metso vertimills - metso corporation - pdf catalogs | technical documentation | brochure

metso vertimills - metso corporation - pdf catalogs | technical documentation | brochure

Metso is the global leader in comminution technology Energy efficient technology Minerals processing is changing. With diminishing ore grades and rising energy costs, ensuring that a plant has the lowest total cost of ownership is vital. Comminution of ore is one of worlds most energy intensive stages and accounts for up to 40 percent of the total energy used in mineral processing. More sustainable technologies & practices are required to make these hard, variable and low-grade ore bodies viable. Metso has an extensive history of technological development and is recognized as the world...

Advanced solutions for maximizing energy efficiency Ensuring the accuracy and consistency of product size directly affects the profitability of your operation. Efficiently reducing ore size requires the optimum mix of world class equipment. As the leading supplier of crushing, screening and grinding equipment, Metso ensures that you have selected best technology, systems and solutions for your mining operations. Metsos high capacity, energy efficientcrushing equipment delivers superior performance and maximized throughput for the most demanding mining applications. Metsos high efficiency...

A versatile and energy efficient solution Metso Vertimill is the industry benchmark in gravity induced milling technology. Globally recognised as efficient grinding machines, they bring substantial improvement in profitability of concentrators. Up to 40% higher energy efficiency 95% or greater uptime 50% less footprint vs ball mill (In same application) Up to 50% less media consumption < 2 weeks to install < 85 db noise

Metso Vertimills Unlocking energy efficiency in fine wet grinding VERTIMILL is Metsos gravity-induced, vertical stirred mill. Its vertical configuration allows for large throughputs while maintaining a small footprint in your circuit. The VERTIMILL can bring up to 40% savings in energy consumption in some cases, and helps in reaching excellent recovery rates by producing a sharper particle distribution. In a nutshell, Metso Vertimills offer the most optimum equipment solution for the circuit. Over four decades of successful Vertimill applications The Vertimill is capable of handling...

Why choose Metso Vertimills ? Superior efficiency with field proven performance With overall efficiency and proven performance, Metso Vertimills offer the lowest total cost of ownership in many applications. Improved process performance Internal, controllable classification Preferentially grind coarse material Minimize fines generation Reduced steel contamination Reduced media consumption Less energy for grind No impact grinding, less ball breakage Vertical arrangement retains fine media Lower installation cost Simpler foundations Modular design for quick installation ...

Unified regrind solutions Rougher cells extract majority of valuable mineral from the fresh ore Scavenger cells capture remaining available valuable mineral Metso Vertimill handles before grade improvement Metso MHC TM regrid circuit Cleaner cells improve grade product

Delivering results Stable growth in steel pellets quality at Poltava Mining Improve pellet quality from 62% to 67% Challenge: Improve quality of steel pellets by increase the iron content in processing of low-grade ores with space constraints Solution: Metso provided a new concentration line, which included Metso Vertimills for all flotation cells Result: Bring fineness of grinding up to 90% ground materials and are minus 33 microns. Overall, this improvement helped improve pellet quality from 62% to 67%. Read more: https://www.metso.com/showroom/mining/poltava-mining/ reduction in grain...

Delivering results A switch from ball mills to Vertimill boosts Miaogou Iron Mines transformation energy savings Challenge: The mines original grinding circuit consisted of ball mills exclusively. Due to downturn in the iron & steel industry, Miaogous concentration costs were exceeding the price of iron concentrate, putting significant pressure on companys operations. The original tertiary grinding fineness was -325 mesh with 71-73% passing. Iron concentrate grade was 65% and the average recovery rate 87% Solution: Introduction of Metsos Vertimill VTM1500 vertical grinding mill at...

Services built for performance Maximize efficiency, availability and longevity Spare and wear parts Crafted to the same strict specifications and standards as our equipment, our genuine parts ensure complete compatibility for seamless operation. Our global distribution logistics network ensure that Metso OEM spare and wear parts are available when you need them. Equipment upgrades and retrofits Improve your equipments productivity without the large capital investment. Our upgrades are offered as easy-to-implement packages or custom-engineered for your specific requirements, with the aim of...

Through our knowledge and experience, we work with our customers to create solutions that enable them to attain their objectives. We call this The Metso Way, which focuses on creating value to our customers. The Metso Way Knowledge - We have deep knowledge about our custmers business environment, processes and challenges Our committed and highly competent people make the difference to our customers We create the technology and services required to meet our customer needs

operations and maintenance training for ball mills

operations and maintenance training for ball mills

Learn how to optimise your ball mill systems in this 5-day training seminar focused on best practices for operations and maintenance (preventive and reactive) to achieve energy savings, reduced maintenance costs and overall improved productivity of the ball mill systems. Ball mills are used for many applications in cement production: raw meal grinding, coal and petcoke grinding as well as finish cement grinding. Each of these systems have their similarities and differences. This ball mill seminar is designed to train your personnel on the overall technology, operation and maintenance of your ball mill cement grinding system. The seminar focuses on the latest best practices for the operation and maintenance of ball mill systems to allow for optimal cement production, energy savings, reduced maintenance costs as well as the continuous improvement of the overall equipment operation. The course offers classroom instruction from our FLSmidth ball mill specialists and case studies based on real situations at different ball mill installations. Working sessions are scheduled to allow for a thorough study of the design and function of the main equipment, including but not limited to the latest methods for optimisation and possibilities for upgrades and modernisation of the current systems and operations. Maintenance training is focused on routine preventive maintenance to minimize downtime in ball mill systems, as well as developing preventive maintenance programmes and troubleshooting techniques to quickly identify and fix problems. Beyond what you will learn about your ball mill systems, this seminar provides excellent networking opportunities with our specialists as well as your counterparts from the cement industry.

Learn how to optimise your ball mill systems in this 5-day training seminar focused on best practices for operations and maintenance (preventive and reactive) to achieve energy savings, reduced maintenance costs and overall improved productivity of the ball mill systems.

Ball mills are used for many applications in cement production: raw meal grinding, coal and petcoke grinding as well as finish cement grinding. Each of these systems have their similarities and differences. This ball mill seminar is designed to train your personnel on the overall technology, operation and maintenance of your ball mill cement grinding system.

The seminar focuses on the latest best practices for the operation and maintenance of ball mill systems to allow for optimal cement production, energy savings, reduced maintenance costs as well as the continuous improvement of the overall equipment operation.

The course offers classroom instruction from our FLSmidth ball mill specialists and case studies based on real situations at different ball mill installations. Working sessions are scheduled to allow for a thorough study of the design and function of the main equipment, including but not limited to the latest methods for optimisation and possibilities for upgrades and modernisation of the current systems and operations.

Maintenance training is focused on routine preventive maintenance to minimize downtime in ball mill systems, as well as developing preventive maintenance programmes and troubleshooting techniques to quickly identify and fix problems.

FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.

spare and wear parts for crushers and screens - metso automation - pdf catalogs | technical documentation | brochure

spare and wear parts for crushers and screens - metso automation - pdf catalogs | technical documentation | brochure

Quality, expertise, and availability boost your profitability Crafted to the same strict specifications and exacting standards as our equipment, our genuine parts ensure equipment compatibility for trouble-free operation. Quality The smallest material defect - even those you cannot detect visually - can cause part failures ranging from stopped operations to equipment damage, and even worse, accidents. To achieve cost efficiency, long service life and unsurpassed safety, we use the highest quality material to make our parts. Expertise Through our heritage trademarks, we have over 100 years...

More production, less milling through optimized wears and improved fine crushing Thanks to longer lasting wears and more efficient fine crushing, grinding performance increased by 30% at KMARudas underground iron ore operation in Stary Oskol, Southwestern Russia. Total grinding time needed went down by over 11,000 hours and energy consumption by 2.95 kW per grinded ton. A few years ago, we faced difficulties with our processing equipment, mainly caused by the wet, extremely wearing, quartzite-containing ore. Then we learned about Metsos crushers, pumps and wear expertise, says KMARudas...

Fit to purpose with our unique know-how OEM parts are backed by our ability to provide solutions with precise engineering, full compatibility, and first-rate materials for trouble-free operation over an extended service life. Never compromise the structural integrity of your machine Fit to purpose means we understand your equipment because we built it. By purchasing from the original manufacturer, you are assured of getting parts made to current specifications and critical tolerances. Our competitors are forced to make their imitation parts through reverse engineering using guesswork to...

SPARE PARTS WEAR PARTS Primary gyratory crushers Spider, top shell, bottom shell, hydroset, main shaft, eccentric, pinion, lubrication system, drive Mantles, concave segments, bottom shell side liners, spider cap, arm liners, rim liners Frame, adjustment system (hydraulic or mechanical), mounting system, motor base lubrication system, toggle plate Jaw plates, cheek plates Cone crushers Main frame (lower/upper), main frame sealing, main frame pins and bushings, sub frames, belt guards, feed hoppers, discharge chutes, adjustment ring, bowl, head, socket, main shaft, eccentric, anti spin,...

Right place, right time If your equipment fails, productivity of your entire plant is at risk. To avoid such losses, you have to be sure critical replacement parts are readily available when you need them. We have access to a global network of parts distribution centers strategically located in regions where our customers operations are concentrated. These locations are equipped to significantly shorten the entire process from the time the order is placed through installation of the part. Metso can develop a lifecycle plan to identify parts imperative to your operation. Using a forecast...

Continents covered Regional distribution centers Global distribution and logistics network for spares and wears No matter where you are located, Metso OEM spare and wear parts are close at hand 24/7. Our global network of parts distribution centers is strategically located near our customers operations so you can rely on our comprehensive and efficient service at every moment in any location. Every Metso part is supported by our team of experts. We provide service from the time you order a part to beyond its delivery and installation. Satellite warehouses Distributor warehouses

Many brands, one supplier We provide continuous support for our current and previous brands of equipment. We are the OEM with original drawings and design details for the following brands: Allis Mineral Systems Altairac Barmac Bergeaud Big Bite C Jaws Citycrusher Dragon Fao G-Cone Goodwin Barsby Gyradisc Kue-Ken Laser Lokomo Lokotrack Loro & Parisini MP, HP & GP Cone crushers Nordberg Nordberg Barmac Nordberg Impact crushers Nordpactor Nordwheeler Omnicone Superior Svedala Svedala Arbr Symons Tidco Waterflush Metso Minerals Industries, Inc. , 2715 Pleasant Valley Road, 17402 York-PA, USA,...

ball mills - an overview | sciencedirect topics

ball mills - an overview | sciencedirect topics

A ball mill is a type of grinder used to grind and blend bulk material into QDs/nanosize using different sized balls. The working principle is simple; impact and attrition size reduction take place as the ball drops from near the top of a rotating hollow cylindrical shell. The nanostructure size can be varied by varying the number and size of balls, the material used for the balls, the material used for the surface of the cylinder, the rotation speed, and the choice of material to be milled. Ball mills are commonly used for crushing and grinding the materials into an extremely fine form. The ball mill contains a hollow cylindrical shell that rotates about its axis. This cylinder is filled with balls that are made of stainless steel or rubber to the material contained in it. Ball mills are classified as attritor, horizontal, planetary, high energy, or shaker.

Grinding elements in ball mills travel at different velocities. Therefore, collision force, direction and kinetic energy between two or more elements vary greatly within the ball charge. Frictional wear or rubbing forces act on the particles, as well as collision energy. These forces are derived from the rotational motion of the balls and movement of particles within the mill and contact zones of colliding balls.

By rotation of the mill body, due to friction between mill wall and balls, the latter rise in the direction of rotation till a helix angle does not exceed the angle of repose, whereupon, the balls roll down. Increasing of rotation rate leads to growth of the centrifugal force and the helix angle increases, correspondingly, till the component of weight strength of balls become larger than the centrifugal force. From this moment the balls are beginning to fall down, describing during falling certain parabolic curves (Figure 2.7). With the further increase of rotation rate, the centrifugal force may become so large that balls will turn together with the mill body without falling down. The critical speed n (rpm) when the balls are attached to the wall due to centrifugation:

where Dm is the mill diameter in meters. The optimum rotational speed is usually set at 6580% of the critical speed. These data are approximate and may not be valid for metal particles that tend to agglomerate by welding.

The degree of filling the mill with balls also influences productivity of the mill and milling efficiency. With excessive filling, the rising balls collide with falling ones. Generally, filling the mill by balls must not exceed 3035% of its volume.

The mill productivity also depends on many other factors: physical-chemical properties of feed material, filling of the mill by balls and their sizes, armor surface shape, speed of rotation, milling fineness and timely moving off of ground product.

where b.ap is the apparent density of the balls; l is the degree of filling of the mill by balls; n is revolutions per minute; 1, and 2 are coefficients of efficiency of electric engine and drive, respectively.

A feature of ball mills is their high specific energy consumption; a mill filled with balls, working idle, consumes approximately as much energy as at full-scale capacity, i.e. during grinding of material. Therefore, it is most disadvantageous to use a ball mill at less than full capacity.

Grinding elements in ball mills travel at different velocities. Therefore, collision force, direction, and kinetic energy between two or more elements vary greatly within the ball charge. Frictional wear or rubbing forces act on the particles as well as collision energy. These forces are derived from the rotational motion of the balls and the movement of particles within the mill and contact zones of colliding balls.

By the rotation of the mill body, due to friction between the mill wall and balls, the latter rise in the direction of rotation until a helix angle does not exceed the angle of repose, whereupon the balls roll down. Increasing the rotation rate leads to the growth of the centrifugal force and the helix angle increases, correspondingly, until the component of the weight strength of balls becomes larger than the centrifugal force. From this moment, the balls are beginning to fall down, describing certain parabolic curves during the fall (Fig. 2.10).

With the further increase of rotation rate, the centrifugal force may become so large that balls will turn together with the mill body without falling down. The critical speed n (rpm) when the balls remain attached to the wall with the aid of centrifugal force is:

where Dm is the mill diameter in meters. The optimum rotational speed is usually set at 65%80% of the critical speed. These data are approximate and may not be valid for metal particles that tend to agglomerate by welding.

where db.max is the maximum size of the feed (mm), is the compression strength (MPa), E is the modulus of elasticity (MPa), b is the density of material of balls (kg/m3), and D is the inner diameter of the mill body (m).

The degree of filling the mill with balls also influences the productivity of the mill and milling efficiency. With excessive filling, the rising balls collide with falling ones. Generally, filling the mill by balls must not exceed 30%35% of its volume.

The productivity of ball mills depends on the drum diameter and the relation of drum diameter and length. The optimum ratio between length L and diameter D, L:D, is usually accepted in the range 1.561.64. The mill productivity also depends on many other factors, including the physical-chemical properties of the feed material, the filling of the mill by balls and their sizes, the armor surface shape, the speed of rotation, the milling fineness, and the timely moving off of the ground product.

where D is the drum diameter, L is the drum length, b.ap is the apparent density of the balls, is the degree of filling of the mill by balls, n is the revolutions per minute, and 1, and 2 are coefficients of efficiency of electric engine and drive, respectively.

A feature of ball mills is their high specific energy consumption. A mill filled with balls, working idle, consumes approximately as much energy as at full-scale capacity, that is, during the grinding of material. Therefore, it is most disadvantageous to use a ball mill at less than full capacity.

Milling time in tumbler mills is longer to accomplish the same level of blending achieved in the attrition or vibratory mill, but the overall productivity is substantially greater. Tumbler mills usually are used to pulverize or flake metals, using a grinding aid or lubricant to prevent cold welding agglomeration and to minimize oxidation [23].

Cylindrical Ball Mills differ usually in steel drum design (Fig. 2.11), which is lined inside by armor slabs that have dissimilar sizes and form a rough inside surface. Due to such juts, the impact force of falling balls is strengthened. The initial material is fed into the mill by a screw feeder located in a hollow trunnion; the ground product is discharged through the opposite hollow trunnion.

Cylindrical screen ball mills have a drum with spiral curved plates with longitudinal slits between them. The ground product passes into these slits and then through a cylindrical sieve and is discharged via the unloading funnel of the mill body.

Conical Ball Mills differ in mill body construction, which is composed of two cones and a short cylindrical part located between them (Fig. 2.12). Such a ball mill body is expedient because efficiency is appreciably increased. Peripheral velocity along the conical drum scales down in the direction from the cylindrical part to the discharge outlet; the helix angle of balls is decreased and, consequently, so is their kinetic energy. The size of the disintegrated particles also decreases as the discharge outlet is approached and the energy used decreases. In a conical mill, most big balls take up a position in the deeper, cylindrical part of the body; thus, the size of the balls scales down in the direction of the discharge outlet.

For emptying, the conical mill is installed with a slope from bearing to one. In wet grinding, emptying is realized by the decantation principle, that is, by means of unloading through one of two trunnions.

With dry grinding, these mills often work in a closed cycle. A scheme of the conical ball mill supplied with an air separator is shown in Fig. 2.13. Air is fed to the mill by means of a fan. Carried off by air currents, the product arrives at the air separator, from which the coarse particles are returned by gravity via a tube into the mill. The finished product is trapped in a cyclone while the air is returned in the fan.

The ball mill is a tumbling mill that uses steel balls as the grinding media. The length of the cylindrical shell is usually 11.5 times the shell diameter (Figure 8.11). The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or slurry containing 2040% water by weight. Ball mills are employed in either primary or secondary grinding applications. In primary applications, they receive their feed from crushers, and in secondary applications, they receive their feed from rod mills, AG mills, or SAG mills.

Ball mills are filled up to 40% with steel balls (with 3080mm diameter), which effectively grind the ore. The material that is to be ground fills the voids between the balls. The tumbling balls capture the particles in ball/ball or ball/liner events and load them to the point of fracture.

When hard pebbles rather than steel balls are used for the grinding media, the mills are known as pebble mills. As mentioned earlier, pebble mills are widely used in the North American taconite iron ore operations. Since the weight of pebbles per unit volume is 3555% of that of steel balls, and as the power input is directly proportional to the volume weight of the grinding medium, the power input and capacity of pebble mills are correspondingly lower. Thus, in a given grinding circuit, for a certain feed rate, a pebble mill would be much larger than a ball mill, with correspondingly a higher capital cost. However, the increase in capital cost is justified economically by a reduction in operating cost attributed to the elimination of steel grinding media.

In general, ball mills can be operated either wet or dry and are capable of producing products in the order of 100m. This represents reduction ratios of as great as 100. Very large tonnages can be ground with these ball mills because they are very effective material handling devices. Ball mills are rated by power rather than capacity. Today, the largest ball mill in operation is 8.53m diameter and 13.41m long with a corresponding motor power of 22MW (Toromocho, private communications).

Modern ball mills consist of two chambers separated by a diaphragm. In the first chamber the steel-alloy balls (also described as charge balls or media) are about 90mm diameter. The mill liners are designed to lift the media as the mill rotates, so the comminution process in the first chamber is dominated by crushing. In the second chamber the ball diameters are of smaller diameter, between 60 and 15mm. In this chamber the lining is typically a classifying lining which sorts the media so that ball size reduces towards the discharge end of the mill. Here, comminution takes place in the rolling point-contact zone between each charge ball. An example of a two chamber ball mill is illustrated in Fig. 2.22.15

Much of the energy consumed by a ball mill generates heat. Water is injected into the second chamber of the mill to provide evaporative cooling. Air flow through the mill is one medium for cement transport but also removes water vapour and makes some contribution to cooling.

Grinding is an energy intensive process and grinding more finely than necessary wastes energy. Cement consists of clinker, gypsum and other components mostly more easily ground than clinker. To minimise over-grinding modern ball mills are fitted with dynamic separators (otherwise described as classifiers or more simply as separators). The working principle is that cement is removed from the mill before over-grinding has taken place. The cement is then separated into a fine fraction, which meets finished product requirements, and a coarse fraction which is returned to mill inlet. Recirculation factor, that is, the ratio of mill throughput to fresh feed is up to three. Beyond this, efficiency gains are minimal.

For more than 50years vertical mills have been the mill of choice for grinding raw materials into raw meal. More recently they have become widely used for cement production. They have lower specific energy consumption than ball mills and the separator, as in raw mills, is integral with the mill body.

In the Loesche mill, Fig. 2.23,16 two pairs of rollers are used. In each pair the first, smaller diameter, roller stabilises the bed prior to grinding which takes place under the larger roller. Manufacturers use different technologies for bed stabilisation.

Comminution in ball mills and vertical mills differs fundamentally. In a ball mill, size reduction takes place by impact and attrition. In a vertical mill the bed of material is subject to such a high pressure that individual particles within the bed are fractured, even though the particles are very much smaller than the bed thickness.

Early issues with vertical mills, such as narrower PSD and modified cement hydration characteristics compared with ball mills, have been resolved. One modification has been to install a hot gas generator so the gas temperature is high enough to partially dehydrate the gypsum.

For many decades the two-compartment ball mill in closed circuit with a high-efficiency separator has been the mill of choice. In the last decade vertical mills have taken an increasing share of the cement milling market, not least because the specific power consumption of vertical mills is about 30% less than that of ball mills and for finely ground cement less still. The vertical mill has a proven track record in grinding blastfurnace slag, where it has the additional advantage of being a much more effective drier of wet feedstock than a ball mill.

The vertical mill is more complex but its installation is more compact. The relative installed capital costs tend to be site specific. Historically the installed cost has tended to be slightly higher for the vertical mill.

Special graph paper is used with lglg(1/R(x)) on the abscissa and lg(x) on the ordinate axes. The higher the value of n, the narrower the particle size distribution. The position parameter is the particle size with the highest mass density distribution, the peak of the mass density distribution curve.

Vertical mills tend to produce cement with a higher value of n. Values of n normally lie between 0.8 and 1.2, dependent particularly on cement fineness. The position parameter is, of course, lower for more finely ground cements.

Separator efficiency is defined as specific power consumption reduction of the mill open-to-closed-circuit with the actual separator, compared with specific power consumption reduction of the mill open-to-closed-circuit with an ideal separator.

As shown in Fig. 2.24, circulating factor is defined as mill mass flow, that is, fresh feed plus separator returns. The maximum power reduction arising from use of an ideal separator increases non-linearly with circulation factor and is dependent on Rf, normally based on residues in the interval 3245m. The value of the comminution index, W, is also a function of Rf. The finer the cement, the lower Rf and the greater the maximum power reduction. At C = 2 most of maximum power reduction is achieved, but beyond C = 3 there is very little further reduction.

Separator particle separation performance is assessed using the Tromp curve, a graph of percentage separator feed to rejects against particle size range. An example is shown in Fig. 2.25. Data required is the PSD of separator feed material and of rejects and finished product streams. The bypass and slope provide a measure of separator performance.

The particle size is plotted on a logarithmic scale on the ordinate axis. The percentage is plotted on the abscissa either on a linear (as shown here) or on a Gaussian scale. The advantage of using the Gaussian scale is that the two parts of the graph can be approximated by two straight lines.

The measurement of PSD of a sample of cement is carried out using laser-based methodologies. It requires a skilled operator to achieve consistent results. Agglomeration will vary dependent on whether grinding aid is used. Different laser analysis methods may not give the same results, so for comparative purposes the same method must be used.

The ball mill is a cylindrical drum (or cylindrical conical) turning around its horizontal axis. It is partially filled with grinding bodies: cast iron or steel balls, or even flint (silica) or porcelain bearings. Spaces between balls or bearings are occupied by the load to be milled.

Following drum rotation, balls or bearings rise by rolling along the cylindrical wall and descending again in a cascade or cataract from a certain height. The output is then milled between two grinding bodies.

Ball mills could operate dry or even process a water suspension (almost always for ores). Dry, it is fed through a chute or a screw through the units opening. In a wet path, a system of scoops that turn with the mill is used and it plunges into a stationary tank.

Mechanochemical synthesis involves high-energy milling techniques and is generally carried out under controlled atmospheres. Nanocomposite powders of oxide, nonoxide, and mixed oxide/nonoxide materials can be prepared using this method. The major drawbacks of this synthesis method are: (1) discrete nanoparticles in the finest size range cannot be prepared; and (2) contamination of the product by the milling media.

More or less any ceramic composite powder can be synthesized by mechanical mixing of the constituent phases. The main factors that determine the properties of the resultant nanocomposite products are the type of raw materials, purity, the particle size, size distribution, and degree of agglomeration. Maintaining purity of the powders is essential for avoiding the formation of a secondary phase during sintering. Wet ball or attrition milling techniques can be used for the synthesis of homogeneous powder mixture. Al2O3/SiC composites are widely prepared by this conventional powder mixing route by using ball milling [70]. However, the disadvantage in the milling step is that it may induce certain pollution derived from the milling media.

In this mechanical method of production of nanomaterials, which works on the principle of impact, the size reduction is achieved through the impact caused when the balls drop from the top of the chamber containing the source material.

A ball mill consists of a hollow cylindrical chamber (Fig. 6.2) which rotates about a horizontal axis, and the chamber is partially filled with small balls made of steel, tungsten carbide, zirconia, agate, alumina, or silicon nitride having diameter generally 10mm. The inner surface area of the chamber is lined with an abrasion-resistant material like manganese, steel, or rubber. The magnet, placed outside the chamber, provides the pulling force to the grinding material, and by changing the magnetic force, the milling energy can be varied as desired. The ball milling process is carried out for approximately 100150h to obtain uniform-sized fine powder. In high-energy ball milling, vacuum or a specific gaseous atmosphere is maintained inside the chamber. High-energy mills are classified into attrition ball mills, planetary ball mills, vibrating ball mills, and low-energy tumbling mills. In high-energy ball milling, formation of ceramic nano-reinforcement by in situ reaction is possible.

It is an inexpensive and easy process which enables industrial scale productivity. As grinding is done in a closed chamber, dust, or contamination from the surroundings is avoided. This technique can be used to prepare dry as well as wet nanopowders. Composition of the grinding material can be varied as desired. Even though this method has several advantages, there are some disadvantages. The major disadvantage is that the shape of the produced nanoparticles is not regular. Moreover, energy consumption is relatively high, which reduces the production efficiency. This technique is suitable for the fabrication of several nanocomposites, which include Co- and Cu-based nanomaterials, Ni-NiO nanocomposites, and nanocomposites of Ti,C [71].

Planetary ball mill was used to synthesize iron nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were subjected to the characterization studies by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques using a SIEMENS-D5000 diffractometer and Hitachi S-4800. For the synthesis of iron nanoparticles, commercial iron powder having particles size of 10m was used. The iron powder was subjected to planetary ball milling for various period of time. The optimum time period for the synthesis of nanoparticles was observed to be 10h because after that time period, chances of contamination inclined and the particles size became almost constant so the powder was ball milled for 10h to synthesize nanoparticles [11]. Fig. 12 shows the SEM image of the iron nanoparticles.

The vibratory ball mill is another kind of high-energy ball mill that is used mainly for preparing amorphous alloys. The vials capacities in the vibratory mills are smaller (about 10 ml in volume) compared to the previous types of mills. In this mill, the charge of the powder and milling tools are agitated in three perpendicular directions (Fig. 1.6) at very high speed, as high as 1200 rpm.

Another type of the vibratory ball mill, which is used at the van der Waals-Zeeman Laboratory, consists of a stainless steel vial with a hardened steel bottom, and a single hardened steel ball of 6 cm in diameter (Fig. 1.7).

The mill is evacuated during milling to a pressure of 106 Torr, in order to avoid reactions with a gas atmosphere.[44] Subsequently, this mill is suitable for mechanical alloying of some special systems that are highly reactive with the surrounding atmosphere, such as rare earth elements.

In spite of the traditional approaches used for gas-solid reaction at relatively high temperature, Calka etal.[58] and El-Eskandarany etal.[59] proposed a solid-state approach, the so-called reactive ball milling (RBM), used for preparations different families of meal nitrides and hydrides at ambient temperature. This mechanically induced gas-solid reaction can be successfully achieved, using either high- or low-energy ball-milling methods, as shown in Fig.9.5. However, high-energy ball mill is an efficient process for synthesizing nanocrystalline MgH2 powders using RBM technique, it may be difficult to scale up for matching the mass production required by industrial sector. Therefore, from a practical point of view, high-capacity low-energy milling, which can be easily scaled-up to produce large amount of MgH2 fine powders, may be more suitable for industrial mass production.

In both approaches but with different scale of time and milling efficiency, the starting Mg metal powders milled under hydrogen gas atmosphere are practicing to dramatic lattice imperfections such as twinning and dislocations. These defects are caused by plastics deformation coupled with shear and impact forces generated by the ball-milling media.[60] The powders are, therefore, disintegrated into smaller particles with large surface area, where very clean or fresh oxygen-free active surfaces of the powders are created. Moreover, these defects, which are intensively located at the grain boundaries, lead to separate micro-scaled Mg grains into finer grains capable to getter hydrogen by the first atomically clean surfaces to form MgH2 nanopowders.

Fig.9.5 illustrates common lab scale procedure for preparing MgH2 powders, starting from pure Mg powders, using RBM via (1) high-energy and (2) low-energy ball milling. The starting material can be Mg-rods, in which they are processed via sever plastic deformation,[61] using for example cold-rolling approach,[62] as illustrated in Fig.9.5. The heavily deformed Mg-rods obtained after certain cold rolling passes can be snipped into small chips and then ball-milled under hydrogen gas to produce MgH2 powders.[8]

Planetary ball mills are the most popular mills used in scientific research for synthesizing MgH2 nanopowders. In this type of mill, the ball-milling media have considerably high energy, because milling stock and balls come off the inner wall of the vial and the effective centrifugal force reaches up to 20 times gravitational acceleration. The centrifugal forces caused by the rotation of the supporting disc and autonomous turning of the vial act on the milling charge (balls and powders). Since the turning directions of the supporting disc and the vial are opposite, the centrifugal forces alternately are synchronized and opposite. Therefore, the milling media and the charged powders alternatively roll on the inner wall of the vial, and are lifted and thrown off across the bowl at high speed.

In the typical experimental procedure, a certain amount of the Mg (usually in the range between 3 and 10g based on the vials volume) is balanced inside an inert gas atmosphere (argon or helium) in a glove box and sealed together with certain number of balls (e.g., 2050 hardened steel balls) into a hardened steel vial (Fig.9.5A and B), using, for example, a gas-temperature-monitoring system (GST). With the GST system, it becomes possible to monitor the progress of the gas-solid reaction taking place during the RBM process, as shown in Fig.9.5C and D. The temperature and pressure changes in the system during milling can be also used to realize the completion of the reaction and the expected end product during the different stages of milling (Fig.9.5D). The ball-to-powder weight ratio is usually selected to be in the range between 10:1 and 50:1. The vial is then evacuated to the level of 103bar before introducing H2 gas to fill the vial with a pressure of 550bar (Fig.9.5B). The milling process is started by mounting the vial on a high-energy ball mill operated at ambient temperature (Fig.9.5C).

Tumbling mill is cylindrical shell (Fig.9.6AC) that rotates about a horizontal axis (Fig.9.6D). Hydrogen gas is pressurized into the vial (Fig.9.6C) together with Mg powders and ball-milling media, using ball-to-powder weight ratio in the range between 30:1 and 100:1. Mg powder particles meet the abrasive and impacting force (Fig.9.6E), which reduce the particle size and create fresh-powder surfaces (Fig.9.6F) ready to react with hydrogen milling atmosphere.

Figure 9.6. Photographs taken from KISR-EBRC/NAM Lab, Kuwait, show (A) the vial and milling media (balls) and (B) the setup performed to charge the vial with 50bar of hydrogen gas. The photograph in (C) presents the complete setup of GST (supplied by Evico-magnetic, Germany) system prior to start the RBM experiment for preparing of MgH2 powders, using Planetary Ball Mill P400 (provided by Retsch, Germany). GST system allows us to monitor the progress of RBM process, as indexed by temperature and pressure versus milling time (D).

The useful kinetic energy in tumbling mill can be applied to the Mg powder particles (Fig.9.7E) by the following means: (1) collision between the balls and the powders; (2) pressure loading of powders pinned between milling media or between the milling media and the liner; (3) impact of the falling milling media; (4) shear and abrasion caused by dragging of particles between moving milling media; and (5) shock-wave transmitted through crop load by falling milling media. One advantage of this type of mill is that large amount of the powders (100500g or more based on the mill capacity) can be fabricated for each milling run. Thus, it is suitable for pilot and/or industrial scale of MgH2 production. In addition, low-energy ball mill produces homogeneous and uniform powders when compared with the high-energy ball mill. Furthermore, such tumbling mills are cheaper than high-energy mills and operated simply with low-maintenance requirements. However, this kind of low-energy mill requires long-term milling time (more than 300h) to complete the gas-solid reaction and to obtain nanocrystalline MgH2 powders.

Figure 9.7. Photos taken from KISR-EBRC/NAM Lab, Kuwait, display setup of a lab-scale roller mill (1000m in volume) showing (A) the milling tools including the balls (milling media and vial), (B) charging Mg powders in the vial inside inert gas atmosphere glove box, (C) evacuation setup and pressurizing hydrogen gas in the vial, and (D) ball milling processed, using a roller mill. Schematic presentations show the ball positions and movement inside the vial of a tumbler mall mill at a dynamic mode is shown in (E), where a typical ball-powder-ball collusion for a low energy tumbling ball mill is presented in (F).

wear parts and consumables - sustain productivity | flsmidth

wear parts and consumables - sustain productivity | flsmidth

Wear parts and consumables are important for the operation of every plant. In contrast to durable goods, wear parts and consumables are parts or components that are intended to be consumed and are products that customer use recurrently within an 18-month period. In order to meet your needs, we aim to be a one-stop-shop provider of these wear parts and consumables.

You need to plan ahead to ensure your operation is constantly running reliably and smoothly. For that reason, we assist you with regular inspections and monitoring to help you plan for and obtain the necessary wear parts and consumables. Maintaining peak productivity is paramount and its why we stand ever ready to assist when new wear parts and consumables are needed.

We gladly undertake the task of providing advice, service, original wear parts and consumables that meet exact or compatible specifications. Our know-how is based on many years of experience, as well as records on all systems and products delivered by FLSmidth.

We are proud to be your preferred partner for wear parts and consumables. Because of our commitment to serving you, we ensure top class manufacturing of all of our wear parts and consumables, so you can be certain they are engineered to the highest standards.

FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.

grinding technology and mill operations | flsmidth

grinding technology and mill operations | flsmidth

This course provides an in-depth understanding of grinding theory and equipment and gives operators the tools to audit your equipment and systems. Improving knowledge of grinding technology and mill operations to operate, optimise and troubleshoot ball mill and vertical roller mill grinding installations. Ball mills and vertical roller mills are used for many grinding applications in cement production: raw meal grinding, coal and pet coke, and finish cement grinding. Improving the competences of the team plays a key role in the optimal utilisation of the grinding installation in your cement plant. The operators and process engineers must be able to evaluate all the process variables in order to optimise the mill system production. The grinding technology and mill operations course provides the necessary knowledge to maximise the production rate and promote operational stability while ensuring the grinding systems operate efficiently.

This course provides an in-depth understanding of grinding theory and equipment and gives operators the tools to audit your equipment and systems. Improving knowledge of grinding technology and mill operations to operate, optimise and troubleshoot ball mill and vertical roller mill grinding installations.

Ball mills and vertical roller mills are used for many grinding applications in cement production: raw meal grinding, coal and pet coke, and finish cement grinding. Improving the competences of the team plays a key role in the optimal utilisation of the grinding installation in your cement plant.

The operators and process engineers must be able to evaluate all the process variables in order to optimise the mill system production. The grinding technology and mill operations course provides the necessary knowledge to maximise the production rate and promote operational stability while ensuring the grinding systems operate efficiently.

FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.

gear unit and rotating parts for the long-haul | flsmidth

gear unit and rotating parts for the long-haul | flsmidth

Drawing its name from the symmetrical torque split within the gearbox, the MAAG GEAR SYMETRO is a two-stage gear central drive unit for ball mills with incredible durability. In fact, many of the original SYMETRO gearboxes still run cement production lines today delivering more than 80 years of power and performance.

All of the SYMETRO pinions are case-hardened to a surface hardness up to HB 550 as well as ground with profile and lead modification. The wheels in our MAAG GEAR SYMETRO Gear Unit are all through-hardened up to HB 360 and the ground teeth of the intermediate and balance wheels deliver increased surface finish quality. These manufacturing improvements to the SYMETROs gearing optimise tooth contact at full load, minimise vibration and noise, and improve both overall operation and maintenance. The gear calculations are based on AGMA standards and the quality demands reflect ISO and DIN standards. Our SYMETRO Gear Unit is delivered complete with input pinion and torsion shaft with membrane plates making it ready to run your ball mill at full capacity immediately after you install it.

We have developed a portfolio of units and devices to further improve the SYMETRO Gear Units performance. You can retrofit these accessories to all existing units for greater safety, longer lifetimes and enhanced operational reliability.

Make servicing ball mills or gear units safer and more manageable with our TTVF-H barring device. The TTVF-H turns your mill at approximately 2% of regular operation speed and is able to lock the mill into a specified position. Using the barring device also ensures that you do not need to stop or start the main motor during maintenance.

FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.

vertical mills operations & maintenance training | flsmidth

vertical mills operations & maintenance training | flsmidth

Learn how to optimise your vertical mill systems in this 5-day training seminar focused on best practices for operations and maintenance (preventive and reactive) to achieve energy savings, reduced maintenance costs and overall improved productivity of the vertical mill systems. Vertical mills are used for many applications in cement production: raw meal grinding, coal and pet coke, and finish cement grinding. Each of these systems have their similarities and differences. This vertical mill seminar is designed to train your personnel on the overall technology, operation and maintenance of all your vertical mill systems. The seminar focuses on the latest best practices for the operation and maintenance of vertical mill systems to allow for energy savings, reduced maintenance costs as well as the continuous improvement of the overall equipment operation. Beyond what you will learn about your vertical mill systems, this seminar provides excellent networking opportunities with our specialists as well as your counterparts from the cement industry.

Learn how to optimise your vertical mill systems in this 5-day training seminar focused on best practices for operations and maintenance (preventive and reactive) to achieve energy savings, reduced maintenance costs and overall improved productivity of the vertical mill systems.

Vertical mills are used for many applications in cement production: raw meal grinding, coal and pet coke, and finish cement grinding. Each of these systems have their similarities and differences. This vertical mill seminar is designed to train your personnel on the overall technology, operation and maintenance of all your vertical mill systems.

The seminar focuses on the latest best practices for the operation and maintenance of vertical mill systems to allow for energy savings, reduced maintenance costs as well as the continuous improvement of the overall equipment operation.

Maintenance training is focused routine preventive maintenance to minimize downtime as well as developing preventive maintenance programmes and troubleshooting techniques to quickly identify and fix problems

FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.

manganese steel, chrome steel , alloy steel foundry | qiming casting

manganese steel, chrome steel , alloy steel foundry | qiming casting

Qiming Casting is a dynamically growing company with many years of experience in production and supply Crusher Wear Parts,Shredder Wear Parts,Mill Liners,Apron Feeder Pans,Electric Rope Shovel Parts, andCrusher Spare Parts. We supply wear parts to the USA, Canada, Europe, Australia, Africa, etc.

Qiming Casting designs and manufactures world-class wear part solutions that last longer than OEM parts. Using the latest technology, we design and cast our products from the best quality alloys available, and use custom heat treatments to ensure the durability of our parts. Our huge product range, customer service excellence, and our ability to deliver on time, every time is the result of 30+ years of operation and industry-based knowledge we know what you need, so we deliver it.

Qiming Casting specializes in manufacturing crusher wear parts, which include jaw crusher wear parts, cone crusher wear parts, hammer mill wear parts, gyratory crusher wear parts, VSI crusher wear parts, impact crusher wear parts.

Qiming Casting supplies all kinds of brands of crusher spare parts, which include jaw crusher spare parts, cone crusher spare parts, gyratory crusher spare parts, VSI crusher spare parts, impact crusher spare parts and other crusher spare parts.

Qiming Casting manufactures ASTM A128 standard manganese steel wear parts for quarrying, mining, and cement wear parts, which products include cone crusher liners, jaw crusher liners, mill liner, apron feeder pans, hammer mill hammer, and others.

Qiming Casting manufactures ASTM A532M standard chromium steel wear parts for quarrying, mining, and cement wear parts, which products include impact crusher blow bars, impact plates, feed tube, VSI wear parts, mill liners, distributor plate, and other wear parts.

Qiming Casting specialized in manufacturing low-alloy steel and high-alloy steel parts. Material includes Cr-Mo alloy steel, 30CrNiMo alloy steel, heat-resistant alloy steel. Products include alloy mill liners, alloy hammer, heat-resistant liners, and other alloy steel liners.

Qiming Casting has a rich experience in cast manganese steel, chromium steel, and alloy steel wear parts for over 30 years. There are more than 12000 tons of wear parts are sent to European, North America, South America, and Australia markets.

Based on rich experience, our engineers also help our customers to design suitable material for different working conditions. On the other hand, Qiming Castings engineers had invented new materials to prolong wear parts span life, such as TIC inserts wear parts, alloy steel crusher liner

Our company has two water glass sand production lines, a V-method casting production lines, an EPC production line, a machine shop; 2 sets 5T electric furnace, 2 sets 3T intermediate frequency electric furnace, 2 sets 1T intermediate frequency electric furnace, 5 sets heat treatment furnace trolley,2000 CBM heat treatment pool, The maximum casting weight:12 tons, Registered capital: Fifteen million dollars, The annual production capacity: 12,000 tons

Although there are only 168 workers in Qiming Casting, however, there are 8 rich experience foundry engineers and 10 quality control personnel. The high percentage of engineers helps us to keep a high-quality standard.

Qiming Casting is one of the largest manganese steel, chromium steel, and alloy steel foundry in China. Products include crusher wear parts, Crusher spare parts, mill liners, shredder wear parts, apron feeder pans, and electric rope shovel parts.

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