metal briquetting press | ruf briquetting systems

metal briquetting press | ruf briquetting systems

The value of metal residues can be greatly increased with our metal press machine. The metal chip briquetting machine is a real all-rounder and is suitable for pressing aluminium, steel, cast iron, copper and countless other metals. On the basis of the particular experience we have gained in the field of metal chip recycling, we are able to offer briquetting solutions which are individually tailored to customer-specific requirements.

Briquetting is a suitable treatment method for de-watering or de-oiling wet metal chips. During the briquetting process, our metal chip press recovers cooling lubricants that adhere to the damp metal chips. Consumption of these expensive cooling lubricants is thereby significantly reduced. Depending on customer requirements, we offer metal chip presses for throughputs between 30 and 5,000 kg per hour. The required throughput and briquette density will have an influence on the choice of the briquette format.

"This is the perfect solution to our handling and space problems. And the waste aluminium in the compact briquette shape largely cleaned of the cooling lubricant emulsion achieves a higher profit when sold on ."

"First and foremost I am impressed by the good price-performance ratio, the quality and the reliability of the machines. Besides I truly appreciate the excellent personal relationship I have experienced with the family business and their Senior Director Hans Ruf from day one."

"Our collaboration with company RUF has started in 2002 and has been successful through all these years. RUF is not just a world known machinery producer name and the leader in briquetting technologies market. RUF is your trustful business partner as it has been a reliable and supporting partner for us during both periods of the sales peaks and during market depression. Its our luck to have the same business philosophy with our main business partner the RUF company. When both of you have the same aim, you achieve it faster!"

"We do not have one unsatisfied customer with a RUF machine and we have sold some 40 systems here in Australia and New Zealand. That in itself speaks volumes for the RUF company and its equipment. In our opinion the RUF briquette press cannot be matched from a performance basis. Although it is more expensive than most competing machines from a capital cost point of view, the ongoing trouble free performance and maintenance of the RUF machines put them well ahead of the opposition."

We always try to find the best possible briquetting solution. Our range has therefore been specifically developed for certain materials, production conditions or marketing purposes of the briquettes. Our experts will be happy to advise you with respect to processing several different materials with one briquetting machine.

Briquetting can be worthwhile even with very small quantities of chips. Briquette presses with a lower throughput should be considered here. Depending on the material, our systems can make economic sense in these cases too. Our specialists will be happy to advise you!

development of ultra small grinding sludge briquetting machine|new products:2010|product & technology|ntn global

development of ultra small grinding sludge briquetting machine|new products:2010|product & technology|ntn global

NTN Corporation (hereafter NTN) has developed an Ultra Small Grinding Sludge Briquetting Machine (PRG-III) with new functions for recycling grinding sludge from metallic processing at small manufacturing facilities.

NTN achieved ISO14001 certification in 1998 and began aggressive efforts to improve recycling and reduce the company's environmental impact. In 2000, NTN developed equipment capable of separate grinding sludge (generated during bearing production) into metallic briquettes and grinding coolant. This recycling technology allowed NTN to reuse the grinding by-products. As a result, the disposal cost of grinding sludge was eliminated and 100% recycling of NTN's grinding sludge was achieved.

Since that time, NTN has produced two machine sizes to match the volume of grinding sludge: PRG-I (30-ton per month capacity; 1,000kN) and PRG-II L (20-ton per month capacity; 520kN). These machines have a good reputation at NTN's customers. Since the introduction of the first two models, NTN has seen market demand from both large facilities wanting to process a small amount of waste and many smaller customers with less grinding capacity than required for either the PRG-I or PRG-II L machines. NTN has developed an Ultra small grinding sludge briquetting machine (PRG-III) which occupies a small space to facilitate small manufacturing plants.

This machine will first be displayed at the 25th Japan International Machine Tool Fair (JIMTOF) held from October 28 to November 2 in Tokyo. NTN will begin selling this product in November through the NTN Technical Service Corporation, one of its subsidiaries.

the dreamteam for wood waste disposal - weima maschinenbau

the dreamteam for wood waste disposal - weima maschinenbau

CNC World, a British vendor of CNC machines, has recently started to process its wood waste mechanically in order to heat the workshop in a resource-saving manner. The combination of shredder and briquetting press has proven to be a real dream team.

For many years CNC World Ltd. has been selling automated position cutting systems such as CNC milling machines, plasma and water jet cutters and lasers. As part of its expansion in Norwich, Great Britain, the machine specialist was able to extend its demonstration area and advance the recycling of wood waste.

When wood is processed with CNC machines, waste is often produced from the offcuts. Over time, large amounts of excess wood waste can accumulate. The disposal of this waste can be very expensive. Although in-house recycling initially involves investment costs, it offers many advantages in the long term.

With FERCELL (the British dealer for WEIMA machines) as a consulting partner, CNC World has chosen a complete solution from WEIMA. The scrap wood is first shredded with a WEIMA WL 4 single-shaft shredder and then pressed into stable briquettes using a WEIMA C 140 briquetting press. The wood briquettes are then burned in a wood-burning oven. This way the workshop can be heated and additional costs saved.

The WEIMA WL 4 shredder is a proven classic in the product portfolio of the shredding specialist from Ilsfeld. It shreds wood waste of all kinds and is in use in thousands of wood processing companies all over the world. The machine is characterized by a very robust design and extremely long service life. With a rotor diameter of 252 mm, a rotor length of 600 mm and an output of up to 18.5 kW, the WL 4 shreds any wood waste at a high throughput volume to a homogeneous grain size. The WAP gear developed by WEIMA is manufactured exclusively by WEIMA and is extremely maintenance-friendly, low-wear and resistant to foreign material.

Once the material is shredded, it can be processed into briquettes. The compact and low-maintenance C 140 briquetting press from WEIMA was the optimal solution for the requirements of CNC World. The machine has a throughput of 40 kilograms per hour and is therefore particularly suitable for small and medium-sized companies. With the C 140 CNC World compacts its shredded wood waste into solid briquettes the addition of binding agents is completely unnecessary. The volume of wood waste can thus be reduced by up to 90 percent. This saves space and is cost-efficient. The highly compacted briquettes with a diameter of 40 mm are particularly suitable for combustion in a wood-burning oven, as their calorific value is comparable to that of lignite. Thus, CNC World can heat its own buildings in an environmentally friendly and cost-saving way.

Shredding, briquetting and subsequent burning of the waste material offers CNC World a sustainable alternative to heating with fossil fuels. The briquettes that are not used for heating can also be sold to generate additional income.

iron ore agglomeration technologies | intechopen

iron ore agglomeration technologies | intechopen

Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Its based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. How? By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers.

We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the worlds most-cited researchers. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too.

Until the 1950s of the last century, the oxidized iron ores that were loaded into the blast furnace had granulometries within 10 and 120mm. However, the depletion of high-grade iron ore sources has made necessary the utilization of concentration processes with the purpose of enriching the iron ore. Because of these processes, a fine granulometry is produced, and thus iron agglomeration process is necessary. There are several agglomeration processes including: briquetting, extrusion, nodulization, pelletizing and sintering, although pelletizing and sintering are the most widely used, and especially sintering process (70% blast furnace load). Apart from obtaining an agglomerated product, the objective is reaching the suitable characteristics (thermal, mechanical, physical, and chemical) in a product that is then fed into the blast furnace, achieving a homogenous and stable operation in this furnace with economical profitability.

Iron and steel are widely used in modern societies despite the appearance of new materials. In this way, there is a growing tendency in the production of steel as according to the historical data, around 200 Mt were produced in 1950, 595 Mt in 1970, 760 Mt in 1990, 848 Mt in 2000 and 1630 Mt in 2016 [1, 2]. There is an irregular distribution of steel production worldwide as most of the steel is produced in Asia (more than 50%, mainly in China), followed by Europe (205 Mt in 2013), Russia, and USA. In the same line, Asia was the place where the steel production grew more in the last 40 years (from 121 Mt in 1970 to 1123 Mt in 2013), while in Europe the production remains stable in around 200 Mt, and in North America (USA and Canada) decreased from 131 Mt in 1970 to 102 Mt in 2013 [1, 2]. This growing tendency has led to the depletion of high-quality iron ore resources, and the use of concentration processes to increase the iron content, but also the agglomeration processes to achieve a homogeneous materials size that could ensure a suitable operation in the furnace.

Until the 1950s of the last century, oxidized iron ores with a granulometry within 10 and 120mm were loaded into the blast furnace (lower sizes led to permeability problems in the furnace bed) [3]. However, nowadays, 70% of the blast furnace ferrous bed belongs to sinter [4], and is for that reason the main agglomeration process. As we said previously, the depletion of the high-quality iron sources has caused the utilization of concentration operations after size reduction processes, having as objective enriching the ore by eliminating the gangue, but causing a fine granulometry that makes necessary the utilization of agglomeration processes, such as nodulizing, briquetting, extrusion, pelletizing, and sintering. Concentration processes can be classified into four categories according to the properties of the materials to separate them from the gangue [5]: classification, based on particle size; gravimetric concentration, based on density and/or volume differences; flotation, based on superficial properties; and, magnetic or electrostatic separation, based on magnetic susceptibility or electric conductivity. The obtained product is rich in iron but with a fine granulometry, making necessary the utilization of the previously mentioned agglomeration processes. However, increasing the particle size is not the single aspect that makes necessary the utilization of agglomeration processes. Nowadays, the existence of a global iron ore market with ores with different precedence and quality is responsible of that the raw material that reaches the iron and steelmaking factories has neither the same chemical composition nor the same granulometry. This question could affect blast furnace behavior, when a stable and homogenous operation is pursued with the objective of achieving economic efficiency, consistency in the pig iron and minimal coke consumption [6].

Five iron ore agglomeration technologies can be defined: briquetting, nodulization, extrusion, pelletization and sintering. Sintering and pelletization are the most important agglomeration technologies, in this way, in the EU-27, 14 countries operate 34 iron ore sinter plants with 63 iron ore sinter strands, producing in the first decade of the twenty-first century 130 million tons of sinter annually, on its behalf, 6 pelletization plants produce 27 million tons of pellet annually [7]. Here we are going to describe all these agglomeration technologies, with special dedication to pelletizing and sintering as they are the most used worldwide.

Briquetting is the simplest agglomeration process. Fine grained iron ore is pressed into two pockets with the addition of water or some other binder agent (molasses, starch, or tar pitch) to form briquettes [8]. A traditional application is the agglomeration of coal [8], other example is the agglomeration of ultrafine oxidized dust produced in the ferroalloys industry [9].

Nodulization is a process like sintering as it does not need a binder agent. The iron ore concentrate is mixed with carbon, and fed into a rotary kiln, where the material is tumbled at high temperature to form nodules [8]. Reached temperature is enough to soften the ore but not to fuse it. Problems of the nodules are the considerable differences in composition and density (they are too dense), and the lack of a well-developed porosity (permeability) which is of great importance for the operation in the blast furnace. This process, as briquetting, is mainly used for the recycling of iron ore wastes in steel plants.

Extrusion is a process widely used in the ceramic industry, but it has begun to be used in the ironmaking and steelmaking industry in the agglomeration of powders generated in the factories as Basic Oxygen Furnace and Electric Arc Furnace powders. A certain level of moisture is required, as well as a binder agent, for instance bentonite or Portland cement. The mixture is sent to the extrusion machine to obtain the agglomerated product [8].

Pelletization is an agglomeration process of iron ore concentrates with a granulometry lower than 150m and low concentration of impurities [10, 11]. This iron ore is mixed with water, bentonite (or other organic binders less expensive and contaminant [12]), and lime and treated in a furnace at temperatures of around 1200C, with the purpose of obtaining a product of 1020mm in diameter with suitable physical, chemical, and mechanical properties to be fed into the blast furnace or to the production of DRI (Direct Reduction Iron) [10]. Sintering raw mixes with a high proportion of fines (<150m) deteriorates the operation of the Dwight-Lloyd sinter machine, and for that reason pelletizing is the best method for treating this kind of material. The formation of liquid phases, which agglomerate the iron ore, in pellets is achieved by an external source of energy (fuel, natural gas or pulverized coal), as opposed to sintering, where liquid phases are consequence of the combustion of coke breeze [2].

Chemically, pellets are characterized by (approximately): 94% Fe2O3, 3.3% SiO2, 1.0% CaO, 0.20% MnO, 0.50% MgO and 1.0% Al2O3, and as we mentioned previously, a granulometry of 1020mm [2]. According to this question, it is possible to say that pellets are characterized by [10]: great uniformity regarding the size (1020mm in diameter); high mechanical strength; almost inert behavior facing to water as a consequence of the low CaO content that makes possible storing and transporting pellets outside; good reducibility; and, high iron content.

As in the case of the sintering, mixing is an important step to obtain homogenous pellets. This mixing is easy when the materials to be mixed have the same particle size and physical properties, however, binder additions (around 1%) are necessaries and they are less dense than the ore. For that reason, segregation between particles must be considered when mixing the materials in the production of pellets.

Bentonite clay is the most common binder agent in iron ore pelletization as we mentioned previously, and is added at levels of 0.51.5% by weight [8]. There are others, that can be classified into two categories: organics (do not add impurities to the pellet and can be added in amounts of 1/10 of the equivalent in bentonite, although sometimes do not provide sufficient strength to the indurated pellets), and inorganics (usually result in strong pellets, which is good for shipping and handlings, but have the problem of impurities) [8]. Examples of inorganic pellets are: bentonite, sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide; while examples of organic pellets are: carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), other CMC-based polymers, corn starch, wheat flour or molasses [8].

Regarding pelletizing technologies, it is possible to mention two that are used at industrial scale: rotary drum and rotary disc. The rotary drum is a large drum-shaped cylinder that is elevated at one of its ends (34). The mixture (iron ore-binder) is fed at the elevated zone of the drum and lefts the drum at the lower zone, where it is classified into three groups, the undersize pellets (which are recirculated), the oversize pellets (which are recirculated after crushing), and the final product [8]. The pelletizer discs are the second technology, having as advantage if compared with the rotary drum that there is no recirculation. The mixture is fed to an inclined large disc (4060 to the horizontal), and the rotation of the disc causes the formation of balls, which remain in the disc until they reached the adequate pellet size. The variables that should be controlled are the disc angle, feed rate, water addition, and rotation speed [8].

Once the green pellet is obtained, it must be subjected to induration as it is too weak for its application. Pellets are for that reason processed at high temperatures to strengthen them. Three types of furnaces are used: shaft furnace, traveling grate, and grate-kiln, and temperature will depend on the kind of pellet. Pellets can be classified into three groups:Blast Furnace grade. They are dried at 105120C, and then indurated at high temperature (12001400C, depending on the kind of both ore and binder, the same for the time), allowing for a strong pellet that can resist shipping, handling, and processes in the blast furnace. This kind of pellets can have certain level of impurities since all constituents of the iron feed are melted during the process in the blast furnace, and they can float as slag above the reduced iron (being then removed). Typically contain 5865% Fe and size range of 912mm [8].Direct Reduction grade. As opposed to blast furnace process, direct reduction of iron oxide happens in solid state (components are not melted). For that reason, impurities are necessary to be controlled. They are first dried at 105120C, and then indurated at high temperature (12001400C, depending on the kind of both ore and binder, the same for the time, as in Blast Furnace grade pellets), allowing for a strong pellet that can resist shipping, handling, and steelmaking processes [8].Rotary Heating Furnace pellets, or iron ore-coal composite pellets. This kind of pellets does not require high strength as in the other two types, since in the same vessel that the green pellets are fed, they are transformed into direct reduction iron. The resistance is required only for feeding as they are dried in the first part of the furnace and then are reduced without requiring more handling than that to feed them into the furnace [8, 13].

Blast Furnace grade. They are dried at 105120C, and then indurated at high temperature (12001400C, depending on the kind of both ore and binder, the same for the time), allowing for a strong pellet that can resist shipping, handling, and processes in the blast furnace. This kind of pellets can have certain level of impurities since all constituents of the iron feed are melted during the process in the blast furnace, and they can float as slag above the reduced iron (being then removed). Typically contain 5865% Fe and size range of 912mm [8].

Direct Reduction grade. As opposed to blast furnace process, direct reduction of iron oxide happens in solid state (components are not melted). For that reason, impurities are necessary to be controlled. They are first dried at 105120C, and then indurated at high temperature (12001400C, depending on the kind of both ore and binder, the same for the time, as in Blast Furnace grade pellets), allowing for a strong pellet that can resist shipping, handling, and steelmaking processes [8].

Rotary Heating Furnace pellets, or iron ore-coal composite pellets. This kind of pellets does not require high strength as in the other two types, since in the same vessel that the green pellets are fed, they are transformed into direct reduction iron. The resistance is required only for feeding as they are dried in the first part of the furnace and then are reduced without requiring more handling than that to feed them into the furnace [8, 13].

Sintering is a thermal process (13001400C) by which a mixture of iron ore, return fines, recycled products of the iron and steel industry (mill scale, blast furnace dusts, etc.), slag-forming elements, fluxes and coke are agglomerated in a sinter plant with the purpose of manufacturing a sintered product of a suitable chemical composition, quality (physically) and granulometry to be fed into the blast furnace, ensuring a homogenous and stable operation in the blast furnace [2]. This definition proposed in [2], describes the sintering process, but prior to sintering there is an important process called granulation that is deeply reviewed also in [2]. Granulation is the homogenization of the iron ore mixture in a rotatory drum with 78% water having as objective the obtaining of a pre-agglomerated product, which is then delivered as a layer over a continuously moving grate or strand (Dwight-Lloyd machine) to obtain the sintered product. This process that takes between 30 and 60min. (including the addition of moisture, granulation and feeding to the sintering machine) has a fundamental role as it ensures an adequate sinter bed permeability and hence good productivity [2].

Dwight-Lloyd technology is the main iron ore sintering technology. Basically, this equipment consists in a sintering grate that is a continuous chain of large length and width, which is formed by the union of a series of pallet cars making the sintering strand. The process in the Dwight-Lloyd machine begins with each pallet car passing below the charging hopper. Feeding is carried out in two layers: the hearth layer that protects steel grates from over-heating during the sintering process, which is formed by sinter of coarse granulometry (1020mm, with a granulometry not enough to be sent to the blast furnace) in a layer of 36cm [14, 15]; and the layer of fine material (08mm) granulated to be sintered (fine material, return fines, fluxes, and coke). Once charged, the pallet car passes below an initializing furnace, causing the combustible ignition on the surface of the mixture, and being at the same time the mixture subjected to downdraught suction through the load. The combustion of the coke breeze (or alternative combustible in the corresponding case) does not take place in the whole thickness of the bed instantaneously, on the contrary, combustion happens as a horizontal layer that moves vertically through the bed. In this way, permeability is important, and for that reason granulation is a fundamental step [16]. This movement of the combustion zone defines several zones in the sinter bed (from the lower to the upper zone) [16]: cold and wet zone, is the zone of the sinter mix to be sintered at a temperature lower than 100C; drying zone, zone at temperatures between 100 and 500C where the vaporization of moisture and dehydration of hydroxides take place; reaction zone, where the maximum temperatures are reached during the combustion of coke (exothermic), decomposition of carbonates (endothermic), solid phase reactions, reduction and re-oxidation of iron oxides and reactions of formation of the sintered mass take place; and finally, cooling zone, is the zone where the cooling and re-crystallization of the sintered product take place. The high thermal efficiency is consequence of the heat accumulation in a partial layer called sintering zone or flame front (which progresses at 1030mm/min) toward the sintering grate, and in this way a 500600mm bed height would be sintered in around 25min [16, 17]. Finally, the flame front reaches the bottom of the layer at the end of the strand, where the sintered product is discharged and subjected to cooling, crushing, and screening, being three kinds of product finally obtained: 05mm (or 010mm depending on the author, see [16]), called return fines and sent back to the beginning of the sintering process; 520mm (or 1020mm or 1015mm depending on the author, see [16]), used as hearth layer in the sinter strand with the functions previously mentioned; and, > 20mm (or >15mm depending on the author, see [16]), sent to the blast furnace directly. Maximum sizes around 50mm [18].

As we mentioned, flame front is the region limited by the moment where the coke begins to combust and the moment where the coke burned [19]. There are other definitions that can be read in [16]. The temperature at which the coke begins to burn depends on the size, oxygen partial pressure, volatile content, and component types in the coke. The ideal flame front thermal profile is characterized by short heating time (1.5min) up to the high temperature zone (1100C) to avoid the formation of important amounts of FeO due to the low partial pressure of oxygen, and long cooling times (35min) down to the room temperature to avoid a strong sinter structure by the formation of a gangue matrix [16]. Anyway, maximum temperature and heat distribution should be uniform to obtain a homogenous sinter with suitable quality, and with the maximum process efficiency. In this way, a double layer sintering is used in some plants to satisfy this question, the upper layer would have higher coke content than the lower one, and under that conditions the tendency of Tmax of being higher in the lower layer is avoided [16].

There is a strong relationship between sinter structure and sinter characteristics. Sintering process is based on rising the temperature with the objective of producing a molten phase, which, during the cooling period, will crystalize or solidify into several mineral phases and will agglomerate the mixture. In this way, from a mixture whose main constituents are Fe2O3, CaO, SiO2 and Al2O3, it is possible to obtain a product having the following constituents: Fe2O3, Fe3O4, FeO, metallic iron, calcium ferrites and silicates. Calcium ferrites and silicates bond metallic oxides. It is, for that reason, possible to establish five categories of constituents that we can find in the sinter structure [20]: hematite(Fe2O3), primary (original mineral) and secondary or recrystallized (directly crystallized, formed by oxidation of magnetite crystals in liquid phase or formed by magnetite oxidation in solid phase); magnetite(Fe3O4), formed from the minerals or crystallized from the liquid phase; wstite(FeO), formed by precipitation from the liquid in low potential of oxygen (typically associated to excesses of coke in the sinter, retained carbon grains or magnetite reduction in solid state); calcium ferrites(xSIO2 yFe2O3 5CaO zAl2O3 with x+y+z=12), they are difficult to define as there is partial replacement of Ca2+ by Mg2+, Fe2+ by Mn2+, Fe3+ by Al3+ and Si2+, etc., so they include several chemical compounds formed by crystallization of the liquid phase according to the reaction above mentioned, and they are known as silicoferrites of calcium and aluminum (SFCA); and, silicates, which include olivine, fayalite, and calcium silicates. Reactions involved in the formation of these constituents are described in [16, 20]. It is obvious that each constituent has a certain influence in the quality of the sinter produced, in this way, for instance primary hematite is considered beneficial for the sintered product as improves reducibility index, and SFCA are also beneficial for the sinter structure as they have good reducibility, improve shatter index and tumbler index [20]. The optimum sinter structure for sinter reducibility in the blast furnace would be hematite nuclei (un-melted) surrounded by an acicular ferrite network [21, 22]. Considering the temperature of operation, the best sinter quality (maximum percentage of ferrites, high primary hematite, good porosity, and good quality indices) is reached when sintering at 12251275C [23].

As it was mentioned previously, blast furnace operators require a homogeneous product with the suitable thermal, chemical, physical, and mechanical properties to be fed into the blast furnace, ensuring the highest productivity and performance. The main quality indices are:

Softening melting test:this test was developed in Japan and UK to simulate the behavior of iron ore materials in the cohesive zone of the blast furnace (defined as the zone of the blast furnace where the load formed by coarse mineral grains, sinter and pellets begins to soft [20]). See [20] to enlarge information.

Tumbler Index (TI) (%>6.3mm) (min. 63, max. 79, typical>74[20]):this test was developed with the purpose of knowing the cold strength of the sinter, and in this way, evaluating the tendency to the formation of fines during the handling and transportation of the sinter from the sintering machine to the blast furnace throat (obviously informing about the losses of material as fines). The Tumbler index depends on the strength of each component, as well as on the strength of the bonding matrix components and ore composition [24]. Standards to calculate this index are IS 6495:2003 and ISO 3271:2015. There are other indices used with the same purpose as for instance Micum and Irsid indices. The generation of fines was studied by using a method different from TI in [25]. They simulated different steps of handling and transportation by using customized drop and vibration tests and considering sinter size, drop height and conveying time [25].

Low temperature degradation tests:degradation that happens during reduction in the low temperature zone has harmful effects on burden strength in the blast furnace (loss of permeability to reducing gas and increase of coke consumption [26]). To have more information about the tests you can read [20]. Low Temperature Breakdown Test (LTB) was developed by the British Iron and Steel Research Association (BISRA) and Luossavaara-Kirunavaara AB (LKAB) with the purpose of evaluating the abrasion resistance of iron bearing materials under reducing conditions, simulating those in the upper zone of a blast furnace stack [20].

Reducibility index (RI) (R60, %)) (min. 49, max. 78[20]):this test informs about the ability of the sintered products for transferring oxygen during the indirect reduction process in the blast furnace stack. The porosity (non-occluded porosity is the surface available for gassolid contact) and the mineralogical composition. RI is related with FeO content in the sinter (the higher the FeO content, the lower the reducibility) as FeO reacts with SiO2 to form calcium ferrites, which are difficultly reduced. There are eight tests to calculate the reducibility: Midrex-Linder, HYLSA Batch, VDE (Verein Deutcher Eisenhuttenleute), Japanese Industrial Standard, Gakushin, ISO Relative Reducibility Test, ISI test, and HYL-III test. They are described in [20].

Reduction Degradation Index (RDI) (%<3mm) (min. 27, max. 33, typical<33[20]):This test gives a measure of the sinter strength after the partial reduction of the material, and provides information about the degradation behavior in the lower part of the blast furnace stack [20].

Coke consumption (min. 39kgt1sinter, max. 54kgt1sinter[20])is one important factor, as nowadays is the main combustible for the sintering process (around 88% [7], there are other traditional combustibles such as anthracite (with low volatile matter content), and other modern combustibles (biomass, biochar, etc.) developed in an attempt of reducing CO2, NOX and SOX as coke breeze (<5mm) has 0.421% S and 1.061.23% N [7]) and for that reason it is necessary to guarantee the coal for coking production. The problem is that coking coal is only available in some regions, but also rises in coke price, unstable supply of anthracites and global warming by CO2 [2, 16, 27]. Size is an important factor in sinter productivity and reducibility, being the best results found when coke size is 0.253mm [28]. The fraction 13.15mm is more economical in terms of consumption [28, 29, 30]. The reduction in coke breeze consumption is being carried out mainly by replacing coke breeze by new renewable solid fuels as biochar, biomass, or charcoal [31, 32, 33].

Fe total (%) (min. 51, max. 61, typical>56[20]):iron ore market is mainly composed by hematite (Fe2O3), goethite (-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe3O4), with low impurities content (alkalis, sulfur and phosphorus) and iron average content of 6065% in 2016 (around 40% in 1940) [2]. However, the depletion of rich iron ore mines will lead to exploitation of complex chemistry ores and low-grade iron ore mines, considering in some cases the bioprocessing [5].

Basicity index (typical 1.70[20]):reduction degradation index (RDI) decreases when basicity increases [20]. Obviously, basicity index has importance in the hardness and reducibility of the sinter as expresses the relation CaO/SiO2. See [20] for a deeper explanation on sinter basicity index and sinter structure.

FeO content (%) (min. 4.0, max. 11[20]):this parameter informs about the thermal state of the sintering process [20] and about coke rate. RDI is reduced when FeO content is increased [20, 34]. The problem is that increasing FeO content affects coke rate, deteriorates the sinter reducibility [35, 36], and can also affect blast furnace productivity [35].

Al2O3content (%) (min. 0.6, max. 1.8, typical 1.35[20]):sinter quality is related with Al2O3 content as when Al2O3 content is increased, RDI is higher. This point is under discussion as Kumar et al. observed that with 1010.5% CaO an increase of 0.1% in Al2O3 increases RDI 2 points [34], while Hiesch observed no relation between RDI and Al2O3 [37]. Alumina is also related with reducibility, but the same as for RDI, there are different opinions, Yu et al. observed that maximum reducibility is reached when Al2O3 content is 2.5% in the sinter ore [38], while Umadevi et al. observed that reducibility increased when alumina content is raised from 2 to 5.5% [39].

MgO content (%) (min. 0.7, max. 2.2, typical 1.65[20]):MgO is related with the obtaining of an optimum blast furnace slag (flowability and desulphurization). For that reason, MgO is added as dolomite or dunite, directly or through the sinter. It was observed an increase in the utilization of dolomite (containing CaO and MgO) or other MgO-bearing materials with low SiO2 (as dunite) due to the use of iron ores with high SiO2 content. There are mixed opinions regarding how this constituent affects reducibility, RDI, Tumbler and productivity. Umadevi et al. observed that reducibility was decreased with increasing MgO addition (in low and high silica iron ore fines) [40]. Kalenga and Garbers-Craig observed an increase in Tumbler index and coke rate with increasing MgO content [41]. Bhagat observed that varying MgO content within certain limits (1.52.5%) did not affect productivity and Tumbler, while coke breeze consumption was reduced [42]. On their behalf, Umadevi et al. observed that increasing MgO content from 1.4 to 2.6% increased heat consumption, and productivity was reduced [43]. And Yadav et al. observed that raising MgO content from 1.75 to 3.25% caused a deterioration in productivity and an increase in Tumbler index [44]. With regard to how MgO content affects RDI, there are several opinions, and in this way, [41, 43, 45] observed that RDI improved when MgO content was increased, but [42] observed that MgO did not affect RDI, and [44] observed that increasing MgO increased RDI.

Alkalis content (%) (min. 0.11[20]):they are mainly K and Na compounds and enter in the blast furnace with the charge materials (sinter, 3258%; coke ash, 2133%; pellets, 1637% [46]). They cause several problems in the blast furnace performance: decrease coke hot strength, deteriorate sinter RDI, weak refractory lining and facilitate the formation of slag crusts, scaffolding and burning of the tuyeres [47].

Data analysis is nowadays widely used with the purpose of correlating variables and, in this way, evaluating the effect of them in a certain process, whose have a higher influence, and how changing them will affect the sintering process. We have studied what variables are and what weight have them on three sinter quality indices as Tumbler Index, Reduction Degradation Index, and Reducibility Index. The objective of our work was to estimate them by using multivariate statistics, and thus avoiding long and expensive laboratory tests. Once each index was defined by a mathematical equation whose parameters are easily measured, we used fuzzy inference to develop a fuzzy control system that could warn in case of deviations from the conditions that ensured the best quality indices.

For our work, we used real data from a sintering machine. The variables with a higher weight for each quality index are: RDI (%<3.15mm): fines (%), fluxes (%), Fe2O3 (%), FeO (%), CaO (%), S (%), 1020mm (%), average particle size (mm), productivity (t/h), basicity index, and abrasion (%<0.6mm); Tumbler Index (%>6.35mm): Fe2O3 (%), CaO (%), MgO (%), MnO (%), P2O5 (%), 010mm (%), 1020mm (%), basicity index, and maximum temperature in box prior to sinter discharge (C); and, RI:Recoveries from other stages of the ironmaking and steelmaking process (%), FeO (%), P2O5 (%), MgO (%), S (%), Al2O3 (%) and >50mm (%).

We elaborated a mathematical equation that correlated the RDI, the TI and the RI with those variables mentioned above, and in this way, it is possible to predict the indices by using these easily measured variables.

Avoiding or minimizing pollutants is of large importance in nowadays environmental industrial policies, but also the objective is reducing the ecological footprint of the sintering process. In a second plane, environmental improvements will enhance the profitability of the sintering process from the economical point.

Sintering process is also used in the ironmaking and steelmaking as recycling system as apart from using iron ore fines and additives (such as fluxes and coke breeze), mill scale, collected dusts (and to a much lower extent sludges) from gas cleaning, other recycled by-products of steel manufacture and recycled sinter particles from sinter screening are treated in the sintering machine. Air pollutants are the most significant and are presented here:

Carbon dioxide:primary metal production is responsible for around 5% of the total world anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, while the iron and steel industry accounts for around 70% of this 5% [48], around 200kg CO2/t sinter are generated in European plants [49] mainly as a consequence of fossil fuels combustion and carbonates decomposition. JFE Steel Corporation developed a hydrogen-based gas fuel injection technology, reducing CO2 emissions by 60,000 tons/year [50]. Yabe and Takamoto proposed a process that used pre-reduced iron ore as sinter raw material (produced by reducing the iron ore to the degree of wstite with blast furnace gas [51]). Coke breeze consumption is reduced (40,000 tons/year less of coke breeze in integrated plant of 4 Mt/year hot metal production) and 50,00012,000 tons CO2/year less by using 10% pre-reduced iron ore.

NOX: NOX emissions can be reduced by using low nitrogen content combustibles as 90% vol.% of NOX comes from the fuel [52]. Using additives to inhibit the NOX generation: hydrocarbons (1% sugar addition) reduced NOX emissions from 533.8g/t sinter to 283.3g/t sinter [53]; or increasing Ca-Fe pellets in sintering bed [54]. End of pipe technologies could be other option but the huge volume of gas to be treated makes this option expensive. Flue gas recirculation lead to a significant reduction of pollutants emissions: 3545% dust, 2045% NOX, 6070% dioxins, 2530% SO2 and 4050% CO reduction [55].

SOX: sulfur is present as sulfide and sulfate (FeS2, CuS, BaSO4, MgSO4, etc.) in iron ore fines and as elemental sulfur and organic sulfur in solid combustibles, which is oxidized and enters sinter flue gas as SO2, but low SO2 content in flue gas (4001500mg/Nm3, [56]) is responsible of low desulphurization efficiency of desulphurization processes. Li et al. studied the behavior of SO2 in different zones of sintering bed for flue gas circulation sintering, and observed that moisture condensation zone and sinter mix zone are characterized by a strong SO2 absorption ability, mainly by reaction of SO2 with CaO [56].

Particulate matter (PM10/2.5):the sintering process is the main contributor to PM emissions in an integrated steel factory [57, 58], around 45% of the total emissions. Due to the temperatures reached during the sintering process, components with noticeable vapor pressure like alkalis and heavy metal chlorides are volatilized and then re-condensed in the off-gas system resulting in a high fraction of PM10/2.5 in the dust emission of sinter plants [59]. End of pipe measures include electrostatic precipitators high-quality filter bags, etc. [7, 59]. Gan et al. observed that from over-wetted layer to the burning through point is the main area of PM10 emitting [57]. Ji et al. observed that increasing moisture content and extending granulation time the emission concentration of PM10/2.5 is reduced, while increasing coke breeze rate increases the emission concentration of PM10/2.5 the same as adding recycled materials [58].

Dioxins:sintering has been recognized as an important source of organic micro-pollutants such as PCDDs and PCDFs [7, 60, 61, 62, 63]. The mechanism of PCDD and PCDF formation in sinter plants is complex and associated to a de novo synthesis process [64]. The range of PCDD/F emissions in the EU-25 in 2004 is from 0.15 to 14.64g I-TEQ/t sinter expressed on an annual average basis [7], with most plants in the range 0.2 to 6.0g I-TEQ/t sinter [7]. The best option in the problem of dioxins is minimizing their formation instead of end of pipe treatments as is the most effective method. Several primary measures are considered in [65], we want to emphasize the addition of urea in the raw mix to inhibit the dioxin formation. In this way, Long et al. observed that with 0.05% urea, it was achieved a decrement of 63.1% in urea emission if compared with sinter without urea [66]. Lechtanska and Wielgosinski proposed the use of ammonium sulfate as inhibitor of dioxin formation [67].

PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons):are generated by the inhomogeneous and incomplete combustion processes. Several techniques are described in [7] to reduce PAHs emission concentrations from 591.7mg/t sinter to 0.2mg/sinter.

Measures to enhance air quality can be divided into three categories [65]: primary measures, based on preventing or minimizing the release of pollutants; secondary measures, consist in basically end-of pipe treatments; tertiary measures, consist in treating polluting wastes and raw materials in a single facility, concentrating there the source of pollutants.

Sintering is an energy and polluting intensive process in integrated steelworks. Around 912% of the energy consumed in an integrated steelwork is consumed in the sintering process, and 7580% of this energy is produced by using contaminant solid fuels, such as coke breeze, anthracite, etc. [68]. These fossil fuels generate diverse pollutants, mainly CO2, SOX and NOX, and have made researchers to focus on studying more ecological alternatives as biochar, straw, or charcoal [65]. These new fuels are CO2-neutral, and lead to a significant reduction in SOX and NOX emissions. Other possibility is using blast furnace dust, as it has 2440% carbon [69], although the amounts that are possible to recycle are limited fundamentally because of the zinc emissions.

Secondary measures, as we mentioned, have the objective of reducing pollutant emissions in sinter plants. They have been applied since the last decades of the last century [65], in general combined with other primary measures. In this way, for instance, in an attempt of reducing PCDD/Fs in Servola sinter plant (Italy), they used urea (primary measure) and the WETFINE (Wet electrostatic Precipitator, secondary measure or end of pipe measure), reaching <0.4ng I-TEQ/Nm3 when using both systems (around 2ng I-TEQ/Nm3 when using only one) [70].

Solar energy when properly concentrated offers a great potential in applications where high temperature is required as for instance metallurgical processes [71]. Even when the possibility of using concentrated solar energy in the sintering process is very limited because of the large volume of material to be treated, it could find a great potential in iron recovery from metallurgical wastes such as slags or other by product. In our basic researches in this field, we used iron oxide (III) mixed with carbon, and a 1.5kW medium size vertical axis solar furnace at the laboratory PROMES-CNRS (Font Romeu-Odeillo-Via, France). Sun radiation is concentrated in a spot of 12.2mm in diameter, being controlled the power by means of a venetian blind. 14 samples were prepared by mixing iron oxide (III) (100% Fe2O3, d50=6.7m) with different carbon (100% C, d50=10.2m) excesses (10, 25 and 40%) over the stoichiometric. Samples of 0.82.5g were loaded into crucibles of 75mm length, 12mm width and 8mm depth, with three thermocouples placed at the bottom of the crucible. This crucible is then placed below the solar beam and displaced at a controlled speed of 0.250.76mm/s.

Samples were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and SEMEDX. It was observed that the main phases were Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and in some cases FeO. This indicates that a transformation took place during the experiments, carbon was mainly burnt during the process, so it was not used as reductant agent [71], and for that reason, the appearance of Fe3O4 and FeO takes place because of thermal decomposition of the iron oxide. It is possible to see in Figure1 the influence of displacement speed and power in the formation of magnetite.

From SEMEDX, it is clearly observed that the disperse constituent is magnetite (white), while the matrix constituent is a phase formed by silica and alumina (both coming from the crucible [72]), iron and oxygen (see Figure2). There are, for that reason, both diffusion and melting phenomenon during the process.

Knowing that the formation of magnetite is easily achieved by using concentrated solar energy, it is possible to think in recovering iron from wastes of the metallurgical industry containing iron as oxide, as for instance slags.

This process was developed by the Nippon Kokan Keihin company (nowadays JFE Steel Corporation) with the objective of using fine iron-rich ores in their plants. The process is based on using pelletizing discs to obtain green pellets that are then coated with coke breeze before their disposal over the sinter strand. A commercial plant with an annual capacity of 6 million tons is working using HPS process at Fukuyama (belonging to JFE Steel Corporation) [18].

In 2001, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan began a research project on porous meso-mosaic texture sinter with the purpose of incorporating Australian goethite/limonite ores (characterized by a high proportion of ultrafine particles, up to 30% <150m) [16]. In this way, the purpose was to use important amounts of fine ores by controlling the void structure of the sinter bed structure (achieving a good sinter bed permeability and sinter yield). Consequence of the project is the MEBIOS process [73], which organizes dense granulated pellets in a conventional sinter mixture, allowing for obtaining well-developed voids and few pores that define a ventilation route, where the aging bed is based on Marra Mamba ore (fine ore and coarsely granulated material) while the induction bed is based on pisolitic limonite ore blended with coke and CaO [16]. In this way, dense large pellets support sinter bed and avoid sinter shrinkage, allowing the appearance of ventilation routes that improve permeability [18].

This process has another version known RF-MEBIOS (Return Fine-Mosaic Embedding Iron Ore Sintering). It was applied on Number 3 sinter plant in the NSSMC Kashima Steel Works, and then it was installed on three commercial sintering machines (Kashima, Wakayama, and Kokura) belonging to Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltc [18].

Sinter and pellets are loaded in the blast furnace together, but this causes several problems associated to two aspects: spherical shape of pellets (responsible of the tendency to flow toward the center of the furnace, causing unstable operation); and, higher bulk density of pellets, making them to sink into the coke layer during the burden descent [74]. Jiang et al. developed the Composite Agglomeration Process with the purpose of solving the problems caused by the spheroidal shape of pellets and the increase in the supply of fine grained ores [74]. The process consists in: part of fine grained iron ore is transformed into 816mm green pellets, while the rest and the coarse fine ores are mixed with fluxes, fuels and return fines, and then granulated (primary mixture); green pellets and primary mixture are blended (secondary mixture) and then fed to the sintering machine; the mixture is transformed into the composite agglomerate by ignition and down draft firing; finally, the composite agglomerate is crushed and screened, being the fraction <5mm considered as return fine.

The process was used for first time in 2008 by Baotuo Iron and Steel Company, and improvements in sinter bed permeability, decrements in fuel consumption and increases in productivity were observed [75]. Other authors studied the use of CAP in specularite ores [76], titanomagnetite concentrate [77] or fluoric iron concentrates [78].

2017 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities.

segregation charging behavior of ultra-fine iron ore briquette in sinter feed bed: dem analysis | springerlink

segregation charging behavior of ultra-fine iron ore briquette in sinter feed bed: dem analysis | springerlink

The sinterbriquette complex firing process which is an effective technology for utilization of low grade ultra-fine ore is a method for charging sinter feed mixed with briquette made of ultra-fine ore. To uniformly fire briquettes using the excess heat from the lower part of the sinter feed bed, they must be segregated in that region. In this study, the particle properties and interaction coefficients of real samples were measured and used for a numerical analysis. Furthermore, a discrete element method simulation was used to investigate the characteristics of the sinter feed and briquette charging process, namely burden distribution and porosity, by varying the shape and mixing ratio of the briquette. The results showed the while the shape of the briquette did not affect the burden distribution and porosity, the porosity at the lower part of the bed proportionally increased with the briquette mixing ratio. Furthermore, it was observed that to achieve optimized heat distribution of the bed, the proportion of briquette in the charging mixture should be more than 20%.

Kim, KM., Bae, JH., Park, JI. et al. Segregation Charging Behavior of Ultra-Fine Iron Ore Briquette in Sinter Feed Bed: DEM Analysis. Met. Mater. Int. 26, 12181225 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12540-019-00415-y

charcoal briquette machines market - industry size and global share 2021: business expansion strategies, growth dynamics, upcoming technologies, opportunities and challenges forecast to 2027 - marketwatch

charcoal briquette machines market - industry size and global share 2021: business expansion strategies, growth dynamics, upcoming technologies, opportunities and challenges forecast to 2027 - marketwatch

Our Latest Report on Charcoal Briquette Machines Market provides all-inclusive analysis of the various factors like market growth, consumption volume, market trends and current market scenario of industry. The purpose of this report is to provide qualitative and quantitative insights on potential size, volume, and dynamics over the forecast period. The Charcoal Briquette Machines market research study compromises competition landscape, segmentation and CAGR status of top key players with their regional revenue and growth estimates. The report also discovers new possibilities, technological advancements and latest developments in the global industry.

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This report contains assessments of the Charcoal Briquette Machines market size in terms of value (USD million). Both, top-down and bottom-up approaches have been used to assessment and validate the size of the Charcoal Briquette Machines market and to estimate the size of different other dependent submarkets in the overall market.

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Big Data in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Market Size with Covid-19 Impact 2021: Business Share with Top Leading Countries, Market Drivers, Future Growth, Business Prospects, Forces Analysis and Revenue by 2026

To view the original version on The Express Wire visit Charcoal Briquette Machines Market - Industry Size and Global Share 2021: Business Expansion Strategies, Growth Dynamics, Upcoming Technologies, Opportunities and Challenges Forecast to 2027

optimization of a biomass briquette fuel system based on grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process: a study using cornstalks in china - sciencedirect

optimization of a biomass briquette fuel system based on grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process: a study using cornstalks in china - sciencedirect

Evaluation model of biomass briquette fuel system is established base on GRA and AHP.5 hierarchies along with 20 other indices are included in the model.An optimal scheme is selected for a 2104t/a corn stalk briquette fuel plant.An analysis of the selecting biomass briquette fuel system scheme is improved.The result is of benefit to scheme selection of biomass briquette fuel system.

Biomass, such as agricultural straw, can be converted into briquette fuel using technology to expand the possible applications of biomass and improve biomass utilization efficiency. The major machines required in a briquette fuel system, such as those used for drying, chopping, briquetting, and cooling, have become more efficient. However, a biomass briquetting fuel system requires special machines to reach a high character index, and all units in the system must match and be combined to produce an optimum system that satisfies multiple objectives, such as economy, environmental protection, stability, and large-scale operation. In this paper, a mathematical model for a synthesized evaluation was established according to theories of grey relational analysis (GRA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). This model was used to select a biomass briquette fuel (BBF) system scheme considering hierarchies of economy, cleanliness and environmental protection, production capacity, product quality, and production stability, along with 20 other indices, including capital investment, dust content, drying capability, briquette rate, and the machine repair cycle. The most significant factors influencing each hierarchy were analyzed using a sensitivity analysis. Based on the GRA and AHP theories, an optimal scheme was selected for a fully operational 2104t/a cornstalk briquette fuel plant in China. The optimum scheme included six sets of briquetting machines with a capacity of 2t/h+three sets of chopping machines with a capacity of 5t/h+six sets of drying machines with a capability of 2t/h+1 set of cooling machines with a capacity of 12t/h. The evaluated indices and weight coefficients were chosen objectively, and the comprehensive and technical performances of the selected BBF system scheme improved. These results provide a reference for the scheme selection and operation of large-scale BBF systems.

biomass briquetting plant at best price in india

biomass briquetting plant at best price in india

Rajdoot Industrial Estate, Rajkot D-109, Rajdoot Industrial Estate, Umakant Pandit Udyognagar Street 4, Near Mavadi Plot, Rajdoot Industrial Estate, Rajkot - 360005, Dist. Rajkot, Gujarat

Peenya Village, Bengaluru ,NO 78,2ND STAGE PEENYA DODDANNA INDST AREA,BEHIND KONIKA GARMENTS,KAR 17th Cross, Doddanna Industrial Area, Near Peenya 2nd Stage, Peenya Village, Bengaluru - 560091, Dist. Bengaluru, Karnataka

Shapar Veraval, Rajkot SURVEY NO 99/1,99/2, 100,RADHE INDUSTRAIL ZONE,PLOT NO.4,PAIKEE 4,VERAVAL SHAPAR Radhe Industrail Zone, Veraval Shapa, Shapar Veraval, Rajkot - 360024, Dist. Rajkot, Gujarat

Golden Foundry Street, Batala, Dist. Gurdaspur ,GALI GOLDEN FOUNDRY WALI,GURU KIRPA MACHINERY CORP,G T ROAD,BATALA,Punjab,143505C, Golden Foundry Street, Batala - 143505, Dist. Gurdaspur, Punjab

global briquetting machines market share, size 2021 | consumption analysis by applications, future demand, top leading players, competitive situation and emerging trends, and forecast to 2027 - marketwatch

global briquetting machines market share, size 2021 | consumption analysis by applications, future demand, top leading players, competitive situation and emerging trends, and forecast to 2027 - marketwatch

The global Briquetting Machines Market 2021-2027 research report covers the market landscape and their growth prospect over the coming years, this report covers the industry structure and even landscape, the problems along with business strategies and industry effectiveness. The purpose of the Briquetting Machines Market report is to support beginner as well as existing players in gaining insightful Briquetting Machines and make appropriate decisions based on it.

Market Analysis and Insights: Global Briquetting Machines MarketThe global Briquetting Machines market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period 2021 to 2027. In 2021, the market is growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

WEIMA Metso Corporation Ruf GmbH and Co. KG Advance Hydrau-Tech Pvt. Ltd. CO.MA.FER MACCHINE Srl C.F. NIELSEN PRODECO S.r.l. IMABE Iberica Jay Khodiyar Group Ronak Agrotech Engineering Pvt. Ltd. Radhe Industrial Corporation SMS Group GmbH LEHRA FUEL TECH PVT LTD Fote Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. Gensco Equipment JK Bioenergy AGICO Group Maxton Industrial Co.,Ltd ATM Recycling Systems

The global Briquetting Machines market is segmented by company, region (country), by Type, and by Application. Players, stakeholders, and other participants in the global Briquetting Machines market will be able to gain the upper hand as they use the report as a powerful resource. The segmental analysis focuses on revenue and forecast by region (country), by Type, and by Application for the period 2016-2027.

On the basis of the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including:

The Briquetting Machines Industry report is compiled with the use of the latest primary and secondary research methodologies and tools providing various analyses that have been comprehended in the report. The information available in the Briquetting Machines market summarized report provides customers with effective information that enables them to make effective decisions, which could lead to a significant expansion of the business in the future.

Global Briquetting Machines Market providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and instrumentation and downstream demand analysis is additionally dispensed. The Global Briquetting Machines market development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally, the feasibility of latest investment projects is assessed and overall analysis conclusions offered.

1 Report Overview 1.1 Study Scope 1.2 Market Analysis by Type 1.3 Market by Application 1.4 Study Objectives 1.5 Years Considered2 Global Growth Trends 2.1 Global Briquetting Machines Market Perspective (2016-2027) 2.2 Briquetting Machines Growth Trends by Regions 2.2.1 Briquetting Machines Market Size by Regions: 2016 VS 2021 VS 2027 2.2.2 Briquetting Machines Historic Market Share by Regions (2016-2021) 2.2.3 Briquetting Machines Forecasted Market Size by Regions (2022-2027) 2.3 Briquetting Machines Industry Dynamic 2.3.1 Briquetting Machines Market Trends 2.3.2 Briquetting Machines Market Drivers 2.3.3 Briquetting Machines Market Challenges 2.3.4 Briquetting Machines Market Restraints3 Competition Landscape by Key Players 3.1 Global Top Briquetting Machines Players by Revenue 3.2 Global Briquetting Machines Market Share by Company Type 3.3 Players Covered: Ranking by Briquetting Machines Revenue 3.4 Global Briquetting Machines Market Concentration Ratio 3.5 Briquetting Machines Key Players Head office and Area Served 3.6 Key Players Briquetting Machines Product Solution and Service 3.7 Date of Enter into Briquetting Machines Market 3.8 Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion Plans4 Briquetting Machines Breakdown Data by Type 4.1 Global Briquetting Machines Historic Market Size by Type (2016-2021) 4.2 Global Briquetting Machines Forecasted Market Size by Type (2022-2027)5 Briquetting Machines Breakdown Data by Application 5.1 Global Briquetting Machines Historic Market Size by Application (2016-2021) 5.2 Global Briquetting Machines Forecasted Market Size by Application (2022-2027)6 North America 7 Europe 8 Asia-Pacific 9 Latin America 10 Middle East and Africa 11 Key Players Profiles 12 Analyst's Viewpoints/Conclusions

Market is changing rapidly with the ongoing expansion of the industry. Advancement in the technology has provided todays businesses with multifaceted advantages resulting in daily economic shifts. Thus, it is very important for a company to comprehend the patterns of the market movements in order to strategize better. An efficient strategy offers the companies with a head start in planning and an edge over the competitors. Precision Report is the credible source for gaining the market reports that will provide you with the lead your business needs.

To view the original version on The Express Wire visit Global Briquetting Machines Market Share, Size 2021 | Consumption Analysis By Applications, Future Demand, Top Leading Players, Competitive Situation and Emerging Trends, and Forecast to 2027

briquetting companies and suppliers | environmental xprt

briquetting companies and suppliers | environmental xprt

GrinderCrusherScreen was founded by the same owners of Screen USA Inc., manufacturers of portable screening plants and wood grinders. Having been in business since 1973, Screen USA Inc. backs GrinderCrusherScreen. GrinderCrusherScreen.com was ...

GrinderCrusherScreen was founded by the same owners of Screen USA Inc., manufacturers of portable screening plants and wood grinders. Having been in business since 1973, Screen USA Inc. backs GrinderCrusherScreen. GrinderCrusherScreen.com was ...

Since 1994, REI has been an industry leader, providing customers with cutting edge technology to meet their waste and recycling challenges and helping them turn their commercial waste into revenue. REI goes to great lengths to produce equipment that ...

Since 1994, REI has been an industry leader, providing customers with cutting edge technology to meet their waste and recycling challenges and helping them turn their commercial waste into revenue. REI goes to great lengths to produce equipment that ...

AYMAS MAKINA has been established in 2003 in Izmir,TURKEY. We blend our superior staff's wide experience in machinery and equipment manufacturing with up-to-date manufacturing equipment and technologies to offer trouble free recycling solutions to ...

3 + 1 spiral feeders fill the chamber of compression automatically. Ease of running with feeding conveyor. (Optional) Cylinder Rods are induction hardened and chrome plated. Hydraulic oil cooling system is installed. There is an automatic central ...

AYMAS MAKINA has been established in 2003 in Izmir,TURKEY. We blend our superior staff's wide experience in machinery and equipment manufacturing with up-to-date manufacturing equipment and technologies to offer trouble free recycling solutions to ...

The Presona balers are designed and built at our modern manufacturing facility in Sweden where focus is on efficiency, quality, safety and sustainability. Our balers are reliable, consistent and efficient. They are also designed to cope with rugged ...

Presona offers the total solution for rational and effective handling of production waste from the graphic industry, from paper and cardboard manufacturers and from the packaging industry. The Presona waste extraction plant always builds on the same ...

The Presona balers are designed and built at our modern manufacturing facility in Sweden where focus is on efficiency, quality, safety and sustainability. Our balers are reliable, consistent and efficient. They are also designed to cope with rugged ...

Promeco SpA is an Italian company based in Como that manufactures, on proprietary technology, plants and equipment for the recycling and recovery of waste with energy production, material recovery or production of finished goods. Founded in 1996, ...

The PES V matrix briquetting machine is the most simple, flexible, efficient and effective solution to the problems of densification and sintering. The extreme flexibility of the machine allows processing of different ...

Promeco SpA is an Italian company based in Como that manufactures, on proprietary technology, plants and equipment for the recycling and recovery of waste with energy production, material recovery or production of finished goods. Founded in 1996, ...

HSM Cutting. Shredding. Compressing. Since 1971, HSM has been pursuing a clear strategy a consistent commitment to quality Made in Germany. This product and service quality is the key to success in both the office technology and environmental ...

HSM Cutting. Shredding. Compressing. Since 1971, HSM has been pursuing a clear strategy a consistent commitment to quality Made in Germany. This product and service quality is the key to success in both the office technology and environmental ...

S.K. Engineers, one of the leading companies in the engineering industry. The company was established in the year 2011 by a group of technically qualified individuals and has been recently incorporated and recognized as a Partnership firm for the ...

The B-Jack works on the same principle as that of the Briquetting Lever Press but, making it a bit easier to the compressing action. It is an economical product, best suited for rural as well as urban families, used for making these ...

S.K. Engineers, one of the leading companies in the engineering industry. The company was established in the year 2011 by a group of technically qualified individuals and has been recently incorporated and recognized as a Partnership firm for the ...

Recovering waste and by-products from industrial production and exploiting them as a resource; reducing volumes and moderating transport and storage costs; recycling waste and making it a precious energy source: these are the needs that led Di Pi ...

The mechanical briquetting press develops a compression force of approximately 2000 Kg. per square centimeter to obtain an high quality briquette having a high specific weight and a remarkably reduced volume, without added ...

Recovering waste and by-products from industrial production and exploiting them as a resource; reducing volumes and moderating transport and storage costs; recycling waste and making it a precious energy source: these are the needs that led Di Pi ...

Radhe Industrial Corporation is the well known and leading manufacturer of biomass briquetting plant , biomass briquette machine or biomass briquette press India since 21 years. We have vast experience in the field of biomass briquetting plant India ...

Super 70 briquetting press machine is specially made for medium scale industries. It is able to convert all type of agro forestry waste into briquettes. This machine have 750kg/hr production capacity and does not use any chemical in ...

Radhe Industrial Corporation is the well known and leading manufacturer of biomass briquetting plant , biomass briquette machine or biomass briquette press India since 21 years. We have vast experience in the field of biomass briquetting plant India ...

We, at BL GLOBAL (Formerly: HARSHAD ENGINEERING are manufacturing and exporting most diverse range of products, Engineering goods to consumer items. We offer products with better quality at competitive prices with timely delivery. Our flagship ...

We supply piston/ram type biomass briquetting equipments from India. Our machines are mechanical ram or piston type presses with high prodcution capacity from 600 to 1600 Kg per hour with 60mm to 90mm diameter solid cylindrical ...

We, at BL GLOBAL (Formerly: HARSHAD ENGINEERING are manufacturing and exporting most diverse range of products, Engineering goods to consumer items. We offer products with better quality at competitive prices with timely delivery. Our flagship ...

In India, Jay Khodiyar Machine Tools is best briquette machine manufacturer. Briquette plants are used for utilization of agro waste into renewable energy fuel, Briquettes. Jay Khodiyar Machine Tools Rajkot is Briquetting Press, Briquetting Plant ...

In India, Jay Khodiyar Machine Tools is best briquette machine manufacturer. Briquette plants are used for utilization of agro waste into renewable energy fuel, Briquettes. ...

In India, Jay Khodiyar Machine Tools is best briquette machine manufacturer. Briquette plants are used for utilization of agro waste into renewable energy fuel, Briquettes. Jay Khodiyar Machine Tools Rajkot is Briquetting Press, Briquetting Plant ...

The Komarek name has been associated with briquetting innovation since 1920. Today, K.R. Komarek Inc. continues to specialize in the design and manufacture of roll type briquetting and compacting machines. These machines are used in the processing ...

and advantage of the discovery are that by this process an article of small value and almost worthless can be converted into a valuable article of fuel for steamers, forges, culinary and other purposes thus saving what is now lost.". Easby in his ...

The Komarek name has been associated with briquetting innovation since 1920. Today, K.R. Komarek Inc. continues to specialize in the design and manufacture of roll type briquetting and compacting machines. These machines are used in the processing ...

Craft Chemical Production Plant 'Alchemist' Andrzej Piotrowski Piotr Piotrowski partnership, which was established by brothers Andrzej and Piotr Piotrowski, works on the ecological market. We are a producer of briquetting presses. Experience in the ...

Craft Chemical Production Plant 'Alchemist' Andrzej Piotrowski Piotr Piotrowski partnership, which was established by brothers Andrzej and Piotr Piotrowski, works on the ecological market. We are a producer of briquetting presses. Experience in the ...

Shanxi Xinhui Activated Carbon Co., Ltd is one of activated carbon manufacturers in China which has rich experience. 'XINHUI' brand activated carbon is made from strictly selected coal by using advanced technology. The advantages of our activated ...

BG 12x40 is a kind of briquetted activated carbon developed by SHANXI XINHUI for catalyst or catalyst carrier. The production processes are accomplished by using one combination of the following steps: Carbonization: Material with ...

Shanxi Xinhui Activated Carbon Co., Ltd is one of activated carbon manufacturers in China which has rich experience. 'XINHUI' brand activated carbon is made from strictly selected coal by using advanced technology. The advantages of our activated ...

COMAFER MACCHINE S.p.A. Quality has always been considered a key element of its strategy and promotes its commitment to all levels of the organization. The origin of our company is in late 1975 from a brilliant idea of his founder and president, Mr. ...

and considerably reducing the volume (1/5-1/10 according to the material). The briquetting press can be installed on silos or filtering units, on their internal or external ...

COMAFER MACCHINE S.p.A. Quality has always been considered a key element of its strategy and promotes its commitment to all levels of the organization. The origin of our company is in late 1975 from a brilliant idea of his founder and president, Mr. ...

When Hans Ruf introduced his first briquette press in 1985 and sold it to a wood processing plant, people didnt yet know how residual materials in production could be made efficient use of. Today, approx. 35 years later, RUF Maschinenbau GmbH & Co. ...

Metal chip briquetting machines for a wide range of metals & alloys. The value of metal residues can be greatly increased with our metal press machine. The metal chip briquetting machine is a real all-rounder ...

When Hans Ruf introduced his first briquette press in 1985 and sold it to a wood processing plant, people didnt yet know how residual materials in production could be made efficient use of. Today, approx. 35 years later, RUF Maschinenbau GmbH & Co. ...

Company SERWIS AKPiA in 2003 was involved in renewable sources of energy, mainly biomass. Using its engineering experience, gained during many years of working with industry, the company focused on searching synergy between green energy, industry, ...

Briquetting press BIOMASSER DUO is an easy in operating press for briquetting biomass, like straw and hay. BIOMASSER DUO is the machine of double production capacity comparing to BIOMASSER SOLO. Double productivity ...

Company SERWIS AKPiA in 2003 was involved in renewable sources of energy, mainly biomass. Using its engineering experience, gained during many years of working with industry, the company focused on searching synergy between green energy, industry, ...

With an experience of more than 160 years, SAHUT-CONREUR is recognized as an international leading designer and manufacturer of briquetting plants, compactiongranulation plants and grinding equipment using double roll presses technology. Based on a ...

SAHUT-CONREUR provides compact and complete turnkey systems (including electrical interlocking and interfacing control) integrating other equipment around the briquetting press. These briquetting units are built to ...

With an experience of more than 160 years, SAHUT-CONREUR is recognized as an international leading designer and manufacturer of briquetting plants, compactiongranulation plants and grinding equipment using double roll presses technology. Based on a ...

From its birth, Tengda Machinery engage in the equipment related to recycling, reusing of various industrial and biomass waste. What we are good at is briquetting technology and thermal process/dehydration technology. Energy shortage is a serious ...

As briquetting machine manufacturer, we are qualified with rich experience, modern processing equipment, perfect service system. Based on these advantages, HJ machinery produce best briquetting machine for sale. ...

From its birth, Tengda Machinery engage in the equipment related to recycling, reusing of various industrial and biomass waste. What we are good at is briquetting technology and thermal process/dehydration technology. Energy shortage is a serious ...

ADVANCE HYDRAU-TECH PVT LTD of SUBHA GROUP COMPANY deals in all types of scrap processing machines, and it is the finest place of manufacturing and supplying the scrap balers, briquette machines, hydraulic nibblers, shearing machines, metal ...

Advance Hydrautech is a leading Briquetting Machine manufacturer in India. Advance Hydrautech has been manufacturing a variety of Briquetting machines that come in use of producing high-quality Briquettes for almost ...

ADVANCE HYDRAU-TECH PVT LTD of SUBHA GROUP COMPANY deals in all types of scrap processing machines, and it is the finest place of manufacturing and supplying the scrap balers, briquette machines, hydraulic nibblers, shearing machines, metal ...

clean air dust extractor - high performance line | felder

clean air dust extractor - high performance line | felder

It is clear that wood dust accumulates in workshops and it is also widely known that this dust has been classified as a health hazard for some time, but it is only recently that the topic of dust extraction in this industry has become a real talking point.An EU regulation soon to come into force will allow companies that have an air filtering requirement of up to 8,000 m/h (previously 6,000 m/h) to use wood-dust-approved clean-air dust extractors, saving them from the expensive investment of an externally positioned extractor.However, in addition to the numerous rules and regulations, one thing is also absolutely clear: Dust-free working is not only healthier, but also offers numerous opportunities for energy and cost savings in wood processing workshops. An individually adapted extraction solution is simply essential for a healthy workshop.

Felder offers air filters, clean-air dust extractors and filtration systems for efficient chip extraction and air cleaning. All models achieve a remaining dust concentration level of less than 0.1 mg/m, in accordance with remaining dust content level H3. Unlike conventional dust extractors, Felder positions the ventilator behind the filters. This generates a negative pressure throughout the entire system, preventing dust escaping through any leaks.

Since 1956, a guarantee for perfect results with excellent ease of use and reliability in regular professional use. Woodworkers are always enthusiastic about the individual and solid solutions for small and mid-sized businesses.

Fuel, disposal costs or storage space are all becoming more and more expensive.The Felder briquetting presses reduce the volume of waste by 90 % and additionally eliminate the need for investment in a chip container or silo.Felder briquetting machines are suitable for continuous use due to their design.They are assembled on a solid base frame and can be combined to use with clean air dust extractors by Felder.

Fuel, disposal costs or storage space are all becoming more and more expensive.The Felder briquetting presses reduce the volume of waste by 90 % and additionally eliminate the need for investment in a chip container or silo.Felder briquetting machines are suitable for continuous use due to their design.They are assembled on a solid base frame and can be combined to use with clean air dust extractors by Felder.

optimization of a straw ring-die briquetting process combined analytic hierarchy process and grey correlation analysis method - sciencedirect

optimization of a straw ring-die briquetting process combined analytic hierarchy process and grey correlation analysis method - sciencedirect

The method combining analytic hierarchy process and grey correlation analysis was proposed to optimize the straw ring-die briquetting process.The priority weight of briquetting variables to optimization goal were obtained through analytic hierarchy process analysis.The influences of each straw briquetting parameter to optimization objects were studied.

Briquetting of biomass is an attractive option to mitigate the energy crisis and environmental problems. A device to make this transformation is called ring-die briquetting system. In this research, a study on the optimization of a rice straw ring-die briquetting process combined analytic hierarchy process and grey correlation analysis was presented. Optimization variables include moisture content, particle size of the raw material, temperature, and the gap between the roller and ring-die while the average energy consumption, productivity, density and the rate of qualified biofuels were optimization objects. Results showed that moisture content and clearance between die and roller influenced productivity, energy consumption and product density significantly. The optimum process condition was obtained around moisture content of 20%, with a clearance between die and roller of 2.5mm, die temperature of 120C and particle size between 2035mm. Experimental verification results indicated that this combination of factors produced a better overall pelleted fuel.

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