. At present, the weak magnetic iron ore beneficiation plants in China all adopt high-gradient strong magnetic separation-anion reverse flotation process in their technological process. This combination is particularly effective in the beneficiation of weak magnetic iron ore. For high-gradient strong magnetic separation, the effect of improving the grade of concentrate is not obvious. However, it is very effective to rely on high-gradient and strong magnetic separation to provide ideal raw materials for reverse flotation. At the same time, anion reverse flotation is affected by its own process characteristics and is particularly effective for the separation of fine-grained and relatively high-grade materials. The advantages of high-gradient strong magnetic separation and anion reverse flotation technology complement each other, and realize the delicate combination of the beneficiation process.
The key technology innovation of the integrated dry grinding and magnetic separation system is to "replace ball mill grinding with HPGR grinding", and the target is to reduce the cost of ball mill grinding and wet magnetic separation.
HPGRs orhigh-pressure grinding rollshave made broad advances into mining industries. The technology is now widely viewed as a primary milling alternative, and there are several large installations commissioned in recent years. After these developments, anHPGRsbased circuit configuration would often be the base case for certain ore types, such as very hard, abrasive ores.
The wear on a rolls surface is a function of the ores abrasivity. Increasing roll speed or pressure increases wear with a given material. Studs allowing the formation of an autogenous wear layer, edge blocks, and cheek plates. Development in these areas continues, with examples including profiling of stud hardness to minimize the bathtub effect (wear of the center of the rolls more rapidly than the outer areas), low-profile edge blocks for installation on worn tires, and improvements in both design and wear materials for cheek plates.
With Strip Surface, HPGRs improve observed downstream comminution efficiency. This is attributable to both increased fines generation, but also due to what appears to be weakening of the ore which many researchers attribute to micro-cracking.
As we tested , the average yield of 3mm-0 and 0.15mm-0 size fraction with Strip Surface was 78.3% and 46.2%, comparatively, the average yield of 3mm-0 and 0.3mm-0 with studs surface was 58.36% and 21.7%.
These intelligently engineered units are ideal for classifying coarser cuts ranging from 50 to 200 mesh. The feed material is dropped into the top of the classifier. It falls into a continuous feed curtain in front of the vanes, passing through low velocity air entering the side of the unit. The air flow direction is changed by the vanes from horizontal to angularly upward, resulting in separation and classification of the particulate. Coarse particles dropps directly to the product and fine particles are efficiently discharged through a valve beneath the unit. The micro fines are conveyed by air to a fabric filter for final recovery.
Air Magnetic Separation Cluster is a special equipment developed for dry magnetic separation of fine size (-3mm) and micro fine size(-0.1mm) magnetite. The air magnetic separation system can be combined according to the characteristic of magnetic minerals to achieve effective recovery of magnetite.
After rough grinding, adopt appropriate separation method, discard part of tailings and sort out part of qualified concentrate, and re-grind and re-separate the middling, is called stage grinding and stage separation process.
According to the characteristics of the raw ore, the use of stage grinding and stage separation technology is an effective measure for energy conservation in iron ore concentrators. At the coarser one-stage grinding fineness, high-efficiency beneficiation equipment is used to advance the tailings, which greatly reduces the processing volume of the second-stage grinding.
If the crystal grain size is relatively coarse, the stage grinding, stage magnetic separation-fine sieve self-circulation process is adopted. Generally, the product on the fine sieve is given to the second stage grinding and re-grinding. The process flow is relatively simple.
If the crystal grain size is too fine, the process of stage grinding, stage magnetic separation and fine sieve regrind is adopted. This process is the third stage of grinding and fine grinding after the products on the first and second stages of fine sieve are concentrated and magnetically separated. Then it is processed by magnetic separation and fine sieve, the process is relatively complicated.
At present, the operation of magnetic separation (including weak magnetic separation and strong magnetic separation) is one of the effective means of throwing tails in advance; anion reverse flotation and cation reverse flotation are one of the effective means to improve the grade of iron ore.
In particular, in the process of beneficiation, both of them basically take the selected feed minerals containing less gangue minerals as the sorting object, and both use the biggest difference in mineral selectivity, which makes the two in the whole process both play a good role in the process.
Based on the iron ore processing experience and necessary processing tests, Prominer can supply complete processing plant combined with various processing technologies, such as gravity separation, magnetic separation, flotation, etc., to improve the grade of TFe of the concentrate and get the best yield. Magnetic separation is commonly used for magnetite. Gravity separation is commonly used for hematite. Flotation is mainly used to process limonite and other kinds of iron ores
Through detailed mineralogy study and lab processing test, a most suitable processing plant parameters will be acquired. Based on those parameters Prominer can design a processing plant for mine owners and supply EPC services till the plant operating.
Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.Get in Touch with Mechanic