tiger economy definition

tiger economy definition

The Asian tigers are high-growth economies that have transitioned from predominately agrarian societies of the 1960s to industrialized nations. The economic growth in each of the countries is usually export-led but with sophisticated financial and trading markets. Singapore and Hong Kong, for example, are home to two of the major financial markets in the world. Sometimes China is mentioned as an Asian tiger but has separated itself from the pack to become one of the largest economies of the world.

The Asian cub economies, which have developed more slowly than the tigers but have experienced rapid growth over the last several years, include Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and the Philippines.

With the injection of large amounts of foreign investment, the Asian tiger economies grew substantially between the late 1980s and early- to mid-1990s. The nations experienced a financial crisis in 1997 and 1998, which, in part, stemmed from huge debt-servicing expenses and inequitable distribution of wealth. The majority of these nations wealth remained in the control of an elite few.

Since the late 1990s, the tiger economies have recovered relatively well and are major exporters of goods such as technology and electronics. The influence of the Asian tiger economies is likely to increase in the years to come.

Many of the tiger economies are deemed to be emerging economies. These are economies that generally do not have the level of market efficiency and strict standards in accounting and securities regulation as many advanced economies (such as the United States, Europe, and Japan). However, emerging markets do typically have a financial infrastructure, including banks, a stock exchange, and a unified currency.

For example, the Asian tiger economies have import restrictions to help promote the development of local industries and boost export-led GDP growth. Gross domestic product (GD) is a measure of all the goods and services produced in an economy. However, Singapore and Hong Kong have begun to normalize trade by allowing an increase in the free trade of goods and services.

Although it's a special administrative region (SAR) in China, HongKong has independence and control over its economy and has emerged as a major financial hub in the region. The Hong Kong Exchange is consistently ranked in the top ten for the largest stock markets in the world.

South Korea is a modern economy that has developed into one of the most prosperous Asian economies with its production and exports of robotics, electronics, and software. South Korea is also home to Hyundai Motor Company and exports over $60 billion in vehicles each year.

Although Singapore has one of the smallest populationswith just over 5 million peoplethe tiger has delivered consistent growth over the years. Singapore has transitioned into a financial center, in particular, hosting a large foreign exchange trading market. Singapore exports electronic circuit bards, petroleum products, and turbojets.

Taiwan has emerged as a prominent exporter. The country has 23 millionpeople and is the home of the manufacturer of some of Apple's most notable products. The Asian tiger also sells and exports computers, electrical machinery, plastics, medical devices, and mineral fuels.

Emerging economies often stand in contrast with the Group of Eight or G-8 highly industrialized nations, including France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, Canada, and Russia. This elite circle holds an annual meeting to focus on global issues that include economic growth, energy, and terrorism.

While the Asian tiger economies historically have not been part of the G-8; some are predicted to overtake many of the more advanced nations by 2020. This has the potential to cause a substantial shift in the global balance of economic power. For example, Chinas share of the worlds total GDP increased by more than 6% from 2000 to 2010. Despite significant inequality, China is already ranked among the largest economies in the world.

With the Asian tiger economies (particularly China) ramping up economic growth and military power, President Obama made the decision to pivot to Asia throughout his two terms in office (2009-2017). According to the policy, the United States would have significantly more military sway in the region but could also potentially benefit from facilitating foreign direct investments. The policy, in part, aimed to make it easier for U.S. companies to conduct business with a range of producers, suppliers, and manufacturers in the tiger economies. Long-standing financial hubs like Singapore and major Chinese cities could benefit from greater presence and access to U.S. markets as wella two-way street.

asia | continent, countries, regions, map, & facts | britannica

asia | continent, countries, regions, map, & facts | britannica

Asia, the worlds largest and most diverse continent. It occupies the eastern four-fifths of the giant Eurasian landmass. Asia is more a geographic term than a homogeneous continent, and the use of the term to describe such a vast area always carries the potential of obscuring the enormous diversity among the regions it encompasses. Asia has both the highest and the lowest points on the surface of Earth, has the longest coastline of any continent, is subject overall to the worlds widest climatic extremes, and, consequently, produces the most varied forms of vegetation and animal life on Earth. In addition, the peoples of Asia have established the broadest variety of human adaptation found on any of the continents.

The name Asia is ancient, and its origin has been variously explained. The Greeks used it to designate the lands situated to the east of their homeland. It is believed that the name may be derived from the Assyrian word asu, meaning east. Another possible explanation is that it was originally a local name given to the plains of Ephesus, which ancient Greeks and Romans extended to refer first to Anatolia (contemporary Asia Minor, which is the western extreme of mainland Asia), and then to the known world east of the Mediterranean Sea. When Western explorers reached South and East Asia in early modern times, they extended that label to the whole of the immense landmass.

Asia is bounded by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Indian Ocean to the south, the Red Sea (as well as the inland seas of the Atlantic Oceanthe Mediterranean and the Black) to the southwest, and Europe to the west. Asia is separated from North America to the northeast by the Bering Strait and from Australia to the southeast by the seas and straits connecting the Indian and Pacific oceans. The Isthmus of Suez unites Asia with Africa, and it is generally agreed that the Suez Canal forms the border between them. Two narrow straits, the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, separate Anatolia from the Balkan Peninsula.

The land boundary between Asia and Europe is a historical and cultural construct that has been defined variously; only as a matter of agreement is it tied to a specific borderline. The most convenient geographic boundaryone that has been adopted by most geographersis a line that runs south from the Arctic Ocean along the Ural Mountains and then turns southwest along the Emba River to the northern shore of the Caspian Sea; west of the Caspian, the boundary follows the Kuma-Manych Depression to the Sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait of the Black Sea. Thus, the isthmus between the Black and Caspian seas, which culminates in the Caucasus mountain range to the south, is part of Asia.

The total area of Asia, including Asian Russia (with the Caucasian isthmus) but excluding the island of New Guinea, amounts to some 17,226,200 square miles (44,614,000 square km), roughly one-third of the land surface of Earth. The islandsincluding Taiwan, those of Japan and Indonesia, Sakhalin and other islands of Asian Russia, Sri Lanka, Cyprus, and numerous smaller islandstogether constitute 1,240,000 square miles (3,210,000 square km), about 7 percent of the total. (Although New Guinea is mentioned occasionally in this article, it generally is not considered a part of Asia.) The farthest terminal points of the Asian mainland are Cape Chelyuskin in north-central Siberia, Russia (7743 N), to the north; the tip of the Malay Peninsula, Cape Piai, or Bulus (116 N), to the south; Cape Baba in Turkey (264 E) to the west; and Cape Dezhnev (Dezhnyov), or East Cape (16940 W), in northeastern Siberia, overlooking the Bering Strait, to the east.

Asia has the highest average elevation of the continents and contains the greatest relative relief. The tallest peak in the world, Mount Everest, which reaches an elevation of 29,035 feet (8,850 metres; see Researchers Note: Height of Mount Everest); the lowest place on Earths land surface, the Dead Sea, measured in the mid-2010s at about 1,410 feet (430 metres) below sea level; and the worlds deepest continental trough, occupied by Lake Baikal, which is 5,315 feet (1,620 metres) deep and whose bottom lies 3,822 feet (1,165 metres) below sea level, are all located in Asia. Those physiographic extremes and the overall predominance of mountain belts and plateaus are the result of the collision of tectonic plates. In geologic terms, Asia comprises several very ancient continental platforms and other blocks of land that merged over the eons. Most of those units had coalesced as a continental landmass by about 160 million years ago, when the core of the Indian subcontinent broke off from Africa and began drifting northeastward to collide with the southern flank of Asia about 50 million to 40 million years ago. The northeastward movement of the subcontinent continues at about 2.4 inches (6 cm) per year. The impact and pressure continue to raise the Plateau of Tibet and the Himalayas.

Asias coastlinesome 39,000 miles (62,800 km) in lengthis, variously, high and mountainous, low and alluvial, terraced as a result of the lands having been uplifted, or drowned where the land has subsided. The specific features of the coastline in some areasespecially in the east and southeastare the result of active volcanism; thermal abrasion of permafrost (caused by a combination of the action of breaking waves and thawing), as in northeastern Siberia; and coral growth, as in the areas to the south and southeast. Accreting sandy beaches also occur in many areas, such as along the Bay of Bengal and the Gulf of Thailand.

The mountain systems of Central Asia not only have provided the continents great rivers with water from their melting snows but also have formed a forbidding natural barrier that has influenced the movement of peoples in the area. Migration across those barriers has been possible only through mountain passes. A historical movement of population from the arid zones of Central Asia has followed the mountain passes into the Indian subcontinent. More recent migrations have originated in China, with destinations throughout Southeast Asia. The Korean and Japanese peoples and, to a lesser extent, the Chinese have remained ethnically more homogeneous than the populations of other Asian countries.

Asias population is unevenly distributed, mainly because of climatic factors. There is a concentration of population in western Asia as well as great concentrations in the Indian subcontinent and the eastern half of China. There are also appreciable concentrations in the Pacific borderlands and on the islands, but vast areas of Central and North Asiawhose forbidding climates limit agricultural productivityhave remained sparsely populated. Nonetheless, Asia, the most populous of the continents, contains some three-fifths of the worlds people.

Asia is the birthplace of all the worlds major religionsBuddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaismand of many minor ones. Of those, only Christianity developed primarily outside of Asia; it exerts little influence on the continent, though many Asian countries have Christian minorities. Buddhism has had a greater impact outside its birthplace in India and is prevalent in various forms in China, South Korea, Japan, the Southeast Asian countries, and Sri Lanka. Islam has spread out of Arabia eastward to South and Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been mostly confined to the Indian subcontinent.

This article surveys the physical and human geography of Asia. For in-depth treatment of Asias major geographic features, see specific articles by namee.g., Pamirs, Gobi, and Tigris and Euphrates rivers. For discussion of individual countries of the continent, see specific articles by namee.g., Kazakhstan, Mongolia, India, and Thailand. For discussion of major cities of the continent, see specific articles by namee.g., Bangkok, Jerusalem, Beijing, and Seoul. The principal treatment of Asian historical and cultural development is contained in the articles on Asian countries, regions, and cities and in the articles Palestine, history of and Islamic world. Related topics are discussed in articles on religion (e.g., Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam) and arts and literature (e.g., Chinese literature, Japanese literature, Central Asian arts, Southeast Asian arts, and South Asian arts).

what are the biggest industries in wyoming - worldatlas

what are the biggest industries in wyoming - worldatlas

Wyoming is one of the Mountain States of the US located in the Western United States. It is the 10th largest state by area. Wyoming is the least populated state in the US. The state is also the 2nd most sparsely populated state after Alaska. In 2018, Wyoming had a population of 577,737. Wyoming is bordered by Montana to the north, South Dakota to the east, Colorado to the south, Utah to the southwest and by Montana and Idaho to the west. Its capital city is Cheyenne.

Wyomings economy differs greatly from that of the other US states which are mainly driven by the manufacturing. Manufacturing is of minor importance to Wyoming. The economy of Wyoming is heavily tied to mineral extraction, tourism and agriculture. Minerals of major importance to the state are coal, oil, gas and trona. Important agricultural commodities in the state are livestock, hay, barley, wheat, sugar beets and wool.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Wyomings GDP in 2016 was $34.439 billion. This GDP represents 0.21% of the nations total GDP, making Wyoming the 50th largest state economy in the US in 2016.

The mineral extraction industry is Wyomings most important industry. The industry remains a major economic driver of the state despite oil and gas production declining since the 1970s. The main mineral commodities of Wyoming include coal, natural gas, crude oil, coalbed methane, uranium and trona.

Wyoming is the top coal-producing state in the US. The state possesses the largest coal resources in the nations, with an estimated reserve of 68.7 billion tons of coal. The Green River Basin and the Powder River Basin are some of the major coal areas in Wyoming.

Wyoming produces crude oil that is utilized as a motor fuel, and also in the manufacture of plastics, paints, and synthetic rubber. In 2016, Wyoming produced 1.77 trillion tons of natural gas, making it sixth nationwide in natural gas production. Natural gas in Wyoming is utilized in domestic, commercial and industrial heating.

Coalbed methane is extracted from the Wyoming coal bed seams. Mining of coalbed methane provides another means of natural gas extraction. Coalbed methane is mined in the Powder River Basin. Wyoming is home to the worlds largest known reserve for trona. Trona is utilized in the manufacture of soap, glass, paper, pharmaceuticals, water softeners, and baking soda.

Wyoming also has substantial uranium deposits, estimated to account for a third of the total reserves in the US. Even though uranium mining has been much less active in recent years, the recent increase in the price of uranium has generated new interest in uranium mining.

Tourism is the second most important engine in Wyomings economy. Each year, over 6millon visitors travel to Wyoming to see the states national parks and national monuments. Eton County is one of the tourist-oriented areas in the State. Key national parks in Wyoming include Yellowstone National Park and the Grand Teton National Park. The Yellowstone National Park attracts more than 3 million visitors every year. In 2018, the park attracted 4.1 million visitors. Important national monuments include the Fossil Butte National Monument, Independence Rock and Devils Tower National Monument. Other tourist destinations in the state are the Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area and the Fort Laramie National Historic Site.

The towering mountains and vast plains of Wyoming provide spectacular scenery that attracts millions of visitors into the state to enjoy recreation activities. Wyoming has 15,846 miles of fishing streams and over 297,000 acres of fishing lakes that support many species of gaming fish. Besides, Wyoming is a big game hunter destination. Big game hunters come to the State for its mountain lions, mountain goats, elks, antelopes, deer, moose and bighorn sheep.

Agriculture has played a central role in Wyomings history. Although its importance to the economy of Wyoming has waned over the years, the majority of the residents in the state still make their living from farming and ranching.

Wyoming is a cattle state and has been nicknamed the Cowboy State. The state has over 1.5 million cows, about 3 times the number of people in the state. Livestock products generate 86% of Wyomings agricultural receipts. Beef cattle and calves account for 78% of the total agricultural receipts. Beef cattle earn the state $600 million annually in beef sales. Wyoming is also a leading producer of sheep and wool. Other livestock product s in the state include hogs, dairy products, chicken eggs and honey.

Hay is Wyomings number one crop. Hay earn the state over $65 million each year. Other crops grown in Wyoming are barley, wheat, corn, sugar beets, dry beans, sunflower, oats, and greenhouse products.

Manufacturing in Wyoming is minimal. However, manufacturing remains a noticeable part of the economy contributing over $1.25 billion to the Wyoming economy every year. Manufacturers in Wyoming specialize in the refining of petroleum. Petroleum refineries are located in Cheyenne, Evansville, Evanston, Newcastle and Sinclair. About 170,000 barrels of oil is refined in these refineries every day.

Other top manufacturing products in Wyoming are coal products, chemicals, non-metallic mineral products, fabricated metal products, food, beverage and tobacco products, machinery, plastics and rubber products, wood products, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment and appliances.

The manufacturing industry in Wyoming accounts for 5.16% of the total output of the state. Wyoming manufacturing industry employs 3.42% of the workforce. In 2018, the total output from the manufacturing industry was $1.94 billion. The states manufacturing exports have grown by nearly 50% in the last 5 years. In 2018, the state exported $1.28 billion in manufactured goods. Two-thirds of export manufactures in Wyoming are small businesses.

extractive metallurgy & mineral processing | srk consulting

extractive metallurgy & mineral processing | srk consulting

Our metallurgical team is experienced in most aspects of processing base and precious metals, industrial and energy minerals, diamonds, and rare earth elements. Based on their strong operations backgrounds, our specialists have advanced manygreenfieldprojects from metallurgical sample identification to engineering, construction and commissioning.We can also act as technical advisors to mentor and support your operations personnel.

Together with other SRK experts in geology, geochemistry, and mining, we will work closely with you to develop value-adding, cost effective recommendations and deliver a customized process solution that will maximize theeconomic returns on your project. Given ongoing changes to mineral project disclosure and reporting requirements, our widespread due diligence and review experience can play a vital role in helping you evaluate your projects potential.

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economic activity of south asia: agriculture, mineral and energy resources

economic activity of south asia: agriculture, mineral and energy resources

Throughout history, agriculture has played a central role in the economies of South Asian countries. Over two-thirds of the population still depends on it for a living, and it accounts for nearly one-third of the regions exports. Such major problems as food shortages, rural unemployment, and social, economic and political discontent are directly related to the agricultural systems.

In statistical terms, the region occupies a major position in the world in several agricultural commodities, with India logically contributing a large share. India is a major producer of food grains in the world; third in wheat production, second in rice and millets; and first in the production of tea, jute (used as a fiber), pluses (beans, peas), and peanuts; and holds an important position in the production of such commercial crops as spices, bananas, tobacco, oil seeds, and cotton.

It also has the worlds largest cattle population. Pakistan is another important producer of wheat, cotton, and millets. Bangladesh is significant for jute and rice; while Sri Lanka is a major producer of several commercial crops, notably tea, coconuts and rubber.

In 1966, first India and later Pakistan introduced the newly developed high- yielding varieties of wheat and rice. Dwarf strains of these crops were introduced in areas of favorable environment in parts of the northern plains of India and Pakistan. Initial results were truly dramatic, production registering growth rates of over 20 percent annually between 1966 and 1971.

These measures ushered in the so-called Green Revolution. By the early 1970s more than a third of the wheat planted and half the wheat harvested were from the new varieties. During the next decade three- fourths of the wheat and nearly half the rice produced in India were of high-yielding varieties, and nearly 80 percent of these were grown in Punjab, Haryana, and west Uttar Pradesh in the northern Indian plain and in the state of Tamil Nadu in south India.

Grain crops almost always form the basis of national diets and they support a vast majority of the people. The favored grains have been rice and wheat, with sorghum, millets, barley and maize as secondary food crops. Rice is the leading crop in all countries except in Pakistan, where wheat enjoys by far the most commanding position.

Although rice production there substantially increased during the 1980s, the Ganga delta and the coastal lowlands with high temperatures and ample rainfall 40 to 60 inches (1,000- 1,500 millimeters) during the growing season, and conditions of clayey loam soils form an ideal environment for rice growth. In areas where rainfall is less than 1,500 millimeters annually, rice is raised with the help of irrigation, as in parts of peninsular India, the middle Ganga plain and Pakistan (where it assumes a secondary position).

In the late 1960s, the Green Revolution took hold in northwest India and the adjacent areas of Pakistan, as also in lesser measure in Sri Lanka. Under government patronage, the progressive farmers of this region took to newer, high-yielding varieties of grain crops introduced by the Green Revolution. As a result, production of these crops increased substantially.

Bangladesh and Tamil Nadu State in India also benefited from these new strains of grain crops. Improvements in grain production and undoubtedly been also facilitated by the introduction of scientific farming practices and land reforms that had become necessary with the adoption of these strains of crops. However, crop yields in South Asian nations still remain among the lowest in the world.

Sorghum and millets (Jowar, bajra, ragi), are coarser grains, and form the poor mans diet; they are extensively grown in the drier parts of the subcontinent and in areas of poor soil. Among other staple crops pulses (peas and beans of various kinds) and peanuts are raised extensively everywhere and are the chief sources of protein. Most pulses are eaten as dal (puree form) complementing bread, rice or curry dishes in the cuisine of these nations.

Among the specialized cash crops, sugarcane, peanuts, cotton, oil seeds, and jute are grown in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Tea, coffee, and rubber are raised on plantations in India and Sri Lanka, and tea in Bangladesh. South Asian countries are the major exporters of several of these cash crops. In perspective, it may be pointed out that India has retained its age-old preeminence in the world in several crops. It is the worlds leading producer of tea, cane sugar, millets, peanuts, and jute and ranks second in cotton and tobacco.

Among South Asian nations, only Indias mineral resources are of considerable importance by world standards. Ranking fairly high among the producers of iron ore, coal, mica, and manganese, it also has extensive reserves of chromite, bauxite, and limestone. A major deficiency is petroleum, which must be imported in substantial quantity in view of rising demand, created in large measure by a recent increase in the production of chemical fertilizers.

Current production of oil is limited to small fields in Assam, and Gujarat and to a recently, discovered offshore fields named Bombay High, along the western coast, with seemingly sizable potential, is likely to ease the situation. Offshore exploration near both the Ganga and Indus deltas, among other areas is currently being vigorously pursued. Nevertheless, India is far better endowed in minerals than most industrial countries of Europe, and has resources vastly superior to those of Japan.

Elsewhere, there is general deficiency of mineral wealth, with the exception of some natural gas, petroleum, iron ore, and low-grade coal in Pakistan. The search for minerals in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh is understandably urgent; future economic development in South Asian nations will to some degree depend on the discovery and exploration of energy and mineral resources.

In general, energy resources (excepting coal and in some measure hydroelectric power in India) remain largely underdeveloped in these nations. Potentially, several areas have good prospects for the development of hydroelectric power: the submontane Himalayan belt in India and Nepal; and the central mountainous region of Sri Lanka.

Development is hampered as much by lack of government priorities and funding, as by the fluctuating climate regimes, inaccessibility of physically suitable locations, and difficulties in construction. The generation of electricity from nuclear energy is still in its initial stages in India and Pakistan. The few existing plants serve the industrial centers of Mumbai, Chennai, and Bangalore in India.

Since the successful explosion of an atomic device in 1974, India has been working on the extension of nuclear energy production for peaceful purposes. Nuclear technology is well advanced in Pakistan, as well, and quite likely it has already capabilities of building nuclear weapons. Indias reserves of radioactive thorium ore and monazite sands appear fairly extensive, but the limiting factor in power generation is the prohibitive costs involved in importing or developing a breeder reactor to provide fuel for the nuclear power plants.

Against the background of underdeveloped mineral and energy resources manufacturing remained at a low level during the colonial era in the subcontinent. There were only two large modern plants, all in India, devoted entirely to the production of iron and steel items (nearly one million ton of crude steel and another million ton of pig iron). Industrialization in the post-independence period has expanded more rapidly in India and to a lesser extent in Pakistan than elsewhere.

India now claims a rank among the top ten industrial nations of the world in total industrial output, yet only a little over 10 percent of the 375 million persons in its labor force are employed in large scale manufacturing establishments, (employing 50 or more persons and using mechanical power). Even lower percentages characterize the other nations of South Asia.

Over half of the persons engaged in processing or manufacturing activity are in the village-based household industries, the remainder are in urban- based but small-scale, non-factory handicraft industries, producing locally- used materials such as textiles and tools. These were encouraged and subsidized by local governments particularly in India in the first two decades after independence. The focus was then shifted to heavy industry within the framework of national planning.

Unlike India, heavy industry did not greatly expand in Pakistan or Bangladesh largely as a consequence of their limited resource base. In all of South Asia, however, cottage industries producing handicraft items like superb Kashmiri shawls, and woodwork, Rajasthani metal ware, Benares Saris, Dhaka Muslim cloth and Pakistani rugs, prized at home and abroad for their truly outstanding workmanship, continued to grow; but face an uncertain future as most small-scale enterprises will ultimately have to give way before the inexorable trend toward more efficient, low-cost factory production.

In India and Pakistan small factories using machinery and modernized equipment are now widespread. Their growth occurred largely in the past two decades in the emerging industrial corridors along the major railroads; they now produce such durable items as electric fans, sewing machines, bicycles and tools.

These modest operations continue to grow as electricity is introduced into new areas. In view of their employment potential and low capital requirements, state governments have encouraged such growth by financial support. As a result, small-scale production of soaps, paints, fans, smaller consumer goods, sewing machines, and so forth has substantially increased.

Expansion of heavy industry has been more rapid than for small-scale enterprises because of significant federal support. Air and rail transport, and certain types of manufacturing such as military hardware and nuclear energy equipment, are under direct government control. A large portion of the iron and steel, machinery, mining, and chemical industries are also in the public sector.

In South Asia, India is the most advanced country in industry and manufacturing. The first steel mill was constructed at Jamshedpur in a mineral- rich area of Chota Nagpur early in the present century and went into operation in 1912. The nearby rich iron ore, lime- stone, and manganese, and the Damodar Valley coalfields serve the industry.

Government has favored iron and steel investments and protects domestic production against foreign imports. The Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and West Germany and the United States have all assisted India in the development of its iron and steel industry.

Today there are 10 major iron and steel mills, 8 of them government-owned and operated, with a total production capacity of over 12 million tons per year. The engineering, metallurgical, chemical, and electronic-electrical industries have also expanded substantially in recent years. Cement and fertilizer production is being given special governmental support.

The stress on agricultural productivity has resulted in the construction of many fertilizer plants, though output lags behind the increased demand generated by the Green Revolution. Production of automobiles, aircraft, and electrical goods (both in the private and public sectors) are protected by heavy tariffs and other types of government aid against foreign competition.

Increasingly, India is changing from a total importer to a competitive exporter. The range of her major industrial exports has been broadening from such commodities as cotton cloth and bicycles to textile machinery, machine tools and locomotives.

India and Pakistan have developed textile industry, which is widespread but especially concentrated in Mumbai and Ahmedabad in India, and Karachi in Pakistan. Dhaka in Bangladesh is also an important center. The metropolitan region of Kolkata and several cities of Bangladesh are the centers of jute manufacturing. Woolens and silks are also produced on a large scale in both India and Pakistan.

In general, the manufactures of Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka are much less diversified than those of India. Production of cement, and fertilizers; and food and leather processing activities are steadily increasing in India and Pakistan. Jute products, rice milling, and petrochemicals, and a steel plant in Chittagong in Bangladesh add somewhat to its otherwise small industrial base.

The traditional dependence of Sri Lanka on plantation crops (tea, rubber, coconuts) is now steadily being shifted to the manufacturing items based on these cash crops. Although the share of industrial items increased from one-sixth to one-fourth of her exports during the 1970s, manufacturing still remains at a low level in Sri Lanka.

During colonial rule Indian industry was highly localized in a few cities: the major ports of Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras (now Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai), and the inland cities of Ahmedabad, Bangalore, and Kanpur. The commercial legacy of over-concentration in a few commercial centers is now steadily changing with respect to light consumer-oriented industries.

New industrial corridors are emerging along the major railroad lines between the chief metropolitan areas linking the port cities with the inland agricultural hinterlands. Primary plants for industrial goods and industrial raw materials are now widely dispersed. The South Asian governments, in general, have pursued a policy of industrial decentralization, largely to placate regional demands, but also to reduce congestion in the older industrial centers. This is particularly true in India, where steel mills are dispersed through several states: West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka.

Although South Asias expanding industrialization holds promise for considerably improved living standards at some future date, the present situation of the mass of factory workers is not a. happy one. A large proportion of these workers, especially in the larger cities, is composed of male immigrants from the countryside who have flocked to such industries as cotton and jute milling, leaving their wives and children in the village and sending them regular remittances.

These factory workers often have to cope with the high cost of urban living, and lead lives of drudgery, deprivation, and loneliness, while their families in the countryside subsist in scarcely less depressing conditions on the meager sums sent by family members working in distant cities.

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chinas journey to the center of the earth - for rare minerals

chinas journey to the center of the earth - for rare minerals

Men work with trucks at the Mirador mine of Ecuadorian Ecuacorriente, subsidiary of China's ... [+] CRCC-Tongguan consortium, in Tundayme, Zamora Chinchipe in southeastern Ecuador on July 18, 2019, during the beginning of operations of Ecuador's largest copper mine. (Photo by Rodrigo BUENDIA / AFP) (Photo credit should read RODRIGO BUENDIA/AFP via Getty Images)

The recent $3 billion sale of Chiles Compaa General de Electricidad to Chinas State Grid Corporation brought total Chinese control of electricity transmission in Chile up to 57%. Similar PRC acquisitions and projects are currently being advanced in Ecuador, Bolivia, Argentina, Honduras, Peru, and Columbia, where corporations are building hydropower, wind, and solar power stations. But China's energy push into Latin America is not limited to infrastructure. This is fast becoming a multi-pronged approach that also includes the securing of critical minerals, particularly rare earth elements (REEs). The United States, meanwhile, is mum.

Beijing has invested over $180 million into Venezuelan nickel mining, and an additional $580 million into more general mining services. Similar deals are underway in Chile and Peru, which account for 55% of Chinas copper. Chinese state-owned company Chinalco has a controlling interest in the Peruvian Toromocho and La Bambas copper mines, with another Chinese-backed mine in Ecuador. Chinas Xinjiang TBEA has acquired a 49% stake in Bolivias lithium industry as well, and while lithium, like copper and nickel, is not a rare earth, it remains a key component of many electric vehicle batteries.

While China searches for REE plays in Latin America amidst its critical mineral push, it already claims a near-global monopoly on rare earth extraction and refining. REEs are the building blocks of 21st century technology and China has moved aggressively to take control of each stage of the supply chain, establishing infrastructure and co-opting regional markets and elites well in advance of other nations. The United States may be losing the race for the future before most of its citizens hear the starting pistol.

Right now, China is home to a staggering 30% of global REE mined ores within its borders, and makes up 80% of worldwide rare-earth processing production. Their investments into countries in mineral-rich Africa, Central Asia, and Latin America seek to heighten that number, allowing Beijing to become the global supplier of vital, strategic resources crucial to our technological progress and economic development. Rare earths are the oil of the 21st century.

Through various ventures launched since 2006, Chinese mining companies invested a total of $36 billion in Sub-Saharan Africa, and they keep building on. Abilities to do so derive from a history of anti-colonial political support and foreign direct investment throughout African nations. Beijing has significant investments in cobalt mining throughout the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), where 60% of global cobalt reserves are found.

KOLWEZI, DRC: A miner collects small chunks of cobalt inside the CDM (Congo DongFang Mining) Kasulo ... [+] mine. "n"nCobalt is a vital mineral needed for the production of rechargeable batteries. Two thirds of the world supply is located in southern Congo where men, women and children all work. Batteries needed for phones, computers and electric cars have pushed the global demand for Cobalt through the roof. Chinese companies and middlemen have the strongest hold on the market. Tech companies like Apple, Microsoft and Tesla are trying to find a way to access Congolese cobalt in a more humane way with proper accountability.

While cobalt is not designated as a rare-earth, it is in the critical mineral family with REEs and remains a primary ingredient of the ubiquitous lithium-ion battery. With its projects in the DRC, China now controls 72% of global cobalt refining capacity.

In South America and Southeast Asia, Chinese companies have captured large quantities of REE supplies and built significant mining infrastructure. Over half of unrefined heavy REEs imported to China come from Myanmar, while partnerships with Brazilian mining companies have yielded positive trade relations in Latin America. Greenland, another mineral rich region, saw Chinese corporation Shenghe Resources Holding Co. attempt to build an REE extraction facility at Kvanefjeld that wouldve produced 10% of the worlds rare earths, though. However, the venture was blocked by the environmentalist political party, Inuit Ataquit.

Like Russia with its natural gas supplies to Europe and Ukraine, the Chinese government has already demonstrated its willingness to use REEs supplies as an economic weapon. After the Japanese Coast Guard detained a Chinese fisherman near the Senkaku Islands in 2010, Beijing briefly shut down REE exports to Japan in protest. Using this leverage, China was able to eventually secure the release of its fisherman. This will not be the last time China presses its REE advantage to coerce its neighbors.

Recent efforts to bolster U.S. rare earth supplies began with Presidential Executive Orders 13817 in late 2017 and 13953 in late 2020, which authorized the Department of Defense to evaluate domestic mineral site expansion and declared over-reliance on Chinese REE processing to be a national emergency. The designations applied by the Trump administration continued into the Biden administration, where Executive Order 14017 ordered a major review into supply chains gaps.

The Mountain Pass Rare Earth Mine in California is the only integrated rare-earth extraction and processing facility in North America. However, that number is expected to rise given increasing federal and corporate interest. Australias Lynas Corp, the second largest global REE producer, was awarded $30.4 million by the U.S. Department of Defense to build a processing facility in Rio Hondo, Texas. Materials mined by Lynas, originally shipped to China, will instead be bound for the United States, where domestic companies will be responsible for refinement.

SEPTEMBER 11, 2009. MOUNTAIN PASS, CA. In the lab at Molycorp Minerals mine in Mountain Pass, CA, ... [+] vials hold the raw oar and test samples of the rare earth metals that the company extracts from the rusty colored rock. With names that are foreign to most consumers, the metals are components in products that will define the future of industrial society. By 2012, Molycorp expects to be come a major global player in metals used in hybrid electric car batteries and wind generator motors. (Photo by Don Bartletti/Los Angeles Times via Getty Images)

Cooperation between the five eyes of the U.S., Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the U.K. is crucial, as well as additional joint ventures with Mexico, South American countries, and other key NATO and non-NATO allies. Yet, as the Biden Administration plans to diminish the U.S. and its allies dependence on Chinese REE capabilities, it needs to keep in mind the length of the supply chain and its defensibility, as well as the cost of transportation.

Rare-earth mineral extraction will likely create a competition between Washington and Beijing in the developing world, from Latin America and Africa across the Eurasian landmass. In this modern gold rush, for now, Beijing holds a strong early advantage. To catch up, American policy makers must treat the security of rare earth supply chains in the same way that we once treated our crude oil and natural gas imports in the pre-shale era: a matter of vital national security.

I am a Senior Fellow at the Atlantic Council and the Founding Principal of International Market Analysis, a Washington, D.C.-based global risk advisory boutique. I advise law firms and corporations, and once helped to get a famous Russian oligarch out of Putins jail. I am also a Senior Fellow with the International Tax and Investment Center (ITIC) where I direct their Energy, Growth, and Security Program (EGS). For 22 years, I was the Heritage Foundations leading Russia/Eurasia and international energy expert. My consultancy focuses on political risk, national security, and energy policy, especially in Russia/Europe/Eurasia, and the Middle East. The firms interventions span international security, economics, law, politics, terrorism, and crime and corruption. In addition to consulting for both the public and private sectors, I testify regularly before the U.S. Congress, and appear on Bloomberg, CNN, FOX, BBC, Al Jazeera, and other TV channels. In my free time, I enjoy skiing, sailing, classical music, and my two cats.

I am a Senior Fellow at the Atlantic Council and the Founding Principal of International Market Analysis, a Washington, D.C.-based global risk advisory boutique. I advise law firms and corporations, and once helped to get a famous Russian oligarch out of Putins jail. I am also a Senior Fellow with the International Tax and Investment Center (ITIC) where I direct their Energy, Growth, and Security Program (EGS). For 22 years, I was the Heritage Foundations leading Russia/Eurasia and international energy expert. My consultancy focuses on political risk, national security, and energy policy, especially in Russia/Europe/Eurasia, and the Middle East. The firms interventions span international security, economics, law, politics, terrorism, and crime and corruption. In addition to consulting for both the public and private sectors, I testify regularly before the U.S. Congress, and appear on Bloomberg, CNN, FOX, BBC, Al Jazeera, and other TV channels. In my free time, I enjoy skiing, sailing, classical music, and my two cats.

nordea trade portal

nordea trade portal

For the latest updates on the key economic responses from governments to address the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, please consult the IMF's policy tracking platform Policy Responses to COVID-19.Thailand is the second largest economy in Southeast Asia after Indonesia, and with an upper-middle income status, serves as...

For the latest updates on the key economic responses from governments to address the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, please consult the IMF's policy tracking platform Policy Responses to COVID-19.China is the second largest global economy, the largest exporter and has the largest exchange reserves in the world. However...

For the latest updates on the key economic responses from governments to address the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, please consult the IMF's policy tracking platform Policy Responses to COVID-19.Vietnam is one of the fastest growing countries in the world and its economy has shown resilience to trade wars and slower...

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what are the major industries in ethiopia? - worldatlas

what are the major industries in ethiopia? - worldatlas

Ethiopia is strategically located in the Horn of Africa. The country is home to approximately 102 million people. The land-locked country is renowned for its beautiful landscapes with numerous rivers, jungles, fertile land, and the Great Rift Valley.

Ethiopia is located near the markets of Middle East, Sudan, South Sudan, Kenya, and Somalia. Being a landlocked country, Ethiopia uses Djibouti's seaport for its trading activities. Ethiopia one of the fastest-growing economies in the continent. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), Ethiopias GDP growth rate will increase by around 7.8% to 10% by 2023. The country intends to be a middle-income economy by 2025. Ethiopias major industries include agriculture, construction, manufacturing, resources and energy, tourism, and food processing.

The agriculture industry in Ethiopia contributes to over 50% of its GDP. Ethiopia experiences favorable weather conditions leading to intensive agricultural practices within various diverse ecological zones. Additionally, the government has embraced both small scale and large-scale farming leading to high production of livestock products and crop yields. The Ethiopian agricultural sector covers agro-processed products, beverages, livestock products (eggs, milk, and meat), leather and textile industries. It also produces apparel, leather goods, and finished meat products for export and domestic purposes. The cash crop farming sector employs over 60% of Ethiopian working population. Major cash crops grown include spices, coffee, tea, cut flowers, honey, cotton, wheat, oilseeds, khat, beeswax, vegetables, fruits, and pulses. The high-value oil seeds cultivated in Ethiopia accounted for $446 million in exports while fruits and vegetables generated $538 million in the year 2017.

Moreover, Ethiopian farmers also grow coffee which is among the most traded products in the world. Over 15 million workers get involved in various processes of producing coffee with annual export revenue amounting to $881 million in 2016/2017. The government plans to increase its coffee exports revenue to 2 billion dollars by 2019/2020. The subsistence livestock farming is also part of Ethiopias agricultural sector with most activity taking part in the lowlands. Mutton, beef, and goat meat processing contributed $97 million worth of revenue while leather and raw hides exports revenue amounted to approximately $74 million in 2017. The agriculture-related industries act as a pillar to other segments of the Ethiopian economy such as machinery production as well as wholesale and retail businesses.

Ethiopias food sector generates large amounts of revenue to the government. The popular food factory products are meat, butter, pasteurized milk, frozen food, fresh fruits, bakery products, sugar, and cheese. The food processing industry employs about one million people. The food processing industry is closely related to the Agriculture industry as most of its raw materials are farm produce.

The construction sector in Ethiopia has recorded 11.6% annual growth fuelled by an increase in infrastructure investments across the regions. The non-residential and residential areas may further escalate the growth creating more employment, trade, and industry value. Most of the construction investment falls under the energy and infrastructure sector. This sector contributes over 9.5% of the countrys GDP. The industry has been able to provide cost-effective homes for the benefit of low-income households. Moreover, Ethiopias construction sector employs over 1.8 million people making it the second-largest operating segment. The government policies help to identify the various constraints within the industry and facilitates the implementation of laws. Additionally, policy implementation and rapid growth have attracted foreign businesses. The policies have paved the way for the involvement of the Chinese and European investors in industrial growth and infrastructural development. The Ethiopian construction industries have also embraced partnerships with suppliers, consultants, contractors and engineers among others.

The manufacturing industry in Ethiopia plays a significant role in the countrys economy. Companies engage in the production of processed food, textiles, beverages, tobacco, chemical products, footwear, soaps, and leather among others. Small enterprises and cottage industries have embraced the nonfarm employment; creating more working opportunities for Ethiopians. The industries have also led to the production of consumer-ready products like furniture, woven fabrics, jewelry, footwear, baskets, utensils, pottery, farming, and construction products. Ethiopia has the most prominent manufacturing park in Africa the "Hawassa Industrial Park." The park boasts of numerous co-related manufacturing industries dealing with a textile mill and water treatment plant. Furthermore, it is the only park in Africa to exclusively manufacture textile and apparel products. The park employs over 60,000 people who are mostly women. Ethiopias manufacturing sector has helped the economy by employing many people. It has also contributed to a diversified economy.

Mineral resources mined in Ethiopia like tantalum and gold contribute about 10% of its GDP. The major gold mining areas are Kibre Mengist and Yubdo which are located south and west of Ethiopia respectively. On the other hand, tantalum mining takes place at the Kenticha mines in Oromia region. The approximate annual production of tantalum is 120 tons. As of 2013, Ethiopia was one of the world producers of tantalum. The country also has niobium, gemstones, soda ash, and rock salt (found in Danakil plain). Ethiopia has the potential of mining natural gas and petroleum. The energy sector impacts both the social and economic lives of the Ethiopian population. Hydroelectricity comes from dams stationed at Blue Nile River and its tributaries, Awash River, Shebele River, Omo River, and Gilgel Gibe River. The government plans on expanding its hydroelectric power stations to various other parts of the country. This expansion will result in rural electrification.

In 2006, the tourism and services sector contributed to 5.5% of Ethiopias GDP with significant players being private companies. The industry employs thousands of local people. Some of the main tourist attractions in Ethiopia include national parks such as the Simien Mountains National Park, historical sites, and antiquities. More specifically, tourists visit the rock-hewn Lalibela churches, Aksum ruins, Tiya, Negash Mosque, Harar Jugol and Gondar among other places. Additionally, the diverse and intriguing Ethiopian culture also acts as a tourist attraction. Tourism is among the many initiatives that the government is promoting to eradicate poverty and heighten economic development. The European Council named Ethiopia as the Worlds Best Tourism Destination in 2015.

western asia - worldatlas

western asia - worldatlas

Western Asia is a subregion of Asia situated west of Central Asia and South Asia, south of Eastern Europe, east of Southern Europe, and north of Africa. The bodies of water that border Western Asia are the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman, the Gulf of Aqaba, the Gulf of Aden, the Caspian Sea, and the Aegean Sea. About 283 million people live in Western Asia.

Western Asia can be divided into four regions. The southernmost region is the Arabian Peninsula. Most of the Arabian Peninsula is made up of desert terrain. The largest desert on the peninsula is the Arabian Desert, which is found in the northwest of Saudi Arabia. This desert has a total area of 68,000 km2, and is composed mainly of vast sand seas and sand dunes. The largest mountain range on the Arabian Peninsula is called the Sarawat, which stretches from the Saudi-Jordanian border in the north to the Gulf of Aden in the south.

The center of the Arabian Peninsula is dominated by a plateau called the Najd. Lava fields dominate large parts of the western part of Saudi Arabia. Located east of the cities of Jeddah and Mecca and south of Medina is a plains region known as Baraya ar Rakbah. The Arabian Peninsula is bordered to the west by the Red Sea and Gulf of Aqaba, to the east by the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, to the south by the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea, and to the north by the countries of the Fertile Crescent.

As its name implies, the Fertile Crescent is a historic crescent-shaped region of fertile land that encompasses the present-day countries of Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Cyprus, and Jordan. This region gave birth to some of the worlds earliest civilizations, such as Mesopotamia, located in modern-day Iraq. Today, however, the Fertile Crescent is not very fertile at all, due to irrigation and dam projects that took place in the latter half of the 20th century which diverted water away from the marshlands of the Tigris-Euphrates river systems.

The most northerly region of Western Asia is the Caucasus, where present-day Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan are located. It is also the smallest region in Western Asia. The Caucasus countries are bordered by the Black Sea to the west, the Caspian Sea to the east, Iran to the south, and Russia to the north. The line that divides Europe and Asia runs right through the center of the Caucasus Mountains, which are the dominant geographical feature of the Caucasus region. The terrain of the Caucasus is composed of several features, including grassy highlands, snow-capped crags, coniferous and deciduous forests, shrubby plateaus, and swamp forests.

To the southwest of the Caucasus is Anatolia, otherwise known as Asia Minor. In addition to the Caucasus, Anatolia also borders Iran to the east, the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean Sea to the south. Geographically, Anatolia can be divided into four regions. The first is the Black Sea region, which is dominated by mountain ranges. Rivers flow from these mountains into the Black Sea. The second region, the Mediterranean region, consists of fertile coastal plains. The Anatolian plateau, which occupies Central Anatolia, is the third region, and is comprised of semi-arid highlands. The fourth region of Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, is rugged territory with higher elevations. Mount Ararat, the tallest mountain in Turkey, is located in Eastern Anatolia, as are various rivers, including the northern ends of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

Western Asia contains many peoples, cultures, and languages. The Arab peoples dominate both the Arabian Peninsula and the Fertile Crescent. They were originally confined to the Arabian Peninsula, but ended up migrating northwards into the Fertile Crescent as they followed the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the region. The Arabian Peninsula is the birthplace of the Islamic faith. Islams holiest and second holiest cities, Mecca and Medina respectively, are situated on the peninsula. Islam is also the religion of the overwhelming majority of the people in the Arabian Peninsula, and in all of Western Asia as well.

In the Fertile Crescent, Israel and Cyprus are the only two countries without Arab, Muslim majorities. Instead, Israels population is mostly Jewish, while the population of Cyprus is mostly of Greek or Turkish descent. There are also significant ethnic and religious minorities in parts of the Fertile Crescent. The Kurds, for example, are the largest ethnic minority in Western Asia. They occupy a large part of the region, including southeastern Turkey, and northern parts of Syria and Iraq. The Christian population of the Fertile Crescent has shrunk significantly in the last half-century, but significant Christian communities still exist in Israel, Syria, and Lebanon, along with smaller Christian communities in Iraq and Palestine.

Anatolia, as part of Turkey, is home to the vast majority of Turks, who are Western Asias largest ethnic group. In comparison, the population of the Caucasus is small but quite diverse. Among the peoples of the Caucasus are the Armenians, Azerbaijanis, and Georgians, who live mostly in the countries named for them. The Caucasus also boasts other smaller groups, such as the Abkhazians and South Ossetians in Georgia, and the Lezgins in Azerbaijan.

There are 18 countries in Western Asia. The countries of Yemen, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia are located on the Arabia Peninsula. The Fertile Crescent includes the countries of Iraq, Syria, Cyprus, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, and Palestine. The Caucasus consists of three countries, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, while Anatolia makes up the vast majority of Turkeys territory.

The countries of the Arabian Peninsula hold much of the worlds oil reserves. This oil wealth has made most of the countries in the area quite wealthy, and helped build vast metropolises with tall, gleaming towers and skyscrapers. In terms of population, Saudi Arabia is the Arabian Peninsulas most populous country, boasting a population of approximately 35 million. It also has Western Asias largest economy. Bahrain is the smallest and least populous country in the Arabian Peninsula region, with just 1.7 million people.

In the Fertile Crescent are two other oil-rich countries, Iraq and Syria. The other countries of the Fertile Crescent, including Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, and Palestine do not have vast oil reserves, and thus have had to develop their economies without such resources. Israels economy in particular is widely known for being based on high-tech products and services, so much so that it has been nicknamed Start-up Nation. Iraq is the most populous of the Fertile Crescent countries, while Cyprus is the smallest and least populous. More than 40 million people live in Iraq, while Cyprus has just 1.2 million, which also makes the island country the least populous in all of Western Asia.

Anatolia makes up most of Turkey, the most populous country in all of Western Asia. More than 85 million people call Turkey home. Turkey is also home to Western Asias second biggest economy after Saudi Arabia. The Caucasus countries of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan were all former republics in the Soviet Union. They have struggled as independent countries, having to deal with both internal and external conflicts. Armenia and Azerbaijan have repeatedly fought over the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, which lies inside Azerbaijan but is populated mostly by Armenians. In addition, Georgia has fought with Russia over the breakaway Georgian regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Azerbaijan is the most populous country in the Caucasus, with more than 10 million people, while Armenia has the smallest population in the Caucasus region, at around 3 million.

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