8 best outdoor grills to buy 2021 - top gas, charcoal and pellet grill reviews

8 best outdoor grills to buy 2021 - top gas, charcoal and pellet grill reviews

Nothing says summer like grilling up easy summer recipes with a perfect char. Of course, you'll need the right grill to make the job quick, easy and low-mess. In the Good Housekeeping Institute Kitchen Appliances Lab, we've tested more than 50 grills over the years to determine which are the best you can buy, including gas, charcoal, kamado, pellet and portable options. We've cooked 56 steaks and 220 pieces of chicken to determine how well each grill sears, while keeping an eye on smoking and flare-ups. We've also toasted almost 1,000 pieces of bread on the gas grills to see how evenly they heat. In addition to performance, we assessed helpful extras like side tables, tool storage, concealed gas tanks and wheels for portability. These are the best grills you can buy in 2021:

When buying a new outdoor grill, the two biggest players are gas and charcoal but electric, kamado and pellet grills are also fair game. When selecting what type of grill to buy, consider how often you'll be grilling, the amount of space you have for storage, what flavor you prefer and the amount of time and attention you'll want to spend cooking. Here are the basics on each:

Weber grills consistently rise to the top in our grill tests. This Genesis II EX-335 Smart Grill is amongst their newest for this year. It toasted bread the most evenly in our heat distribution testand made a delicious steak with beautiful grill marks and a juicy, pink center when we tested for searing and flare-ups.It comes with two temperature probes that allow you to monitor the internal temperature of food directly on the control panel or via the Weber Connect app.

In addition to the smart features, its loaded with other features that make it stand out like a flashlight that attaches to the lid handle, knobs that illuminate, side shelves and plenty of storage space. It has three burners, a searing section and a side burner.

It can be tough to find a great quality grill for under $500, but with its gleaming stainless steel, theNexGrill 4-Burner Propane Gas Grill is an A+ choice for the price tag. It deliversperfect grill marks, a side burner andspace for 28 burgers. On the side, there's a burner for heating beans or sauce. And best of all: We saw no smoking or flareups when cooking.

When it comes to cooking, three-burner stainless steel grill is just about perfect. When we tested a previousmodel in this Spirit line, itheated evenly andturned out steaks with gorgeous grill marks that were beautifully rare and juicy in our testing. Chicken came off the grates golden brown, moist and tender and all this with very few flare-ups. The grill comes with porcelain enameled cast-iron grates thatcook up to 25 four-inch burgers at once, a stainless side table anda gauge to give you an idea how much gas is in the tank.

This Char-Broil grill heated quickly and evenly in our tests anddidn't flare up once. It turned on with no effort at all, and got hot enough to sear steak and chicken without burning it. This model features Char-Broil's Tru-Infrared technology, which is basically a large metal plate that sits below the cooking grates and traps the foods' juices as it cooks. Once the juices hit the plate, they steam and infuse the food with more flavor. Results were juicy and not dry.

This Weber kettle is iconic in the industry and well-loved by consumers, so it's not surprisingly a best-seller (and its slightly less expensive version has over 1,000 positive reviews on Amazon). At under $200, it's powered by charcoal and features anash tray below the grill that's easy to fill for continuous cooking.The structure is sturdy with solid accessoriesand a removable lid that can be rested on the side of the grill, and it can be rolled around easily for storage in the off-season.

Traeger is known for its wide assortment of largepellet grillsdesigned to grill or smoke a lot of meat at once at a precise temperature. They heat up more quickly than charcoal grills and require less prep work (no fussing around with coals that won't light or are hard to spread out).

Simply plug them in, andthe inner mechanics move pellets from the hopper into the "fire pot" where they're heated. From there, a fan moves the heat and smoke into the grill to cook food. This Traeger pellet grill has a temperature range of 165F to 500F, which means you can use it for everything from smoking and braising to searing and grilling. It also connects to a recipe app that allows you to program and monitor the cooking process, a useful tool because foods could take hours to cook. It offers 600 square inches of cooking space and has an 18-pound hopper.

This grillis great fortaking on the go.In our tests, it created nice grills marks on burgers, hot dogs and buns. The grill is powered by 1-pound tanks of propane and turns on with the push of a button. It has a large, cast iron cooking surface with areas that allow food to be cooked over eithera direct or indirect flame.

It also has a removable drip tray that can be cleaned after done cooking and cooled. The side shelves tuck away for storage, and the grill folds down for easy portability. It even fits nicelyinto most car trunks.A tabletop version is also available for an even more compact option.

Oklahoma Joe's Rambler is agreat optionif you're short on space but still crave a smoky, charcoal flavor. It's small, but sturdy and durableenough to be used at high temps or asa slow-cookingsmoker, too. Large handles deck either side so you can move it around easily, plus one on the front for smooth operating. The includedgrate is made of cast iron and is divided in two, which allowscoals to effortlessly be added to the tray mid-cook as well ascreate different cooking areas (very hot with more coals, or not as hot with less coals or none at all).

The coal tray is adjustable to three different heights, which we found easy to use to adjust the cooking temperature,and the ash pan spans across the entire length of the grill for simple cleanup. In our tests, the grill provedeasy to use while set up in our yards or taken to the park.

best gas grills 2021 | top ten reviews

best gas grills 2021 | top ten reviews

The best gas grills are your go-to for tasty barbecue, whether you are vacationing or outdoor dining at home. We like to think of these handy outdoor grills as a clever extension of your kitchen especially now that summer is just around the corner and al fresco dining might be at the top of your relaxation and entertainment wishlist. To help you find a good gas grill for your backyard, weve compiled a list of the top-rated models from brands including Weber Grills, Char-Broil and Cuisinart.

If you plan to spend most of your summer (and beyond) socializing outdoors, investing in one of the best gas grills is a brilliant idea. Why? Because these outdoor cookers are ideal for grilling and barbecuing a multitude of delicious foods, from fresh fish and succulents meats to veggies and marshmallows. You can set precise temperatures too, so you will stand a better chance of cooking your food to perfection.

When it comes to finding the best gas grill for you, aside from budget, wed suggest thinking about how many people you will be cooking for. The bigger the grill, the more money you can expect to pay. Also consider what types of food you will be serving up, and whether you need a separate cooking area for vegetarian food. The more versatile gas powered grills come with a range of cooking accessories such as a rotisserie function for grilling whole chickens, or a griddle to sear fish and vegetables. Some of the very best models also come with hobs, so you can cook everything on the same device outdoors.

It can feel a little daunting when choosing from the best gas grills, simply because there are so many to pick from. So below we have listed the best gas grills for every outdoor space, and for different budgets. If youre looking for other ways to cook, relax and entertain outdoors, also take a look at our the best infrared gas grills and the best patio heaters.

The Monument Grills 77352 6 Burner Propane Gas Grill is a very capable, large and usable grill with a whole lot of features at a reasonable price. Theres an eight year warranty, which suggests this stainless steel grill has longevity built in. Six burners and a truly spacious grilling area mean you won't be short of burger room, and theres a separate side burner for handling side dishes.

The Monument Grills 77352 Grill is festooned with luxury touches, such as the LED-lit controls and lid-mounted thermometer, as well as electronic ignition. Theres even a rotisserie unit bundled in the box, and while you dont need to use it all the time, its extra handy if theres a chicken in your future. It is on the small side, though.

At the price, the Monument Grills 77352 6 Burner Propane Gas Grill is more expensive than some, but we dont think youll find this kind of space and power anywhere else for this money, particularly presented in this way. Easily one of the best gas grills you can buy right now.

If its time to gather around in the garden for a party, we can think of no better gas grill than the Cuisinart CGG-999 (also known as the CGWM-056). It really is something thats made to sit in the middle of a gathering, with a huge cold-rolled circular cooktop thats as suited to packing on skewers of meat as it is to preparing a delicious breakfast.

Design-wise Cuisinart has done a superb job, with sensible grease management, integrated paper towel storage and a lid which further adds to the versatility of the CGG-999, and while its apparently not too kind on your gas bottle - and youll absolutely need to look after it if you want it to last - its a large and very flexible griddle. Might it even replace your traditional grill? Thats for you (and your love of direct heat and sear marks) to decide.

Reviewers on Amazon give the Cuisinart 3-Burner XL Griddle a very reasonable 4.4 out of 5 stars, with those numbers skewed a little by folks whove had shipping issues, which we dont think is a fair assessment of the product itself.

Those who love it praise the number of things it can cook Homemade tortillas are excellent. Pizza is next level. Stir fry is a blast as well as its looks. Some find it difficult to clean, while others say its easy, so your mileage may vary, but the steel cooking surface does seem to have some hot spots.

The Napoleon Prestige 500 Gas Grill is a great choice as an all-rounder. It comes with a lifetime warranty, which means you get at least a little peace of mind that its likely to last. The grilling surface is spacious, with 500 square inches (around 31 burgers worth) of grill bars, heated by a quartet of strong 12000 BTU burners. There are even little premium touches, like light-up knobs and an electric ignition.

Dual-level stainless steel sear plates help to distribute heat evenly across the grill for perfect cooking every time. The addition of the Accu-probe thermometer on the easy lift lid also helps with the cooking process. Extras like infrared grills and a rotisserie make this a real top-end performer. This isn't the cheapest grill of its size out there, but when you consider that lifetime warranty, it's be worth the cost.

We should also make mention of the design, which is very sleek - this gas grill looks good, and has clever touches like a perfectly weighted lid for easy opening, as well as a front-accessible drip tray and a trio of mid-burners to distribute heat better.

If youre taking your grilling exploits to the next level, Lynx should certainly be on your list. The Lynx L30TRF Professional is the most premium grill on this list by a long way and, as such, packs in the most high-quality features and performance while also offering a highly generous cooking space at 600 square inches.

Of course, it also demands the highest budget, and will be harder to get hold of than the more affordable best gas grills; you may have to reach out to a specialist dealer if you want to get hold of the Lynx L30TRF Professional for your home.

That said, theres a high amount of reassurance that comes with shelling out so much money on a gas grill. This beauty is heated with ceramic burners which are covered to never ever rust. Above them are ceramic briquettes, designed to evenly distribute heat for perfectly even cooking.

The ignition function is super-smart and even the control knobs are LED lit for those balmy evenings when the sun dips but you're still happily grilling. The infrared rear burner is perfect for searing or rotisserie cooking larger meats, making this the best gas grill for bigger garden gatherings that happen regularly.

The Weber Spirit II E-310 Gas Grill is a good size, with adequate grill space of 424 square inches catering for a decent family cookout or a small garden party. Its plenty hot enough too, with three burners throwing out 30,000 BTU of heat. And its built to that Weber standard we all know and love, backed by a ten-year warranty.

The porcelain-enameled Flavorizer bars are great for distributing heat evenly as well as for catching drips for smokey flavor, plus they're easy to clean and help protect the burners. If grease drips do occur, you'll notice that these are funneled into disposable grease pans, which is (lets be honest) a blessing and a curse. Good because theres no chance of a single grease tray rusting out, but bad because of running costs and environmental concerns.

Since this is Weber, the Spirit II E-310 Gas Grill will work with lots of official Weber accessories, including the iGrill 3 Bluetooth thermometer. That said, the easy-lift lid does have a standard thermometer built-in. This certainly isn't the cheapest gas grill on the market, but we think it's worth the extra money for the high build quality and consistent, reliable cooking performance.

Theres a lot to love about the Char-Broil Performance Series 4-Burner Gas Grill. It offers a large cooking space of 475 square inches, which is more than enough to hold 20 succulent burger patties at a time.

The grill is made of porcelain-coated cast iron, which many will see as an improvement from the stainless steel grills used on many gas grills nudging around a similar price point. Theres even a secondary side burner capable of outputting 10,000 BTU - perfect for a pan.

Heat consistency is superb on the Char-Broil Performance Series 4-Burner Gas Grill, getting straight back up to optimum cooking temperature displayed on the thermometer each time you close the lid. Overall, this is a great performer with lots of useful features for the price. The gas grill itself is also easy to clean and low on flare-ups. Just don't expect as decent a warranty as you'll find on the more premium, expensive grills featured in our guide.

If youre on the move a lot, youll be grateful for the Weber Q1200 Gas Grill. Its super-compact yet performs like a champ. In fact, we think its the best portable propane barbecue you can buy, both in terms of build quality and overall performance.

Despite being small enough to easily take in your car or RV, this packs in 189 square inches of grill space, a stainless steel burner ring for 8,500 BTU of power, and a lid (with built-in thermometer) that does a great job of blocking any wind.

The result is consistent heat for your food, but Weber has also put usability in mind when coming up with its design; youre even given side tables so you don't feel cramped while cooking up a storm on the road.

Realistically, this is also pretty great for a couple or family that want to save space in a small garden; theres enough space for a good meal, and its easy to tuck away in a garage. It's not the cheapest but does have a decent warranty and is easy to clean too.

If youre looking for a portable grill with a greater cooking area than most, Royal Gourmets four-burner gas grill and griddle combo could be the one for you. With almost 600 square inches of hot surface split between grill bars and a substantial griddle and folding legs which allow it to fit into just about any trunk. The Royal Gourmet GD401 4-Burner Folding Gas Grill Griddle is a great choice for setting up a tailgate station, though it does skim the limits of portability in terms of weight.

Theres plenty of heat to offer your food, with four individually adjustable burners, but wed be careful about purchasing this if you dont have an inside space in which to store it as theres no lid to keep the elements off. That also limits its potential in terms of the specific things you can cook - but we dont think anyones going to mind if you just load them up with burgers.

Home Depots user score for the Royal Gourmet GD401 4-Burner Folding Gas Grill Griddle averages at 4.2 out of 5 stars, which isnt bad, though there are a number of negatives regarding the materials prematurely rusting and certain grills having slight quality control flaws out of the box. There are plenty of positives, however - this seems to be a grill users love for its simplicity and versatility, with the two side tables giving lots of options, though you may want to supply your own lid.

The Dyna-Glo 4-Burner Gas Grill is big, bold and bound to not last long, but that doesnt mean it wont help you cook up some serious burgers in the meantime. One of the best gas grills on a budget, Dyna-Glos offering sports a generous amount of cooking room, with four 12,000 BTU burners covering a decent 461 square inches of grill rack. Theres also 136 square inches of warmer rack space, making this gas grill good value for money.

The features keep coming, too: there's a built-in thermometer, two side tables, a sliding grease pan for easier cleaning, plus twist ignition. Even the rack is porcelain-enameled, giving it an easy-clean touch. All that, plus a built-in bottle opener make the Dyna-Glo 4-Burner a good all-rounder gas grill.

Just don't expect it to last half as long as the competition, since it's less than half the price. User reviews suggest that might be something of an understatement, too - but at least you should get a good summer of flame-grilled food out of it.

If youre looking to cook a big meal without spending big bucks, the RevoAce 4-Burner Gas Grill may be the best option for you. This top-rated grill is an affordable way to own a large and highly usable grill, which includes a side burner and pushes out plenty of propane power.

While things are definitely on the cheaper end here, that doesnt mean youre missing out on some of the more key features of propane grills. You get a total of 480 square inches of cook space powered by a whopping 48,000 BTU output. The push-button ignition makes it easy to get going, the built-in thermometer lets you know how you're doing, and the side shelves and side burner make large scale cooking much more manageable.

Clean up is easy thanks to porcelain coated grills replete with easy-clean finishes. This isnt built to last like the real high-end models in our best gas grills guide, but its plenty big and powerful enough for a decent price, and should keep on trucking for a while if youre able to store it safely away from the rain and cold.

Top Ten Reviews acquires as many products as possible for side-by-side testing. During each test on gas grills, we record our personal experience, what we liked and disliked about the gas grill, as well as noting each models strengths and weaknesses. In other words, our conclusions are based on real-life testing.

Our evaluation team included four members with years of experience using and reviewing gas grills. On top of that, we reached out to grilling experts and others who use gas grills regularly, asking what they look for when they buy a new grill.

Antonio Lexerot, Salt Lake City, is a member of a Utah outdoors club. He has catered their bi-annual summer camp for more than a decade grilling food for dozens of people at a time. He owns several different types of grills, including charcoal, smokers, gas and infrared models.

Speaking about gas versus charcoal grills, Lexerot noted that gas grills give you even, long-lasting heat, whereas charcoal grills get hot quickly then peter out over time. His advice: If youre doing something quick, charcoal is fine, but if you are doing a larger project you need the indirect heat gas grills provide.

When asked about what he looks for in a good gas grill he said, You want one that has some kind of flare-up control, so if you drip some grease it doesnt turn into a tire fire and ruin your food especially chicken.

The most important point Lexerot stressed was, If youre going to get a gas grill that you plan on using regularly, get a sturdy grill with ample features, that's easy to use and will hold up over time."

However, not all grillers make gas grills their first choice. Jesse Johnson of the Utah BBQ Association is a pitmaster for a competitive BBQ team. At the time of publication, he owned 14 grills. He generally uses wood-burning grills because they create the Maillard reaction, which imparts more flavor to your meat. But he will use gas grills to create a reverse sear on steaks.

His preference for wood-burning grills means that his 16-year-old Weber Platinum mostly gathers dust. However, hes still a fan of the brand. They make some of the best products before you get into the crazy money, Johnson told us. Weber is probably the biggest name in grilling.

Although he favors wood-burning grills, he says its all a matter of personal preference: If someone is just looking to cook hamburgers and hot dogs, a gas grill will work just fine. But when Im cooking for the family I like to slow everything down. The environment of cooking with the family is more important.

Grilling area Think about how much food you are going to prepare and purchase your model accordingly. The biggest grills we reviewed can cook up to 12 hamburgers at the same time, which may be perfect for some but overkill for others. Smaller grills we reviewed can fit three to eight burgers, which is probably enough for the average family.

Heat consistency An unevenly heated grill can lead to inconsistent results. You may end up with one burger or steak burned, while the others are undercooked. Make sure you get a model that distributes heat evenly across the entire cooking space. However, if you do run into problems with heat distribution, you can probably confine your cooking to the center of the burner, where the heat will have the most uniformity. Design Most of the grills we reviewed have stainless steel exteriors. When maintained and cleaned properly, most of these grills can stand up to weather, wear, tear and rust. The best grills have grates that are made of cast iron, which delivers a better cooking experience and is easier to clean than stainless steel.

Portability When you buy a gas grill, you should consider what youll be using it for and how much you intend to move it. If its going to sit on your patio for years, you can probably get a bigger, heavier model like the Nexgrill or Char-Broil Performance. Most of the grills we reviewed have roller wheels, so you can move them around a bit.

But if you take your grill on the road with you, it's important to be able to move it around easily. Medium-size grills, such as the Weber Spirit II, have larger wheels and fit nicely into a truck bed. However, if space is tight, we recommend smaller models, such as the Coleman RoadTrip X-cursion, and tabletop models like the Cuisinart Petit Gourmet. They fit easily in a trunk or even the back seat of a car.

You can potentially spend thousands of dollars on a gas grill. However, there are lots of good options anywhere from $150 to $500. These are all good models that will get your food cooked with almost no problems.

Though you're probably making your gas grill investment with this summer in mind, it's worthwhile to think about how much use you can get out of it for years to come. Given the high temperatures used in grilling, it's no surprise that wear and tear will have an effect on the quality of your model over time.

Rather than immediately thinking about replacing your gas grill when it loses its shine, it's best to consider any repairs that can be done to save it. That might include fixing up its regulator or lighting system, so you can get back to flipping burgers, rather than searching for a whole new grill.

Check out the warranty of each potential gas grill model before you buy too. Even though most grills are said to last around 5-15 years, it's always best to have a guarantee you can fall back on should anything go wrong.

Luke is a veteran tech journalist with decades of experience covering everything from TVs, power tools, science and health tech to VPNs, space, gaming and cars. You may recognize him from appearances on plenty of news channels or have read his words which have been published in most tech titles over the years. In his spare time (of which he has little as a father of two) Luke likes yoga, surfing, meditation, DIY and consuming all the books, comics and movies he can find.

freakonomics radio archive - freakonomics freakonomics

freakonomics radio archive - freakonomics freakonomics

Discover the hidden side of everything with Stephen J. Dubner, co-author of theFreakonomicsbooks. Each week,Freakonomics Radiotells you things you always thought you knew (but didnt) and things you never thought you wanted to know (but do) from the economics of sleep to how to become great at just about anything. Dubner speaks with Nobel laureates and provocateurs, intellectuals and entrepreneurs, and various other underachievers.

*Podcast ^One-hour special: Mashups of earlier podcasts, with updated material, which were once aired on the radio. Archive of On the Radio episodes. Marketplace segment: For three years, Freakonomics Radio appeared regularly on Marketplace, the weekday business program from American Public Media.

raymond mill | charcoal powder grinding machine raymond mill | charcoal powder grinding machine

raymond mill | charcoal powder grinding machine raymond mill | charcoal powder grinding machine

Raymond millis mainly used as a piece of common mining equipment, which is mainly suitable for grinding various minerals, chemical, construction and other industries of more than 300kinds of materials with high fine powder processing. Besides, it is also a piece of very practical equipment for grinding charcoal or coal briquettes into charcoal and coal powderso that it is very useful in the charcoal production line.

The Raymond mill is very common and efficient in the shisha or hookah charcoaland bbq charcoal production line, which can crush and grind the charcoal blocks into fine powder, and then the charcoal powder can be mixed with the binder for making good charcoal briquettes like cubic or tablet hookah charcoal or barbecue charcoalbriquettes.The charcoal or coal powder which is ground by the Raymond mill is very suitable for mixing with the binder and then being formed into charcoal briquettes with many different shapes and these charcoal briquettes are very popular in the market.

Different from other charcoal crushers, this kind of charcoal grinder is more efficient for making fine charcoal powder which is especially good for making high-quality shisha charcoal with good appearance and good prices. This Raymond mill for grinding charcoal powder has a very compact structure which is mainly composed of a host machine, an analyzer, a blower, a finished cyclone separator, a micro powder cyclone separator, and an air pipe.

Among all the parts, the hostpart is the most import part whichis composed of a machine frame, inlet volute, blade and grinding roller and grinding ring and shell composition. Large bulk materials crushed by jaw crusher to the needed size are fed into storage hopper by a hoisting machine and then fed into grinding chamber of the main engine uniformly, quantitatively and continuously by electromagnetic vibrating feeder for grinding.

The ground material then is blown into separator by blower for classification. With the function of impellers in the separator, materials without meeting the requirements of the fineness are fallen into grinding chamber for grinding again; materials meeting the requirements of the fineness are blown into cyclone powder collector with airflow through pipelines for separation and collection. Powder from a discharging device is the finished product. Separated airflow is back to the blower through return duct on the top of the cyclone powder collector.

The grinding process of Raymond mill is widely used in metallurgy, building materials, mining materials, mining and other chemical field, suitable for barite, calcite, feldspar, talc, marble, limestone, dolomite, fluorite, lime, activated clay, activated carbon, bentonite, kaolin, gypsum, cement, phosphate rock, glass, manganese, titanium, copper, chrome ore, refractory materials, insulation materials, coal, coal, carbon black, clay, bone powder, titanium dioxide, iron oxide, quartz with hardness less than 7, and humidity below 6%, non-flammable and explosive mineral processing.

Over 300 kinds of chemical materials, construction and other industries can be processed with high fine powder, 60-300 mesh product size in the range of arbitrary regulation. So that nearly all the hard and brittle materials can be ground by this charcoal processing machine. In the charcoal production line, after the grinding in this charcoal machine, the charcoal powder can be further processed by a series of charcoal briquette machines, such asshisha charcoal press machine, BBQ charcoal briquette machineand honeycomb coal or charcoal press machine.

2, Resilient coupling between the main engine and the separator can reduce vibration and noise and improve the service life of the equipment. Because of connecting crushing, drying, grinding, classifying and transmission together with the simple system and compact layout, it covers about 50% of the area of the ball mill system and can be an outdoor arrangement, which can reduce the investment cost a lot.

3, Milling roller devices adopt superimposed multistage seal with excellent seal performance. Unique air circulation system with advanced dust remover carries the environmental protection concept through to the end.

4, Impeller devices with high density and high precision increase more than 50% of finished product yield under the same power. Efficient and energy-saving centrifugal induced draft fans improve the efficiency of induced draft fans greatly. Convenient impeller adjusting devices improve the precision of the finished product.

5, According to different requirements for the working capacities of the users, this charcoal grinding machine can be different types and models, and we can also customize the type the customers need. Besides, we can also provide the supporting equipment such as screw conveyor, stock bin and the accessories of this Raymond mill.

Shuliy Machinery not only provides high-quality machines but also provides comprehensive after-sales service. We have been focusing on the charcoal machinery industry for nearly 20 years and have rich experience in designing and manufacturing large and medium-sized charcoal machines to meet the needs of various customers. At the same time, according to the requirements of customers, we can provide services such as plant construction plan, market analysis, and best product formula. learn more >>>

98 symptoms coronavirus patients say they've had | eat this not that

98 symptoms coronavirus patients say they've had | eat this not that

We've consulted with our team of licensed nutritionists and dietitians to bring you informed recommendations for food products, health aids and nutritional goods to safely and successfully guide you toward making better diet and nutrition choices. We strive to only recommend products that adhere to our philosophy of eating better while still enjoying what you eat.

Ever since COVID-19 reared its ugly head and upended our world, long-lasting symptoms of the virus have been varied and hard to pinpointuntil now. "A survey conducted by Dr. Natalie Lambert of Indiana University School of Medicine and Survivor Corps analyzed the long-term experiences COVID-19 survivors are having with the virus. The COVID-19 'Long Hauler' Symptoms Survey Report identified 98 long-lasting symptoms." Click through from least common to most common to see if you've experienced any. Read on, and to ensure your health and the health of others, don't miss these 35 Places You're Most Likely to Catch COVID.

Syncope is when you faint or pass out, usually due to a temporary drop in blood flow to the brain, reports the Cleveland Clinic. One study published in the journal HeartRhythm Case Reports finds syncope may be the presenting symptom of a COVID-19 infection, even in those who are asymptomatic. "Recognizing this possibility is of extreme importance, especially in the initial phase of COVID-19 infection," warn the researchers.

When lymph nodes throb or swell, it's a sign of trauma around the neck area, an infection, or a bacterial illness related to a cold or sore throat, reports HealthLink British Columbia. COVID-19 is generally known as a respiratory virus that can also affect your throat and sinuses.

Your thyroid is an essential element to your body's proper functionality. According to Informed Health, it "plays a major role in the metabolism, growth and development of the human body." It does this by releasing the perfect amount of thyroid hormones at the perfect times. Some COVID-19 sufferers report having elevated thyroid levels as a long-lasting symptom of the virus.

Anemia is "a condition in which you lack enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your body's tissues," says the Mayo Clinic. The most common type of anemia is associated with not getting enough iron. The condition makes you feel tired and weak. In some cases, it may even cause chest pain and dizziness, which are common long-lasting symptoms of coronavirus.

The symptoms of herpes, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), and trigeminal neuralgia are varied and may include fatigue, inflamed throat, fever, and facial pain. These are also common symptoms of COVID-19 and 38 sufferers who participated in the survey reported experiencing symptoms of these conditions after the virus was gone.

GERD is acid reflux and it's commonly known to cause excessive salivation, or drooling. According to University of Florida Health, trauma or infections in the throat, such as sinus infections or swollen adenoids, can cause GERD, which may lead to drooling.

Scientists are studying the rare but potentially severe personality changes that COVID-19 may cause in patients. According to an article published in Science News, symptoms related to the brain are often overlooked as medical professionals focus on the physical aspects of the virus. However, depression, personality changes, and confusion are some long-lasting symptoms that some COVID-19 sufferers may experience.

Thrush is small, white lesions inside your mouth caused by an imbalance of bacterial growth, more specifically an overgrowth of Candida, according to Cedars-Sinai. Some people are more prone to developing thrush but it may also be common with COVID-19 survivors. Since the virus affects your respiratory system and throat, imbalances in the mouth and tongue may also occur.

Your hormones are important because they regulate your appetite, mood, sexual function, and body temperature. According to Women in Balance Institute, a hormone imbalance may be caused by stress, an unhealthy lifestyle, or a buildup of toxins in the body. COVID-19 sufferers may experience this imbalance as the virus wreaks havoc on their respiratory system and as their immune system works hard to fight it off.

A urinary tract infection occurs when germs get into the urethra and begin to spread throughout the urinary tract, says to John Hopkins Medicine. One study published in Elsevier Public Health Emergency Collection "found a potentially dangerous overlap of classical urinary symptoms and the as yet not fully described symptoms of COVID-19." Urinary frequency and the virus may be related, which explains its potential cause of UTIs in patients.

Kidney issues, including protein in the urine, was a long-lasting symptom of COVID-19 for 47 survey participants. The specific ways the virus affects kidneys isn't known yet, but according to John Hopkins Medicine, it may invade kidney cells or the low levels of oxygen the virus causes may be what contribute to these long-lasting kidney problems.

While it's not a serious issue, dry scalp and dandruff can be uncomfortable and embarrassing. According to Cedars-Sinai, dandruff can be caused by changes in hormones, so it makes sense that it's related to the virus.

There are many causes of low blood pressure, such as genetics, your diet, or dehydration. According to the Mayo Clinic, low blood pressure is also related to infections and hormone fluctuations, which is why it may be a long-lasting symptom of COVID-19.

"COVID toes" are an emerging symptom of the virus that may not be as common as the other symptoms, such as cough or fever. COVID toes occur when the toes develop a rash or lesions. According to Dr. Humberto Choi, MD, from the Cleveland Clinic, rashes on the skin are common with viral infections such as COVID-19. The survey found that 59 participants had this strange side effect after being infected with coronavirus.

According to the University of Miami, it's possible that coronavirus could cause an eye infection, such as conjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye. The American Academy of Ophthalmology concludes that styes are caused by bacterial infections, which could explain the relationship to this eye condition and the virus.

Foot pain can be caused by a number of ailments, such as corns, plantar fasciitis, or achilles tendon injuries. "Covid toes" may contribute to this pain since some patients can have trouble walking or sleeping due to lesions on their toes. In most cases, this strange symptom goes away so the foot pain should also subside.

A goiter is an "abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland," according to the American Thyroid Association. While a goiter doesn't necessarily mean the thyroid isn't functioning correctly, it does indicate that there's a potential hormonal imbalance causing the thyroid gland to grow abnormally. 70 survey respondents dealt with a goiter after COVID-19, possibly due to the hormonal effects the virus has on the body.

Cracked or dry lips can occur in especially cold or hot weather or may be a sign of dehydration. When a virus like COVID-19 takes hold, dry lips may also occur because viruses are likely to cause dehydration. The American Academy of Dermatology suggests using lip balm, drinking plenty of fluids, and refraining from picking at the dry skin to get this symptom to go away.

COVID-19 is a respiratory virus so it's no wonder those who contracted the illness feel a cold or burning sensation in their lungs. However, this symptom may last longer than the virus since 74 survey participants reported this feeling after coronavirus was gone. An article published in NBC News concludes that many COVID-19 sufferers felt this "slow burn" for a while, until it either worsened and was treated or went away completely.

According to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC), bluish lips or face is an emergency of COVID-19. When your lips turn blue, it's a sign your blood oxygen has dipped to extreme levels. The survey found that 77 participants claimed they experienced low blood oxygen after contracting coronavirus. One reason for this is that lung capacity may not have fully recovered from the respiratory virus.

The Mayo Clinic defines arrhythmia as a heart rhythm problem and explains it happens when "electrical impulses that coordinate your heartbeats don't work properly, causing your heart to beat too fast, too slow or irregularly." A study published in HeartRhythm studied hospitalized coronavirus patients and found some of them suffered bradyarrhythmias or cardiac arrests. The study concluded heart traumas and abnormalities like these are "likely the consequence of systemic illness and not solely the direct effects of COVID-19 infection."

In the survey, 80 participants reported jaw pain as a long-lasting symptom of COVID-19. According to the American Dental Association, jaw pain may be caused by bone problems, stress, infection, sinus issues, or tooth grinding. It's known that coronavirus causes aches and pains, so this jaw pain may be a lingering side effect of the body fighting off the virus.

For COVID-19 sufferers, a painful scalp may be a side effect of the dandruff the virus may cause or aches and pains associated with the illness. According to Kaiser Permanente, scalp pain or ailments may occur after recovering from a high fever, when dealing with a thyroid issue, or if you have poor nutrition.

According to an article published in St. Peter's Health Partners, a "tingling, burning, or 'fizzing' sensation" was reported from several COVID-19 patients. This sensation may be a side effect of other symptoms, such as aches and pains or fever.

According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, back pain intensity can range "from a dull, constant ache to a sudden, sharp or shooting pain." Those recovering from illness may report this pain due to a decrease in movement over the past few days or due to the usual aches and pains of their sickness. 84 survey respondents claimed mid-back pain or pain at the base of their ribs after COVID-19. It's usually treated with muscle relaxants, gentle stretching, heat, or ice.

After potentially experiencing a fever while fighting off COVID-19, sufferers may be surprised by the strange long-lasting symptom of a low body temperature once they've recovered. According to Kaiser Permenante, a low body temperature may occur with an infection or may be a sign of diabetes or a low thyroid level. A low temperature may also be the culprit for chills, since the body attempts to warm up with narrowed blood vessels.

Your veins circulate the blood around your body and when you're too cold or hot, your blood vessels may constrict or widen. This may be due to having a fever, then low body temperature, or it may be a sign of dehydration. According to the Mayo Clinic, these bulging veins may be due to inactivity or damaged blood valves.

Arthralgia (joint pain) is a common symptom of coronavirus and a study published in the Nature Public Health Emergency Collection found that at least one patient in the 40 that were studied experienced joint pain. This joint ailment may linger in those who had the virus, causing hand or wrist pain to remain.

The Mayo Clinic defines costochondritis as "inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the breastbone (sternum)." Cedars-Sinai claims that the risk for developing a chest wall infection like costochondritis is increased with respiratory trauma, such as pneumonia or bronchitis. Since COVID-19 is a respiratory illness, it's not surprising that 98 survey respondents who had the virus claimed costochondritis as a lingering symptom.

According to Rush University Medical Center, a spike in blood pressure could be caused by a number of factors, such as stress, thyroid problems, or certain medications. A study published by the American College of Cardiology found a potential link between the virus and the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, which is a "critical neurohormonal pathway that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance." This may explain the changes in blood pressure these patients experienced after coronavirus.

According to the National Kidney Foundation, acute kidney damage occurs in about 15% of COVID-19 patients, some of which never had kidney problems before. The survey found that 115 respondents have kidney pain after coronavirus, which may be a sign that the virus has caused kidney damage.

The long-term extreme effects of COVID-19 still remain a mystery, but the survey found that 119 people who had the virus suffered from brain pressure. A study published in the Journal of the Brazilian Society of Tropical Medicine found a potential link between COVID-19 and benign intracranial hypertension, a condition that causes pressure in the brain. These symptoms are usually temporary but can be serious if they get worse and are left untreated.

According to the Cleveland Clinic, swollen lymph nodes are usually a sign that your body is fighting an infection. Your glands are working hard to flush out toxins and cells through lymph fluid. When your body fights a virus like COVID-19, lymph nodes may swell as all hands are on deck trying to get rid of the illness.

One of the common symptoms of COVID-19 is a headache but 128 survey participants reported feeling extreme pressure at the base of their head or occipital nerve after recovering from the virus. According to the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, pressure at the occipital nerve (the nerves that run through the scalp) may be caused by muscle tightness or pinched nerves. These nerves may experience pressure or pain during an infection or due to blood vessel inflammation.

According to a study published in JAMA Dermatology, the virus may be associated with a number of different skin rashes. The study found two different types of rashes that occurred in some patients infected with the coronavirus: petechial flexural eruption and digitate papulosquamous rashes. These skin conditions could occur at any time during and after infection and may contribute to the feeling of burning skin.

Body, joint, and bone aches are common with coronavirus and most other illnesses. According to one study, when the immune system is in overdrive, it causes an immune response that ramps up your white blood cells and causes them to produce glycoproteins called interleukins. These can cause joint pain, bone pain, and swelling.

These feelings of hot blood rushing may be due to blood vessel irregularities caused by the virus or remnants of a fever. According to a study published in Science Daily, this sudden rise in temperature may be your immune system cranking up in an attempt to continue killing off the virus. The study found that "elevated body temperature helps certain types of immune cells to work better."

Chills without a fever was a long-lasting COVID-19 symptom for 154 survey participants. It could be the body's way of continuing to regulate temperature and recover from a previous fever. According to Keck Medicine of USC, chills without a fever may also indicate your body is under stress and fighting a viral or bacterial infection or you're dealing with low blood sugar, which makes sense if you didn't eat much while you were sick.

According to John Hopkins Medicine, your neck doesn't have much protection or support so neck pain is common. Since the virus is known to cause muscle and joint pain, as well as body aches, your sensitive neck is more susceptible to this lingering symptom.

According to the University of Florida Health, tongue pain and soreness can be caused by a number of factors, such as infection, hypothyroidism, or a tumor in the pituitary gland. A study published in the International Journal of Infectious Diseases found that oral mucosal lesions may be associated with COVID-19 patients, which could explain this long-lasting virus symptom.

According to the CDC, one of the most common symptoms of COVID-19 is a fever. The body may need time after a fever has dissipated to recover and regulate its temperature. This may be why 165 survey respondents claim to have heat intolerance after being infected with COVID-19. As the immune system fights off the virus, it raises and lowers the body's temperature accordingly, which may cause this heat intolerance to linger.

Those who contracted COVID-19 and experienced "COVID toes" or other skin-related symptoms may also be dealing with swollen hands and feet. According to the Mayo Clinic, this swelling is called edema and it could be linked to kidney or heart problems, both of which may be caused by coronavirus.

Dry skin may be attributed to the rashes and cutaneous manifestations that some people develop on their skin due to the virus. However, according to the American Skin Association, dry skin may also be attributed to a decline in fluid intake, which can happen when you're sick. It may also be a telling sign of a thyroid problem or hormonal imbalance.

According to A&D Medical, "High blood pressure is not a documented symptom of COVID-19, but it can exacerbate the symptoms of the virus." The 181 survey respondents who report experiencing high blood pressure after having COVID-19 likely already suffered from this condition but fighting the virus may have made it worse.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), COVID-19 symptoms generally include a dry cough and sore throat. Living with a dry cough and sore throat throughout the course of the virus may cause this dry throat to remain for a while, even after testing negative for COVID-19.

Post-nasal drip is when mucus drips down the back of your throat and it's common after you've had a stuffy or runny nose. After dealing with allergy or sinus issues or infections, post-nasal drip can linger for a while. If one's body produced extra mucous and fluids in an attempt to fight off the virus, this mucus may continue to drip. According to Harvard Health Publishing, you can treat post-nasal drip by staying hydrated, taking a nasal decongestant, or inhaling steam, such as from a hot shower.

COVID-19 survivors who had severe cases are likely to experience extreme weight loss. According to an article posted by Northeast Ohio Medical University, it's common for patients who survive severe infections or illnesses to lose weight. When sufferers are placed on ventilators or hospitalized for long periods of time, their bodies don't obtain the proper nutrition or muscle-building exercise. The body is also under stress fighting off the virus, which can cause this weight loss to occur.

According to MedPage Today, it's not uncommon for patients recovering from COVID-19 to feel irritable or angry. The virus may have mental health effects that make it hard for those who have recovered to go back to work or their daily routine without mood swings. Patients who were hospitalized may experience irritation and symptoms similar to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after being released.

According to the University of Florida Health, muscle twitches may be caused by stress, lack of nutrients, or lack of sleep. Coronavirus is known to make its sufferers tired and their bodies stressed from fighting the virus, so this may explain muscle twitching. In some cases, it may be a sign of muscle damage or nervous system disorders.

Mild confusion or "brain fog" is a common symptom of coronavirus and most colds, flues, and viruses. According to an article published in Science Magazine, this confusion may occur because the body's systems are focused on fighting the illness, not giving enough focus, blood, or alertness to the brain.

According to the CDC, persistent pressure or pain in the chest is a symptom of COVID-19 and 210 survey participants claim to continue feeling this symptom after the virus is gone. As a respiratory virus, it's possible that this pain or pressure is actually being felt in the lungs. However, according toDiagnostic and Interventional Cardiology, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmias, and other cardiac events have also been linked to coronavirus so sufferers should take this lingering symptom seriously.

A loss of sense of taste is a common symptom of COVID-19 but 221 survey respondents claim the virus may have completely changed their sense of taste. According to Kaiser Permanente, a loss of sense of taste or partial loss may cause tastes to change. These changes may also be caused by a decrease in taste buds or changes in the way the nervous system processes certain taste sensations.

Tinnitus is a ringing or noise in the ear and 233 survey respondents claim they now experience this ringing or humming in the ears after recovering from COVID-19. According to the American Tinnitus Association, the onset of tinnitus may occur due to stress and anxiety, after there's been damage to the inner ear, or when other conditions or diseases are developed.

According to a study published in the Elsevier Public Health Emergency Collection, "Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even cause severe neurological damage." 243 survey participants reported feeling nerve sensations after COVID-19, which may be due to neurological damage caused by the virus.

When you contract an illness or a virus like coronavirus, your body's working overtime to fight it. According to the Mayo Clinic, your body needs more fluids when you're sick and if it doesn't get the fluids, you're likely to suffer from constant thirst. It's your body's way of telling you it's not getting enough fluids to continue fighting and recovering from the virus.

In some COVID-19 cases, patients have developed rashes on their skin. According to a research letter published in the JAMA Network, some coronavirus patients suffered from enanthem, a skin rash that looks like small white spots on the mucous membranes. Other patients had widespread urticaria, or hives, on their skin. Other rashes were also found in some COVID-19 patients who were studied. Scientists aren't sure if this side effect is directly related to the virus or attributed to certain medications.

According to UCLA Health, "floaters" are little specks or lines that float around in your field of vision every once in a while. If you constantly see floaters or they're accompanied by flashes of light, it may indicate you have a retina tear or vitreous detachment, which occurs when vitreous gel in the eye separates from the retina. In the survey, 249 respondents claimed to suffer from floaters or flashes of light in their vision after COVID-19.

As with most illnesses, coronavirus is associated with muscle aches and pains. Patients with COVID-19 who were bedridden or spent an extended period of time inactive may experience upper back pain due to immobility. According to Kaiser Permanente, upper back pain isn't as common as lower back pain but may be caused by muscle strain, poor posture, or pressure on the spinal nerves.

Fatigue is a common symptom of coronavirus but some sufferers are having trouble shaking off that tiredness. According to an article published in The Scientist, it's possible that COVID-19 may lead to chronic illness, including chronic fatigue. Scientists are tracking these symptoms amongst sufferers who seek treatment so they can get a grasp on what other symptoms may lead to chronic illness.

According to Northwestern Medicine, tremors may be caused by stress, anxiety, or too much caffeine. Tremors or shakes when you pick up a glass of water or hold a piece of paper may also indicate that you have essential tremor (ET), which is a neurological disorder that causes these shakes. These tremors may occur because the body is recovering from the stress of the virus, they may indicate ET, or there may be another underlying cause.

According to the University of Rochester Medical Center, muscle cramps usually occur after heavy exercise, when you're experiencing muscle fatigue, or if your body's dehydrated. Since the virus and other illnesses are notorious for dehydrating your body and causing muscle fatigue, these calf cramps may be an explainable symptom of coronavirus. Massaging, stretching, and warm compresses could help mitigate these cramps.

An article published in Review of Optometry reviewed the relationship between ocular symptoms and coronavirus in Chinese patients. It found that 27% of those studied complained of itchy, dry, and red eyes. Some even began to develop sore and dry eyes a few days before any other COVID-19 symptoms. Researchers feel this may be because coronavirus "infects the mucosa membrane epithelium and even lymphocytes, which are both abundant in ocular surface tissue."

According to the Mayo Clinic, when your ears are clogged "your eustachian tubes which run between your middle ear and the back of your nose become obstructed." It may cause pressure, ear pain, muffled hearing, or dizziness. The survey found that 267 participants experienced clogged ears as a long-lasting symptom of COVID-19. Since clogged ears are common with a stuffy nose and other respiratory illnesses or sinus infections, it's a common symptom of coronavirus. To relieve pressure, you can try popping your ears or taking a nasal decongestant.

While weight gain isn't a symptom of the virus, stress from getting sick, lockdown and quarantine may be to blame for the extra pounds. A study published in the Journal of Translational Medicine analyzed italian citizens placed on strict lockdown and observed their lifestyle and eating habit changes. It found that 48.6% of the population studied gained weight. While the virus itself may not be to blame for this side effect, the stress and anxiety of lifestyle changes could be.

While it's not usually listed as a common symptom of COVID-19, many who got the virus also suffered from nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or other gastrointestinal problems. The survey found that 314 respondents claimed they still suffered from nausea or vomiting after coronavirus. According to the Mayo Clinic, these gastrointestinal symptoms were varied and some felt them well before a diagnosis. Others only dealt with these symptoms for one day.

Shortness of breath is a common symptom of COVID-19 but 318 survey participants reported that they continued to feel shortness of breath or exhaustion when they bent over. According to Penn Medicine, this may be a sign of an ongoing pulmonary problem or heart problem. While shortness of breath is common with COVID-19 sufferers, those who have recovered should seek medical attention if this symptom doesn't seem to be going away.

COVID-19 causes myalgia, pain in a muscle or a group of muscles. An article published in Nature Public Health Emergency Collection concludes that myalgia in COVID-19 patients lingers longer than it may with other illnesses. Lower back pain is usually associated with pneumonia or poor lung function and since COVID-19 is a respiratory virus, it makes sense that patients are more likely to experience this type of muscle pain.

While not a common symptom of COVID-19, many who contracted the virus did report gastrointestinal problems. This could explain why 344 survey respondents reported dealing with abdominal pain well after contracting the virus. In a study published through the American Gastrological Association, 31.9% of COVID-19 patients studied claimed to have gastrointestinal problems associated with the virus.

While a dry cough is most commonly associated with coronavirus, some patients may experience phlegm in the back of their throat during the later stages. For coronavirus patients dealing with phlegm, the University of Maryland Medical System suggests taking an expectorant to help get the mucus out and make your cough more productive. Staying hydrated and drinking warm beverages may also help to break up the phlegm.

Loss of taste, called ageusia, and loss of smell, called anosmia, are common symptoms of the virus and the duration of these symptoms varies by patient. A study published in the Journal of Korean Medical Science analyzed Korean COVID-19 sufferers and the duration of this specific symptom. The study found that, "Most patients with anosmia or ageusia recovered within 3 weeks."

As COVID-19 takes its course, patients may report symptoms that change frequently. For example, a patient may begin experiencing a headache and fever, then move onto shortness of breath and muscle aches. According to the CDC, "U.S. COVID-19 patients report a wide range of symptoms across a spectrum of illness severity."

"Heartburn occurs when stomach acid backs up into the tube that carries food from your mouth to your stomach (esophagus)," according to the Mayo Clinic. Since the virus is known to cause gastrointestinal problems, some patients may take longer to recover from these inconsistencies than others. Avoiding alcohol, spicy foods, and large meals may help curb these long-lasting symptoms.

Neuropathy is weakness or numbness due to nerve damage. Since the virus can do some damage to the nervous system, this may be a lingering symptom for some sufferers. According to a report published in the Elsevier Public Health Emergency Collection, COVID-19 may even disguise itself as motor peripheral neuropathy without other symptoms. Nerve fibers may be more sensitive when a patient is infected with the virus, causing this numbing of the hands and feet.

As a pandemic, COVID-19 sufferers are required to quarantine, which may mean isolating from loved ones and not being able to engage in activities they enjoy. A study published in The Lancet analyzed mental side effects of the virus and concluded that medical professionals should watch their patients for signs of depression or some neuropsychiatric syndromes well after recovery.

According to the American Pharmacists Association, the CDC recently added "runny nose" as a symptom of COVID-19. 414 survey respondents claimed a congested or runny nose as a lingering symptom of the virus. A runny nose is one way to get rid of the mucus in your body after the virus, so it may persist until the mucus is gone.

Blurry vision may be a sign of nerve damage or may also occur when other COVID-19 symptoms are going strong, such as a fever or headache. According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, blurred vision may also be a symptom of endophthalmitis, which is an infection of tissue or fluids inside the eye. If this is the case, quick treatment is required to prevent blindness.

According to Dr. Shilpi Khetarpal, MD from the Cleveland Clinic, hair loss isn't necessarily a symptom of COVID-19 but may be a side effect of the virus. She states, "We are seeing patients who had COVID-19 two to three months ago and are now experiencing hair loss." In the survey, 423 respondents reported experiencing hair loss after coronavirus. Dr. Khetarpal says this may be due to a change in diet, high fever, extreme weight loss, or any other "shock to the system" that COVID-19 may have caused.

The CDC conducted a study on coronavirus patients and found that 96% of patients recovered from chills and 97% recovered from fever. While most recovered from all COVID-19 symptoms, 34% still revealed that they were suffering from one or more lasting symptoms when interviewed four to eight days after testing positive. 65% of sufferers returned to their usual state of health around seven days after testing positive but chronic medical conditions, age, weight, gender, and other factors may affect how long symptoms, such as fever and chills, last.

According to the Mayo Clinic, tachycardia occurs when your heart beats over 100 beats per minute. It's a form of arrhythmia, or a heartbeat disorder. In the survey, 448 respondents experienced tachycardia after suffering from COVID-19. It may be the body's response to stress, trauma, or illness. However, if tachycardia is left untreated and continues to occur, it can lead to serious complications, such as heart failure or stroke.

Partial or complete loss of sense of smell is a common symptom with COVID-19 and many other respiratory viruses, according to Penn Medicine. Since your olfactory system is so close to your respiratory system, virus cells can enter into nerve and receptor cells and cause damage. It can take a long time for these cells to repair and some cells may never fully recover from the virus.

According to Kaiser Permanente, night sweats are different from regular sweating because they occur only at night and include intense sweating, enough to soak through your clothes and sheets. It's possible that night sweats are present due to a residual fever but they may also be caused by thyroid level issues, menopause, anxiety, or infections. New medication or other lingering symptoms, such as chills and muscle aches, may also contribute to long-lasting night sweats.

While not all coronavirus sufferers experience a sore throat, it's one of the common symptoms the CDC lists for the virus. According to the CDC, viruses and infections cause sore throats, which may be why this is a lingering symptom for some coronavirus patients.

While it's not the most common, diarrhea is listed by the CDC as a symptom of COVID-19. A study conducted by several researchers analyzed 206 patients with low severity COVID-19 and 48 experienced digestive problems first before other coronavirus symptoms. Diarrhea lasted an average of 14 days for COVID-19 patients in the study.

Even after the fever, headache, and dry cough have disappeared, some patients who have "recovered" from COVID-19 may experience heart palpitations. A study published in JAMA Cardiology examined 100 recovered COVID-19 patients and found that 78 of them had "cardiac involvement" while 60% had ongoing myocardial inflammation. Ongoing heart issues, such as palpitations, may be long-lasting for COVID-19 patients, regardless of their illness severity.

Dr. Richard Deem from Cedars-Sinai explains that as your immune system attempts to fight off COVID-19 or any type of illness, white blood cells produce interleukins to help join the fight. While these interleukins are useful in fighting off the virus cells, they also cause muscle and joint pain. The immune response may still be heightened in these recovering patients, causing this joint pain to last.

A lingering cough can be a side effect of any type of cold, flu, or illness. According to a study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) on Chinese COVID-19 patients, 61.7% developed a dry cough. As a respiratory virus, the cough associated with COVID-19 may take a long time to go away because your body is attempting to get rid of lingering mucus and phlegm.

Chest pain or pressure was a common lingering COVID-19 symptom among survey participants. Since coronavirus affects the lungs and respiratory system, this chest pain may be attributed to the virus still settling in the body. According to the Mayo Clinic, sudden, sharp chest pains are referred to as pleurisy and it may indicate that the lung walls are inflamed. Pleurisy may be a sign of pneumonia or another type of infection, so recovered COVID-19 patients should see a doctor if this symptom persists.

COVID-19 is a respiratory virus that also has nervous system side effects. According to a study published in the Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open, "symptoms including headache, dizziness, vertigo, and paresthesia have been reported." This may be due to decreased oxygen levels, dehydration, fevers, or headaches also caused by the virus.

A paper published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease analyzes potential long-term neurological effects of COVID-19 on patients who experienced severe cases. Memory problems and cognitive decline are potential side effects for some of these patients. Since the virus affects the nervous system, memory problems may be a lingering side effect for some patients, especially those who suffered severe cases.

According to a poll conducted by the American Psychiatric Association, about 36% of Americans feel coronavirus has had a serious impact on their mental health. Between quarantining, social isolation, and worry about developing a severe case of coronavirus, it's no wonder anxiety is a lingering symptom for COVID-19 patients.

Sleep is crucial because it keeps the immune system functioning properly, heightens brain function, stabilizes mood, and improves mental health. 782 survey respondents claimed they were having difficulty sleeping, even after recovering from COVID-19. This lack of sleep may be due to anxiety or worry about the virus or may be attributed to other lingering symptoms, such as muscle pain or cough. Setting specific bedtimes and only using your bed for sleep may help with these difficulties.

According to Dr. Sandhya Mehla with the Hartford HealthCare Headache Center, "It is estimated that headache is a symptom of COVID-19 in about 13% of patients with COVID-19. It is the fifth most common COVID-19 symptom after fever, cough, muscle aches, and trouble breathing."

After recovering from COVID-19, some patients find it hard to exercise or be active, even if they were fit before contracting the virus. 916 survey participants reported that they were still unable to exercise after recovering from coronavirus. According to a study published in JAMA Cardiology, researchers recommend that patients who suffered from severe cases of COVID-19 wait at least two weeks before resuming light exercise. This allows time for doctors to see if heart or lung conditions develop that could make it dangerous to engage in physical activity.

The long-term effects of COVID-19 are unknown since the virus is so new but researchers are seeing certain neurological effects on patients who have recovered. Studies conducted in Wuhan analyzed these neurological conditions and found that 40% of the patients analyzed experienced confusion and conscious disturbance. This is commonly referred to as "brain fog" and many patients express feeling this way while recovering from coronavirus.

According to John Hopkins Medicine, shortness of breath is when you feel like you can't get enough air or your chest is tight. Most people feel this way after exercising or if they're experiencing a panic attack. However, patients with COVID-19 may feel shortness of breath without even moving since it's a common symptom of the virus. In the survey, 924 COVID-19 patients claimed that shortness of breath or difficulty breathing was a long-lasting coronavirus symptom.

Body aches are a common symptom of many illnesses, including coronavirus. In this survey, 1,048 participants reported feeling these body aches after their COVID-19 diagnosis. According to Dr. Tania Elliott, MD FAAAAI, FACAAI, "Your body aches when you have the flu because your immune system is revving up to fight infection." It's not necessarily the virus that causes these aches but your body's own reaction to the virus invasion.

Fatigue was the most common lingering symptom of coronavirus. According to a study conducted by the WHO, the average recovery time for mild coronavirus cases is around two weeks but three to six weeks for severe or critical cases. Lingering fatigue may be a sign that your body is still fighting the virus or is recovering from the fight.

If you experience any of these conditions, it may or may not be COVID-19contact a medical professional immediately. Stay healthy and keep others healthy, too: Wear your face mask, get tested if you think you have coronavirus, avoid crowds (and bars, and house parties), practice social distancing, only run essential errands, wash your hands regularly, disinfect frequently touched surfaces, and to get through this pandemic at your healthiest, don't miss these 35 Places You're Most Likely to Catch COVID.

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charles chaplin - biography - imdb

charles chaplin - biography - imdb

Considered to be one of the most pivotal stars of the early days of Hollywood, Charlie Chaplin lived an interesting life both in his films and behind the camera. He is most recognized as an icon of the silent film era, often associated with his popular character, the Little Tramp; the man with the toothbrush mustache, bowler hat, bamboo cane, and a funny walk.Charles Spencer Chaplin was born in Walworth, London, England on April 16, 1889, to Hannah Harriet Pedlingham (Hill) and Charles Chaplin, both music hall performers, who were married on June 22, 1885. After Charles Sr. separated from Hannah to perform in New York City, Hannah then tried to resurrect her stage career. Unfortunately, her singing voice had a tendency to break at unexpected moments. When this happened, the stage manager spotted young Charlie standing in the wings and led him on stage, where five-year-old Charlie began to sing a popular tune. Charlie and his half-brother, Syd Chaplin spent their lives in and out of charity homes and workhouses between their mother's bouts of insanity. Hannah was committed to Cane Hill Asylum in May 1903 and lived there until 1921, when Chaplin moved her to California.Chaplin began his official acting career at the age of eight, touring with the Eight Lancashire Lads. At age 18, he began touring with Fred Karno's vaudeville troupe, joining them on the troupe's 1910 United States tour. He traveled west to California in December 1913 and signed on with Keystone Studios' popular comedy director Mack Sennett, who had seen Chaplin perform on stage in New York. Charlie soon wrote his brother Syd, asking him to become his manager. While at Keystone, Chaplin appeared in and directed 35 films, starring as the Little Tramp in nearly all.In November 1914, he left Keystone and signed on at Essanay, where he made 15 films. In 1916, he signed on at Mutual and made 12 films. In June 1917, Chaplin signed up with First National Studios, after which he built Chaplin Studios. In 1919, he and Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford and D.W. Griffith formed United Artists (UA).Chaplin's life and career was full of scandal and controversy. His first big scandal was during World War I, at which time his loyalty to England, his home country, was questioned. He had never applied for American citizenship, but claimed that he was a "paying visitor" to the United States. Many British citizens called Chaplin a coward and a slacker. This and other career eccentricities sparked suspicion with FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover and the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), who believed that he was injecting Communist propaganda into his films. Chaplin's later film The Great Dictator (1940), which was his first "talkie", also created a stir. In the film, Chaplin plays a humorous caricature of Adolf Hitler. Some thought the film was poorly done and in bad taste. However, the film grossed over $5 million and earned five Academy Award Nominations.Another scandal occurred when Chaplin briefly dated 22 year-old Joan Barry. However, Chaplin's relationship with Barry came to an end in 1942, after a series of harassing actions from her. In May 1943, Barry returned to inform Chaplin that she was pregnant and filed a paternity suit, claiming that the unborn child was his. During the 1944 trial, blood tests proved that Chaplin was not the father, but at the time, blood tests were inadmissible evidence, and he was ordered to pay $75 a week until the child turned 21.Chaplin also was scrutinized for his support in aiding the Russian struggle against the invading Nazis during World War II, and the United States government questioned his moral and political views, suspecting him of having Communist ties. For this reason, HUAC subpoenaed him in 1947. However, HUAC finally decided that it was no longer necessary for him to appear for testimony. Conversely, when Chaplin and his family traveled to London for the premier of Limelight (1952), he was denied re-entry to the United States. In reality, the government had almost no evidence to prove that he was a threat to national security. Instead, he and his wife decided to settle in Switzerland.Chaplin was married four times and had a total of 11 children. In 1918, he married Mildred Harris and they had a son together, Norman Spencer Chaplin, who lived only three days. Chaplin and Harris divorced in 1920. He married Lita Grey in 1924, who had two sons, Charles Chaplin Jr. and Sydney Chaplin. They were divorced in 1927. In 1936, Chaplin married Paulette Goddard, and his final marriage was to Oona O'Neill (Oona Chaplin), daughter of playwright Eugene O'Neill in 1943. Oona gave birth to eight children: Geraldine Chaplin, Michael Chaplin, Josephine Chaplin, Victoria Chaplin, Eugene Chaplin, Jane Chaplin, Annette-Emilie Chaplin, and Christopher Chaplin.In contrast to many of his boisterous characters, Chaplin was a quiet man who kept to himself a great deal. He also had an "un-millionaire" way of living. Even after he had accumulated millions, he continued to live in shabby accommodations. In 1921, Chaplin was decorated by the French government for his outstanding work as a filmmaker and was elevated to the rank of Officer of the Legion of Honor in 1952. In 1972, he was honored with an Academy Award for his "incalculable effect in making motion pictures the art form of the century". He was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1975 New Year's Honours List. No formal reason for the honour was listed. The citation simply reads "Charles Spencer Chaplin, Film Actor and Producer".Chaplin's other works included musical scores that he composed for many of his films. He also authored two autobiographical books, "My Autobiography" (1964) and its companion volume, "My Life in Pictures" (1974).Chaplin died at age 88 of natural causes on December 25, 1977 at his home in Vevey, Switzerland. His funeral was a small and private Anglican ceremony according to his wishes. In 1978, Chaplin's corpse was stolen from its grave and was not recovered for three months; he was re-buried in a vault surrounded by cement.Six of Chaplin's films have been selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the United States Library of Congress: The Immigrant (1917), The Kid (1921), The Gold Rush (1925), City Lights (1931), Modern Times (1936), and The Great Dictator (1940).Charlie Chaplin is considered one of the greatest filmmakers in the history of American cinema, whose movies were and still are popular throughout the world and have even gained notoriety as time progresses. His films show, through the Little Tramp's positive outlook on life in a world full of chaos, that the human spirit has and always will remain the same.

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design of an improved cooking stove using high density heated rocks and heat retaining techniques

design of an improved cooking stove using high density heated rocks and heat retaining techniques

Anthony A. Bantu, Gilbert Nuwagaba, Sarah Kizza, Yonah K. Turinayo, "Design of an Improved Cooking Stove Using High Density Heated Rocks and Heat Retaining Techniques", Journal of Renewable Energy, vol. 2018, Article ID 9620103, 9 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9620103

In sub-Saharan Africa, dependence on wood fuel has caused significant depletion of vegetative resources. Whereas there exist hundreds of improved cooking stoves, many have not reached their maximum potential because their designs are predominantly focused on either fuel efficiency or reduced smoke. This research designed and fabricated an improved charcoal stove using high density rocks and heat retaining techniques. The aim was to retain heat and minimise heat losses in cooking devices with a sole purpose of reducing the amount of fuel used during cooking. The stove design herein incorporates the interaction of physical and thermal properties of granite rocks with heat loss theories to give a thermal efficient unit. The stove was estimated to cost US$ 36 which compared favourably with most of the improved charcoal stoves on international market (US$ 350 US$). This study revealed that, by introducing the new stove design and insulation, the granite rocks depicted high thermal storage properties with potential for reducing fuel use by over 78% with reference to the open fire stove. The designed granite rock stove therefore paves way for the use of high density rocks in improved cook stoves to achieve high performance energy efficient systems that can sustainably put to use vegetative resources.

Many of the worlds population living in developing countries lack access to modern energy services for economic and social development. Besides, its existing energy system is unsustainable [1]. A large proportion of the households do not have access to grid electricity. Yet, those relying on electricity for cooking experience intermittent power supply. Although liquid petroleum gas burns quite effectively, it is expensive and not viable for a common man. More so, there has been persistent escalating fossil oil prices and fuel crisis which has drawn attention to the need for producing viable alternatives to kerosene and gas for domestic cooking [2]. Solar, another potential alternative source of energy, is noticeably location-specific in terms of utilisation. Its associated problems are linked to energy storage for use during the period of modest or no sunshine, as well as need for technological artifacts, which are currently scarce in the developing countries [3]. However, several renewable energy resources including hydroelectricity, solar, and biomass are promoted due to their high availability and responsiveness to the environment.

In Africa, biomass is a traditional and the most reliable fuel source of energy used for cooking by over 69% of the population [4]. However, its increased utilisation by inefficient technologies has raised fears over the long-term forest degradation with loss of environmental services (e.g., watershed protection) and biodiversity [5]. Biomass is quite difficult to burn completely in the most commonly used traditional household-sized stoves [6]. Frequent use of stoves developed by improper combustion designs may result into indoor air pollution, impacting negatively on the health of household members, particularly women and children [1]. For instance, Nahar [7] reported that about 2 million annual excess deaths of women and children in developing countries are linked to indoor air pollution, precisely due to exposure to carbon monoxide and the volatiles (benzene and formaldehyde) liberated in the form of smoke [8]. Such exposures lead to acute respiratory infections, low birth weights, lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung diseases, and eyes problems [9]. Thus, faster technological development is vital in advancing charcoal stove and its environmental performance.

Although charcoal is believed to be an affordable, available, and the most convenient fuel source for households, its use in inefficient stoves would produce significant amounts of indoor air pollution and make it unsustainable. Therefore, continual technology development will suppress charcoals detriments and enhance its efficient utilisation while reducing significantly environmental impact.

This work therefore aims at developing a more efficient and safe charcoal burning stove that can reduce fuel consumption rates and indoor air pollution. Even though a lot has been done to promote improved cook stoves in the developing countries, little has been emphasised on quality combustion during their design and development [10]. This is attributed to limited scientific information on design features and materials of stove construction. In sub-Saharan Africa however a number of stove models are designed and fabricated by local artisans using locally available materials such as mud, clay, dry grass, ant-hill soil, and clay bricks. But no attempts have been made on high density rocks such as granite.

This paper deals with the development of a charcoal stove prototype from locally available materials including granite rock, stainless steel, and the glass wool. It describes the design features, thermodynamic performance, and thermophysical properties of the granite rock used in thermal-energy storage (TES) system fabrication. According to previous studies on thermophysical properties of granite rock, a suitable TES system should have high values of thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, material density, and low values of porosity [1113]. High thermal storage efficiencies are as a result of high values of thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, and density. High density and specific heat capacity values lead to a large volumetric heat capacity hence permitting compact storage in the systems, whereas low values of porosity indicate large bulk density and uniaxial compressive strength [14, 15].

A section of the stove wall was made from glass wool because this material is a poor conductor of heat due to its low thermal conductivity and thus will prevent heat loss by conduction. Through saving as much heat as possible, the fuel combustion efficiency of the stove is improved; it means saving even much more fuel. In addition, the fiber glass material is locally available.

Stainless steel was chosen as a material because of its availability on the local market. Technically, it undergoes allowable deformation and is resistant to corrosion in high temperatures. Steel has a longer service life than most metals and because of this, its design life costs are minimal.

Rocks are considered an attractive storage material for thermal-energy storage at high temperatures due to their thermal physical and mechanical properties [11, 12]. The rock selected was granite because of its high density, good thermal properties, and ready local availability.

In order to come up with the desired stove design and its desired performance, proper reflection into factors such as fuel type, calorific value, air flow rate, insulation, local resources, stove power output, safety consideration, reactor cross-sectional area, diameter, and height are of great importance. In the present study, the size of the combustion chamber and the amount of fuel required to accomplish the cooking task were evaluated following work done by Kiwana [16] and Maxwell [17], as well as reasonable assumptions depicted in Table 1. Fuel (carbonised agrowaste briquettes and charcoal) for experimental design was selected based on its local availability within Kampala district.

The combustion chamber dimensions were based on the Kenyan ceramic jiko stove because of its prominence on the Ugandan local market and availability of dimensional data. The jiko stove has a basal internal diameter of 160mm and fire box depth of 100 mm [17]. A combustion chamber with an internal diameter of 120mm and height 100mm was fabricated. Thus, taking the combustion chamber (inner chamber) as the focal point, the outer chamber (concentric to the combustion chamber) was fabricated at an internal diameter of 170 using granite rock, glass wool, and stainless steel at 23mm, 48mm, and 1.0mm thick, respectively.

Granite rocks used were sampled from the East African granite dealers, Kampala district-Uganda. These rocks were obtained by randomly selecting representative samples from the cut debris stock piles. By hand picking, samples were collected at random points from the stock piles of different rock sizes. Specific gravity test was conducted according to AASHTO [18] to determine the density of granite for the different rock masses. Initially, the density of the hand crashed 14/10mm granite rock sample was calculated using (1), where M1 is mass of gas jar and plate, M2 is mass of gas jar, plate, and aggregates, M3 is mass of gas jar, plate, aggregates, and water, and M4 is mass of gas jar, plate, and water.Given 1 g/cm3 as the density of water, this implies that it buoys up anything within it by 1 gram per cubic centimetre of displacement. Because of this, the weight in air minus the weight in water is equal to the volume of the rock sample in cm3.

In line with AASHTO [18], the water absorption test was conducted to determine the amount of water absorbed under specified conditions. This is mainly due to the effect water usually has on heat transfer in rocks through conduction. The data obtained therefore helped shed light on the performance of the granite rock in humid environments. During the experiment, the granite rocks were hand crushed to 14/10mm aggregates before the test could be carried out. Water absorption was expressed as increase in weight percent based on (2), whereby A is weight of oven dry sample in air and B is weight of saturated surface dry sample in air

After lining the granite rock chamber with stainless steel, charcoal fuel was ignited within the combustion chamber. The maximum temperature reaching the granite rock (423 K) was attained after 41 minutes on average and this was recorded.

Samples of the rock were as well heated between room temperature (297.8 K) and 567 K in an oven to determine their ability to withstand heat without disintegrating. The rocks were heated and observations made for change in weight for the granite material under test. This was done at time intervals of 20 minutes for 120 minutes with increasing temperature in the oven. Also the changes in the physical structure of the rock were noted.

WBT assessed the overall performance of a cookstove via three phases which consisted of ) bringing water to a boil from a cold start; bringing water to a boil when the stove is hot; and, maintaining the water at simmering temperatures. In WBT experiment, water was heated to boiling point; the time taken to boil a given quantity of water, specific firewood consumption besides evaluating thermal efficiency at both high and low energy input was done. The test was conducted in accordance with Volunteers in Technical Assistance [19].

Given the fact that there was little (0.42%) water absorbed by the rock (Table 2), negligible amount of heat would be required to drive it off. Therefore, the moisture content of the rock would not have any significant effect on its heat retention properties. This makes it a suitable material for the stove construction.

The effect of temperature on the physical properties of the rock was also evaluated based on the practical experience of constructed stove operations and oven tests. From the oven test experiment, the granite rock recorded an initial temperature of 297.8 K and mass of 401.65g. There was a gradual decrease in mass with increasing temperature over time (Figure 1, see Figure S4 in the Supplementary Materials for comprehensive analysis).

After 120 minutes of oven heating, the granite rock recorded a constant mass of 401.21g at constant temperature of 567 K, indicating maximum moisture loss from the rock. Despite the slight change in colour (dusty pale white) of the rock, there was no visible fracture observed. Similarly, the maximum temperature reaching the granite rock in the constructed stove was recorded as 423 K (after 41 minutes of operation) at minimum moisture content (Figure 1) and no sign of fracture. This implies that the granite rock would be able to perform in the stove without disintegrating after successive cooking times.

Based on (3), we need to transmit 1,538,355J of energy to a pan to boil 4.9-liter of water ( 4900g) from room temperature (298 K) to 373 K (at sea level) given its specific heat capacity of 4.186 J/g.K [20, 21].where H is the heat required, m is the mass of substance, and is the temperature difference.At 100% efficiency whereby all the fuel is transferred to the water, we would requireAssuming a thermal efficiency of 35%, and energy loss of 65%, 2025g of briquette fuel would be required to boil 4.9 liters of water as shown below.Therefore, the fuel chamber needs to be designed to hold at least 2025g of briquettes.

Similarly, 51.6g of charcoal with average calorific value = 29.8 MJ/Kg = 29800J/g [16] would generate 1,538,355J of energy required to boil 4.9 liters of water (see (3)) if fuel conversion efficiency was 100%.For a thermal efficiency of 35%, 147g of charcoal fuel is therefore required, as shown below:Therefore, the fuel chamber needs to be designed to hold 147g of charcoal.

Since 100% efficiency is not practical for improved cook stoves, the decision to use charcoal as a fuel for the stove design was based on a more practical 35% efficiency target. It was observed that more briquettes would be required to achieve the same cooking task as charcoal. Therefore, charcoal was a preferred choice of fuel.

The convective and conductive heat transfer through the stove wall were calculated using Fouriers heat relation (see (9)).where Q is heat flow rate (W/m2), A is total cross-sectional area of conducting surface (m2), X is thickness of specimen (m), and T is temperature (K).

According to Baldwin [22], use of Fouriers heat equation for examination of heat transfer across a stove wall generates values that are too large. This is because the heat transferred into and out of an object depends not only on the conductivity to and from the surfaces but also on the conductivity within the object itself, dirt, or oxide layers and air at the surface of the material.

Thus, (9) is arranged using the thermal resistance concept as shown in where h is the convective heat transfer obtained from A and b are constants depending on geometry and flow conditions.L denotes length.

For vertical cylinders, h = 1.31 (1358)1/3 [23]Given the height (179mm) and the diameter (375mm), Figure 2, the surface area of stove was estimated as 0.32 m2 following (13).This value was used for only stainless steel since granite and fiber glass do not cover the bottom of the stove, whereas, for granite and fiber glass, the surface area was estimated using Taking theoretical maximum temperature = 2123 K [23] and based on reasonable assumptions, thermal conductivity of granite, Kg = 2.68 W/mK [24]; fiber glass, Kf = 0.04 W/mK [25]; and stainless steel, Ks = 16 W/mK [25], total resistance was estimated as 9.768 K.W1 (see (15))Hence the energy lost by the stove would be 186.12W based on Using room temperature of 305KYet, it has been found that the stove would release a total of 1,538,355J of energy to water at 100% efficiency (see (3)). This implies that more than half (1,538,355 670,032 = 868,323J) of the energy produced by the charcoal fuel goes to the water. Thus, the losses through the stove wall were workable for the stove design.

The combustion chamber is designed to receive solid biomass fuel (charcoal) and enhance complete combustion of combustible gas released during charcoal burning process. The combustion chamber is imbedded in a cylinder (outer retort) constructed using granite rock and glass wool (Figure 4). The combustion chamber and outer retort are designed in a way that a 30mm gap is left in between to provide a free movement of air and enhance resistance to heat transfer to the inner wall of the outer retort. This minimises heat loss given the low thermal conductivity (1.6 W.m-1. K-1) of the granite rock and air (0.02 to 0.05 W.m-1. K-1), compared with stainless steel (16 to 64 W.m-1. K-1) used in the construction of the combustion chamber [26]. This leads to large amount of heat from the burning charcoal to concentrate at the bottom of the cooking pan, thus increasing thermal efficiency.

Indicators including thermal efficiency, water boiling rate, specific fuel consumption, fire power, and fuel use reduction were used to evaluate the performance of the designed stove. Data used in the evaluation (Table 3) were generated by WBT experiment using a recommended protocol [19].

The thermal efficiency, a measure of the fraction of heat produced by the fuel that made it directly to the water in the pot [20, 21], was calculated using where Mw is mass of water in sauce pan, Cw is specific heat capacity of water, T is local boiling temperature-initial temperature of water (K), Fcm is fuel consumed (moist) (g), LHV is net calorific value (J/g), Mwv is mass of water vaporised (g), and h is specific enthalpy of vaporisation (J/g).

For example, for the 2nd test run, the thermal efficiency was calculated asWhile thermal efficiency is a well-known measure of stove performance, better indicator may be sought especially during the low power phase of the water boiling test. This is because a stove that is very slow to boil may have a very good looking thermal efficiency since large amount of water was evaporated. However, the fuel used per water remaining may be too high since so much water was evaporated and so much time was taken while bringing the pot to a boil [20, 21]. With respect to this, indicators such as specific consumption, water boiling rate, fire power, and fuel use reduction were calculated as well.

The water boiling rate was obtained the following equation:The water boiling rate for the 2nd test run was calculated asSpecific fuel consumption measures the amount of fuel required to boil (or simmer) 1 liter of water. It is calculated (see (22)) by the equivalent dry fuel used minus the energy in the remaining charcoal, divided by the liters of water remaining at the end of the test [20, 21].The specific fuel consumption for the 2nd test was obtained using (24) asFire power: a useful measure of the stoves heat output was also calculated following (24).The fire power for the 1st test run was calculated as follows:Given the specific fuel consumption of 222 g/liter water boiled for the 3-stone stove (Kris De Decker, 2015), the fuel use reduction attained by the developed improved cook stove was estimated using For instance, fuel use reduction in the 1st test run was calculated asTable 4 shows a summary of results on stove performances. It was found that, after 4 test runs of the water boiling test, the designed improved stove had a mean thermal efficiency of 28.8%. This means that 28.8% of the total energy produced by the fuel is used to boil water in the pot.

Comparisons (Figure 5) were made with locally existing stoves such as the Lorena stove, brick stove, Envirofit supersaver premium stove, molded 1-pot stove, Kenya ceramic jiko stove, metal stove, trench fire, and the traditional 3-stone stove. Previous studies [27, 28] show that the above-mentioned stoves had thermal efficiency values of 14%, 17%, 35.7%, 16%, 24.5%, 21%, 13%, and 9%, respectively.

Every household cooking system incurs different costs and benefits depending on diverse energy technologies employed. These costs are related to the capital cost of a newly developed stove and/or design modifications, cost of fuels required, cost of stove distribution or marketing, money, and time spent for regular stove operation and maintenance [30]. In this study, the capital cost of the granite rock stove was estimated at US$36 and compared favourably with conventional charcoal burning stoves (US$3US$50) in accordance with Jeuland and Pattanayak [30] (Table 5).

Given the fact that the granite rock stove depicts a relatively high thermal efficiency (28.8%) and fuel use reduction (78.8%) (Table 4), there is a higher likelihood for it to operate under reduced cost, making it cheaper than the conventional stoves.

The improved cooking stove was designed and fabricated using locally available materials including granite rocks, stainless steel, and glass wool and was estimated to cost US$ 36. Based on its water boiling test results, 78.8% fuel use reduction was achieved over the baseline open fire stove. This was attributed to the thermal retention storage properties of the granite rock. The granite rock, besides glass wool, significantly contributed to the reduction on estimated heat (about 670kJ) that would be lost through the stove wall. This enhanced its thermal efficiency. Based on comparisons with performance standards and properties of the conventional stoves, the designed granite rock stove is a substantial improvement technology and can thus lessen the pressure put on forestry resources. However, further studies including carbon and particulate matter (PM) emissions are recommended for future design improvements to suit public health standards. Studies on use of other forms of fuel such as briquettes and wood chippings could as well be conducted to establish fuel alternatives to charcoal.

The data underlying the findings of this research can be accessed on either the Uganda Christian University, Hamu-Mukasa Library online catalogue, or other online sources. The online sources among others include (i) https://www.safefuelandenergy.org/files/517-1.pdf, (ii) https://www.unn.edu.ng/publications/files/images/USMAN,%20OJONIMI%20YUSUF.pdf, (iii) https://www.amazon.com/How-make-Kenyan-ceramic-jiko/dp/B0007C8G84, and (iv) https://www.pciaonline.org/testing.

The authors appreciate the intellectual input from all persons at the Department of Engineering and Environment, Uganda Christian University; their guidance helped to focus this research. The authors also appreciate the personnel at National Forestry Resources Research Institute (NaFORRI), National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO), for allowing them to use their facilities and equipment to carry out the water boiling test which helped them describe the thermal performance of the designed stove.

Figure S1: certificate of analysis for specific gravity and water absorption tests carried out. Figure S2: water absorption results for granite rock aggregates. Figure S3: specific gravity results for granite rock aggregates. Figure S4: thermal test results. Figure S5: water boiling test results. (Supplementary Materials)

Copyright 2018 Anthony A. Bantu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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