We are a leading online assignment help service provider. We provide assignment help in over 80 subjects. You can request for any type of assignment help from our highly qualified professional writers. All your academic needs will be taken care of as early as you need them.
Our global writing staff includes experienced ENL & ESL academic writers in a variety of disciplines. This lets us find the most appropriate writer for any type of assignment.
To ensure that all the papers we send to our clients are plagiarism free, they are all passed through a plagiarism detecting software. Thus you can be sure to get an original plagiarism free paper from us.
All our clients are privileged to have all their academic papers written from scratch. These papers are also written according to your lecturers instructions and thus minimizing any chances of plagiarism. We have highly qualified writers from all over the world. All our writers are graduates and professors from most of the largest universities in the world. When you assign us your assignment, we select the most qualified writer in that field to handle your assignment.
All our essays and assignments are written from scratch and are not connected to any essay database. Every essay is written independent from other previously written essays even though the essay question might be similar. We also do not at any point resell any paper that had been previously written for a client. To ensure we submit original and non-plagiarized papers to our clients, all our papers are passed through a plagiarism check. We also have professional editors who go through each and every complete paper to ensure they are error free.
Do you have an urgent order that you need delivered but have no idea on how to do it? Are you torn between assignments and work or other things? Worry no more. Achiever Papers is here to help with such urgent orders. All you have to do is chat with one of our online agents and get your assignment taken care of with the little remaining time. We have qualified academic writers who will work on your agent assignment to develop a high quality paper for you. We can take care of your urgent order in less than 5 hours.
We have writers who are well trained and experienced in different writing and referencing formats. Are you having problems with citing sources? Achiever Papers is here to help you with citations and referencing. Our professional writers are experienced in all formatting styles such as APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and others. This means you can get your essay written well in any of the formatting style you need.
By using our website, you can be sure to have your personal information secured. We do not at any time disclose clients personal information or credentials to third parties. We give anonymity and confidentiality a first priority when it comes to dealing with clients personal information. The following are some of the ways we employ to ensure customer confidentiality.
It is very easy. Click on the order now tab. You will be directed to another page. Here there is a form to fill. Filling the forms involves giving instructions to your assignment. The information needed include: topic, subject area, number of pages, spacing, urgency, academic level, number of sources, style, and preferred language style. You also give your assignment instructions. In case you additional materials for your assignment, you will be directed to manage my orders section where you can upload them. Ensure you request for assistant if you cant find the section. When you are done the system will automatically calculate for you the amount you are expected to pay for your order depending on the details you give such as subject area, number of pages, urgency, and academic level.
After filling out the order form, you fill in the sign up details. This details will be used by our support team to contact you. You can now pay for your order. We accept payment through PayPal and debit or credit cards.
After paying, the order is assigned to the most qualified writer in that field. The writer researches and then submits your paper. The paper is then sent for editing to our qualified editors. After the paper has been approved it is uploaded and made available to you. You are also sent an email notification that your paper has been completed.
Yes. Our services are very confidential. All our customer data is encrypted. We consider our clients security and privacy very serious. We do not disclose clients information to third parties. Our records are carefully stored and protected thus cannot be accessed by unauthorized persons. Our payment system is also very secure.
We have employed highly qualified writers. They are all specialized in specific fields. To ensure our writers are competent, they pass through a strict screening and multiple testing. All our writers are graduates and professors from the most prestigious universities and colleges in the world. We have writers who are native speakers and non-native speakers. Our writers have great grammar skills.
We offer essay help for more than 80 subject areas. You can get help on any level of study from high school, certificate, diploma, degree, masters, and Ph.D. some of the subject areas we offer assignment help are as follows:
We accept payment from your credit or debit cards. We also accept payment through. PayPal is one of the most widely used money transfer method in the world. It is acceptable in most countries and thus making it the most effective payment method.
We offer free revision in case you are not satisfied with the order delivered to you. For such an order you are expected to send a revision request and include all the instructions that should be followed by the writer. Also remember to state the exact time the writer should take to do your revision. We offer free revision as long as the client does not change the instructions that had been previously given. In case a client want to alter the instructions, revision can be done but at a negotiated fee. We give 100% refund for an assignment that we cant complete that had been paid for.
We do not take the issue of plagiarism rightly. As a company we try as much as possible to ensure all orders are plagiarism free. All our papers are written from scratch thus producing 100% original work. We also have a plagiarism detection system where all our papers are scanned before being delivered to clients.
We have writers who are always ready to work and take up orders with a short deadline. We deliver papers as early as after 3 hours of ordering. You only have to indicate the short deadline and our support team will help pick the best and most qualified writer in your field. The writer will confirm whether they will submit the paper within the set deadline. After confirmation, your paper will be delivered on time.
We never at any time reuse the papers we write for our clients. We also do not have a database of previously written papers. All our papers are written from scratch according to the clients instructions. We never send published papers to clients nor do we publish the papers after sending them to our clients.
Whether to reference us in your work or not is a personal decision. If it is an academic paper, you have to ensure it is permitted by your institution. We do not ask clients to reference us in the papers we write for them. When we write papers for you, we transfer all the ownership to you. This means that you do not have to acknowledge us in your work not unless you please to do so.
Our online assignment help is one of the best essay writing help in the world as we work with international students from the most prestigious universities in the world. We write quality papers for our clients as we have employed highly qualified academic writers from all over the world. Our writers are able to handle complex assignments from their field of specialization. When it comes to finding the best specialist for your paper there are 3 categories of specialist that we have to look at;
Turning to course help online for help is legal. Getting assignment help is ethical as we do not affect nor harm the level of knowledge you are expected to attain as a student according to your class syllabus. Our services are here to provide you with legitimate academic writing help to assist you in learning to improve your academic performance.
With course help online, you pay for academic writing help and we give you a legal service. This service is similar to paying a tutor to help improve your skills. Our online services is trustworthy and it cares about your learning and your degree. Hence, you should be sure of the fact that our online essay help cannot harm your academic life. You can freely use the academic papers written to you as they are original and perfectly referenced.
Whenever students face academic hardships, they tend to run to online essay help companies. If this is also happening to you, you can message us at course help online. We will ensure we give you a high quality content that will give you a good grade. We can handle your term paper, dissertation, a research proposal, or an essay on any topic.
We are aware of all the challenges faced by students when tackling class assignments. You can have an assignment that is too complicated or an assignment that needs to be completed sooner than you can manage. You also need to have time for a social life and this might not be possible due to school work. The good news is that course help online is here to take care of all this needs to ensure all your assignments are completed on time and you have time for other important activities. We also understand you have a number of subjects to learn and this might make it hard for you to take care of all the assignments. You are expected to do a thorough research for each assignment to earn yourself a good grade even with the limited time you have.
This calls upon the need to employ a professional writer. When you employ one of our expert writers, you can be sure to have all your assignments completed on time. All your assignment deadlines will be met plus you will have an original, non-plagiarized and error free paper. All our papers are written according to each customers specifications by our expert writes who are well trained and have high qualifications.
With our Achiever Papers' services, you are assured of a completely original and error free paper written exclusively for your specified needs, instructions and requirements. All our papers are original as they are all written from scratch. We also do not re-use any of the papers we write for our customers. With this guarantee feel comfortable to message us or chat with our online agents who are available 24hours a day and 7 days a week be it on a weekend or on a holiday.
As a busy student, you might end up forgetting some of the assignments assigned to you until a night or a day before they are due. This might be very stressing due to inadequate time to do a thorough research to come up with a quality paper. Achiever Papers is here to save you from all this stress. Let our professional writers handle your assignments and submit them to you no matter how close the deadline seems to be.
This will protect you from all the pressure that comes along with assignments. You are assured of a high quality assignment that is error free and delivery will be done on time. We have a reliable team that is always available and determined to help all our clients by improving their grades. We are reliable and trusted among all our clients and thus you can entrust your academic work on us. For any academic help you need, feel free to talk to our team for assistance and you will never regret your decision to work with us.
You can entrust all your academic work to course help online for original and high quality papers submitted on time. We have worked with thousands of students from all over the world. Most of our clients are satisfied with the quality of services offered to them and we have received positive feedback from our clients.
We have an essay service that includes plagiarism check and proofreading which is done within your assignment deadline with us. This ensures all instructions have been followed and the work submitted is original and non-plagiarized.
We offer assignment help in more than 80 courses. We are also able to handle any complex paper in any course as we have employed professional writers who are specialized in different fields of study. From their experience, they are able to work on the most difficult assignments. The following are some of the course we offer assignment help in;
Achiever Papers: A custom essay writing service that sells original assignment help services to students. We provide essay writing services, other custom assignment help services, and research materials for references purposes only. Students should ensure that they reference the materials obtained from our website appropriately.
Rivers in the southwest coast of India are under immense pressure due to various kinds of human activities among which indiscriminate extraction of construction grade sand is the most disastrous one. The situation is rather alarming in the rivers draining the Vembanad lake catchments as the area hosts one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city, otherwise called the Queen of Arabian Sea. The Vembanad lake catchments are drained by seven rivers whose length varies between 78 and 244km and catchment area between 847 and 5,398km2. On an average, 11.73millionty1 of sand and gravel are being extracted from the active channels and 0.414millionty1 of sand from the river floodplains. The quantity of instream mining is about 40 times the higher than the sand input estimated in the gauging stations. As a result of indiscriminate sand mining, the riverbed in the storage zone is getting lowered at a rate of 715cmy1 over the past two decades. This, in turn, imposes severe damages to the physical and biological environments of these river systems. The present paper deals with the environmental effects of indiscriminate sand mining from the small catchment rivers in the southwest coast of India, taking the case of the rivers draining the Vembanad lake catchments as an example.
Kitetu J, Rowan J (1997) Integrated environmental assessment applied to river sand harvesting in Kenya. In: Patric CK, Lee N (eds) Sustainable development in a developing worldintegrated socio-economic appraisal and environmental assessment. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham (U.K.), pp 189199
Kondolf GM, Boulton AJ, ODaniel S, Poole GC, Rahel FJ, Stanley EH, Wohl E, Bang A, Carlstrom J, Cristoni C, Huber H, Koljonen S, Louhi P, Nakamura K (2006) Process-based ecological river restoration: Visualizing three dimensional connectivity and dynamic vectors to recover lost linkages. Ecol Soc 11(2):5. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss2/art5/
Kurup BM, Radhakrishnan KV, Manojkumar TG (2005) Biodiversity status of fishes inhabiting rivers of Kerala (S. India) with special reference to endemism, threats and conservation measures. Biodiversity Status 2:163182. http://www.lars2.org/Proc
Naiman RJ, Bilby RE (1998) River ecology and management in the Pacific coastal ecoregion. In: Naiman RJ, Bilby RE (eds) River ecology and management: lessons from the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion. Springer, New York, pp 122
Padmalal D, Maya K, Seralathan P (1997) Geochemistry of Cu, Co, Ni, Zn Cd and Cr in the surficial sediments of a tropical estuary, southwest coast of India: a granulometric approach. Environ Geol 31:8593
Padmalal D, Maya K, Sreebha S, Sandhya V (2006) River sand mining and management. Report submitted to the Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram
Rivier B, Seguier J (1985) Physical and biological effects of gravel extraction in river beds. In: Alabaster JS (ed) Habitat modification and freshwater fisheries. Food and Agric. Organ. U.N., Rome, pp 131146
Tompkins MR, Kondolf GM (2003) Integrating geomorphic process approach in riparian and stream restoration: past experience and future opportunities. In: Faber PM (ed) California riparian systems: processes and floodplain management, ecology and restoration. Proceedings of the Riparian Habitat and Floodplains Conference (Sacramento, 2001), Sacramento, California, pp 230238
We thank Director, Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS), Thiruvananthapuram for encouragement and support. Mr. Arun P.R. and Smt. Mini S.R. helped the authors in the field and also in statistical processing of field data. We are indebted to Mr. N.K. Sukumaran Nair (PPS), Mr. Gopinathan Nair and Professor Sitharaman (AKRPC) for fruitful discussions and help in various ways during collection of secondary data. Thanks are also due to Dr. K.M.Nair, Director, Vakkom Moulavi Foundation Trust, Thiruvananthapuram and former Director, CESS for guidance and encouragement. We thank the Central Water Commission, Kochi for sediment discharge and riverbed lowering data. The financial assistances from Government of Kerala and various Panchayat Raj Institutions of State are also greatly acknowledged.
Padmalal, D., Maya, K., Sreebha, S. et al. Environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of Vembanad lake, Southwest coast of India. Environ Geol 54, 879889 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-007-0870-z
Recent growth of the construction industry has fuelled the demand for sand, with considerable volumes being extracted from the worlds large rivers. Sediment transport from upstream naturally replenishes sediment stored in river beds, but the absence of sand flux data from large rivers inhibits assessment of the sustainability of ongoing sand mining. Here, we demonstrate that bedload (0.180.07Mtyr1) is a small (1%) fraction of the total annual sediment load of the lower Mekong River. Even when considering suspended sand (62Mtyr1), the total sand flux entering the Mekong delta (6.182.01Mtyr1) is far less than current sand extraction rates (50Mtyr1). We show that at these current rates, river bed levels can be lowered sufficiently to induce river bank instability, potentially damaging housing and infrastructure and threatening lives. Our research suggests that on the Mekong and other large rivers subject to excessive sand mining, it is imperative to establish regulatory frameworks that limit extraction rates to levels that permit the establishment of a sustainable balance between the natural supply/storage of sand and the rate at which sand is removed.
The raw bedload transport data collected with the multibeam echo sounder, the discharge and suspended sediment data generated from the ADCP, and bank profiles collected with the terrestrial laser scanner that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. The water discharge data used to generate the bedload ratings curves are from the hydrological records archived in the Mekong River Commission data portal (http://portal.mrcmekong.org/index; discharge records from Kratie (station identifier 014901; unique dataset accession 2811)).
Brunier, G., Anthony, E. J., Goichot, M., Provansal, M. & Dussouillez, P. Recent morphological changes in the Mekong and Bassac river channels, Mekong delta: the marked impact of river-bed mining and implications for delta destabilisation. Geomorphology 224, 177191 (2014).
Ashraf, M. A., Maah, M. J., Yusoff, I., Wajid, A. & Mahmood, K. Sand mining effects, causes and concerns: a case study from Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Sci. Res. Essays 6, 12161231 (2011).
Koehnken, L. The ISH 0306 Study Development of Guidelines for Hydropower Environmental Impact Mitigation and Risk Management in the Lower Mekong Mainstream and Tributaries: Hydropower Risks and Impact Mitigation Guidelines and Recommendations (Mekong River Commission, 2014).
Bravard, J.-P., Goichot, M. & Tronchre, H. An assessment of sediment-transport processes in the lower Mekong River based on deposit grain sizes, the CM technique and flow-energy data. Geomorphology 207, 174189 (2014).
Tamura, T. et al. Depositional facies and radiocarbon ages of a drill core from the Mekong River lowland near Phnom Penh, Cambodia: evidence for tidal sedimentation at the time of Holocene maximum flooding. J. Asian Earth Sci. 29, 585592 (2007).
Nguyen, V. L., Ta, T. K. O. & Saito, Y. Early Holocene initiation of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam, and the response to Holocene sea-level changes detected from DT1 core analyses. Sediment. Geol. 230, 146155 (2010).
Uhlemann, S., Kuras, O., Richards, L. A., Naden, E. & Polya, D. A. Electrical resistivity tomography determines the spatial distribution of clay layer thickness and aquifer vulnerability, Kandal Province, Cambodia. J. Asian Earth Sci. 147, 402414 (2017).
Lane, S. N., Bradbrook, K. F., Richards, K. S., Biron, P. M. & Roy, A. G. Secondary circulation cells in river channel confluences: measurement artefacts or coherent flow structures? Hydrol. Process. 14, 20472071 (2000).
Thorne, C. R., Murphey, J. B. & Little, W. C. Stream Channel Stability. Appendix D, Bank Stability and Bank Material Properties in the Bluffline Streams of Northwest Mississippi (USDA National Sedimentation Laboratory, 1981).
This study was supported by awards NE/JO21970/1, NE/JO21571/1 and NE/JO21881/1 from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). We thank the Mekong River Commission for access to hydrological and suspended sediment data, and the Department of Hydrology and River Works in Cambodia for logistical support and help in the field. J.L.B. was in receipt of a University of Southampton Diamond Jubilee International Visiting Fellowship that aided the completion of this work.
C.R.H., S.E.D., D.R.P., J.L., J.L.B., A.P.N. and R.A. jointly conceived the study. C.R.H., S.E.D., J.L., J.L.B., D.R.P., R.A. and R.C.H. collected and processed the field data. C.R.H. constructed the bedload transport functions and undertook the data analysis. C.R.H and S.E.D. undertook the bank stability analysis. C.R.H. drafted the paper, which was then edited by all co-authors.
Hackney, C.R., Darby, S.E., Parsons, D.R. et al. River bank instability from unsustainable sand mining in the lower Mekong River. Nat Sustain 3, 217225 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-019-0455-3Get in Touch with Mechanic