achiever papers - we help students improve their academic standing

achiever papers - we help students improve their academic standing

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environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of vembanad lake, southwest coast of india | springerlink

environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of vembanad lake, southwest coast of india | springerlink

Rivers in the southwest coast of India are under immense pressure due to various kinds of human activities among which indiscriminate extraction of construction grade sand is the most disastrous one. The situation is rather alarming in the rivers draining the Vembanad lake catchments as the area hosts one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city, otherwise called the Queen of Arabian Sea. The Vembanad lake catchments are drained by seven rivers whose length varies between 78 and 244km and catchment area between 847 and 5,398km2. On an average, 11.73millionty1 of sand and gravel are being extracted from the active channels and 0.414millionty1 of sand from the river floodplains. The quantity of instream mining is about 40 times the higher than the sand input estimated in the gauging stations. As a result of indiscriminate sand mining, the riverbed in the storage zone is getting lowered at a rate of 715cmy1 over the past two decades. This, in turn, imposes severe damages to the physical and biological environments of these river systems. The present paper deals with the environmental effects of indiscriminate sand mining from the small catchment rivers in the southwest coast of India, taking the case of the rivers draining the Vembanad lake catchments as an example.

Kitetu J, Rowan J (1997) Integrated environmental assessment applied to river sand harvesting in Kenya. In: Patric CK, Lee N (eds) Sustainable development in a developing worldintegrated socio-economic appraisal and environmental assessment. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham (U.K.), pp 189199

Kondolf GM, Boulton AJ, ODaniel S, Poole GC, Rahel FJ, Stanley EH, Wohl E, Bang A, Carlstrom J, Cristoni C, Huber H, Koljonen S, Louhi P, Nakamura K (2006) Process-based ecological river restoration: Visualizing three dimensional connectivity and dynamic vectors to recover lost linkages. Ecol Soc 11(2):5.

Kurup BM, Radhakrishnan KV, Manojkumar TG (2005) Biodiversity status of fishes inhabiting rivers of Kerala (S. India) with special reference to endemism, threats and conservation measures. Biodiversity Status 2:163182.

Naiman RJ, Bilby RE (1998) River ecology and management in the Pacific coastal ecoregion. In: Naiman RJ, Bilby RE (eds) River ecology and management: lessons from the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion. Springer, New York, pp 122

Padmalal D, Maya K, Seralathan P (1997) Geochemistry of Cu, Co, Ni, Zn Cd and Cr in the surficial sediments of a tropical estuary, southwest coast of India: a granulometric approach. Environ Geol 31:8593

Padmalal D, Maya K, Sreebha S, Sandhya V (2006) River sand mining and management. Report submitted to the Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram

Rivier B, Seguier J (1985) Physical and biological effects of gravel extraction in river beds. In: Alabaster JS (ed) Habitat modification and freshwater fisheries. Food and Agric. Organ. U.N., Rome, pp 131146

Tompkins MR, Kondolf GM (2003) Integrating geomorphic process approach in riparian and stream restoration: past experience and future opportunities. In: Faber PM (ed) California riparian systems: processes and floodplain management, ecology and restoration. Proceedings of the Riparian Habitat and Floodplains Conference (Sacramento, 2001), Sacramento, California, pp 230238

We thank Director, Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS), Thiruvananthapuram for encouragement and support. Mr. Arun P.R. and Smt. Mini S.R. helped the authors in the field and also in statistical processing of field data. We are indebted to Mr. N.K. Sukumaran Nair (PPS), Mr. Gopinathan Nair and Professor Sitharaman (AKRPC) for fruitful discussions and help in various ways during collection of secondary data. Thanks are also due to Dr. K.M.Nair, Director, Vakkom Moulavi Foundation Trust, Thiruvananthapuram and former Director, CESS for guidance and encouragement. We thank the Central Water Commission, Kochi for sediment discharge and riverbed lowering data. The financial assistances from Government of Kerala and various Panchayat Raj Institutions of State are also greatly acknowledged.

Padmalal, D., Maya, K., Sreebha, S. et al. Environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of Vembanad lake, Southwest coast of India. Environ Geol 54, 879889 (2008).

river bank instability from unsustainable sand mining in the lower mekong river | nature sustainability

river bank instability from unsustainable sand mining in the lower mekong river | nature sustainability

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Recent growth of the construction industry has fuelled the demand for sand, with considerable volumes being extracted from the worlds large rivers. Sediment transport from upstream naturally replenishes sediment stored in river beds, but the absence of sand flux data from large rivers inhibits assessment of the sustainability of ongoing sand mining. Here, we demonstrate that bedload (0.180.07Mtyr1) is a small (1%) fraction of the total annual sediment load of the lower Mekong River. Even when considering suspended sand (62Mtyr1), the total sand flux entering the Mekong delta (6.182.01Mtyr1) is far less than current sand extraction rates (50Mtyr1). We show that at these current rates, river bed levels can be lowered sufficiently to induce river bank instability, potentially damaging housing and infrastructure and threatening lives. Our research suggests that on the Mekong and other large rivers subject to excessive sand mining, it is imperative to establish regulatory frameworks that limit extraction rates to levels that permit the establishment of a sustainable balance between the natural supply/storage of sand and the rate at which sand is removed.

The raw bedload transport data collected with the multibeam echo sounder, the discharge and suspended sediment data generated from the ADCP, and bank profiles collected with the terrestrial laser scanner that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. The water discharge data used to generate the bedload ratings curves are from the hydrological records archived in the Mekong River Commission data portal (; discharge records from Kratie (station identifier 014901; unique dataset accession 2811)).

Brunier, G., Anthony, E. J., Goichot, M., Provansal, M. & Dussouillez, P. Recent morphological changes in the Mekong and Bassac river channels, Mekong delta: the marked impact of river-bed mining and implications for delta destabilisation. Geomorphology 224, 177191 (2014).

Ashraf, M. A., Maah, M. J., Yusoff, I., Wajid, A. & Mahmood, K. Sand mining effects, causes and concerns: a case study from Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Sci. Res. Essays 6, 12161231 (2011).

Koehnken, L. The ISH 0306 Study Development of Guidelines for Hydropower Environmental Impact Mitigation and Risk Management in the Lower Mekong Mainstream and Tributaries: Hydropower Risks and Impact Mitigation Guidelines and Recommendations (Mekong River Commission, 2014).

Bravard, J.-P., Goichot, M. & Tronchre, H. An assessment of sediment-transport processes in the lower Mekong River based on deposit grain sizes, the CM technique and flow-energy data. Geomorphology 207, 174189 (2014).

Tamura, T. et al. Depositional facies and radiocarbon ages of a drill core from the Mekong River lowland near Phnom Penh, Cambodia: evidence for tidal sedimentation at the time of Holocene maximum flooding. J. Asian Earth Sci. 29, 585592 (2007).

Nguyen, V. L., Ta, T. K. O. & Saito, Y. Early Holocene initiation of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam, and the response to Holocene sea-level changes detected from DT1 core analyses. Sediment. Geol. 230, 146155 (2010).

Uhlemann, S., Kuras, O., Richards, L. A., Naden, E. & Polya, D. A. Electrical resistivity tomography determines the spatial distribution of clay layer thickness and aquifer vulnerability, Kandal Province, Cambodia. J. Asian Earth Sci. 147, 402414 (2017).

Lane, S. N., Bradbrook, K. F., Richards, K. S., Biron, P. M. & Roy, A. G. Secondary circulation cells in river channel confluences: measurement artefacts or coherent flow structures? Hydrol. Process. 14, 20472071 (2000).

Thorne, C. R., Murphey, J. B. & Little, W. C. Stream Channel Stability. Appendix D, Bank Stability and Bank Material Properties in the Bluffline Streams of Northwest Mississippi (USDA National Sedimentation Laboratory, 1981).

This study was supported by awards NE/JO21970/1, NE/JO21571/1 and NE/JO21881/1 from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). We thank the Mekong River Commission for access to hydrological and suspended sediment data, and the Department of Hydrology and River Works in Cambodia for logistical support and help in the field. J.L.B. was in receipt of a University of Southampton Diamond Jubilee International Visiting Fellowship that aided the completion of this work.

C.R.H., S.E.D., D.R.P., J.L., J.L.B., A.P.N. and R.A. jointly conceived the study. C.R.H., S.E.D., J.L., J.L.B., D.R.P., R.A. and R.C.H. collected and processed the field data. C.R.H. constructed the bedload transport functions and undertook the data analysis. C.R.H and S.E.D. undertook the bank stability analysis. C.R.H. drafted the paper, which was then edited by all co-authors.

Hackney, C.R., Darby, S.E., Parsons, D.R. et al. River bank instability from unsustainable sand mining in the lower Mekong River. Nat Sustain 3, 217225 (2020).

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