chromite - mine to metal

chromite - mine to metal

Chromium is an essential alloying element for the production of all types of stainless steels and special categories of alloy steels, on account of the special properties it imparts to Steel. Chromite is the main chromium bearing mineral of economic importance and around 99% of domestic chromite consumption in India is in ferro-alloy/charge chrome industry and a very nominal amount is consumed for refractory and other industry.

Chromite (FeO.Cr2O3) is a member of the spinel group of minerals and has the general formula R+2O. R+32O3, where R+2 stands for a bivalent metal (mainly ferrous iron and magnesium) and R+3 represents trivalent chromium, aluminum, iron and titanium. The formula may be written as (Fe, Mg) O. (Cr, AI, Fe)2O3.

Chromite (FeO.Cr2O3) in its purest form contains 68% chromium oxide and 32% FeO with Cr: Fe ratio is 1.8:1. This composition of FeO.Cr2O3 cannot occur as a magmatic mineral because natural magma always contains an abundance of aluminum and magnesium. Thus, invariably, magnesium and aluminum frequently substitute for iron and chromium respectively and thereby the chrome ore analyses around 60% chromium oxide only.

The Cr:Fe ratio is one of the important factors that decides the end-use of the chromite mineral. For ferro-chrome Cr:Fe should be 2.8:1; Cr2O3 48% (min) and for charge chrome Cr:Fe should be 1.6:1; Cr2O3 44% (min.).

In metallurgical industry, chromite is used for manufacturing low-carbon and high carbon ferrochrome and charge chrome which in turn are used as additives in making stainless steels and special alloy steel.

Hard lumpy chromite is used for producing high carbon ferrochrome while friable ore and briquetted fines are used for low carbon ferrochrome. Both briquetted fines and lumpy ores are used in production of charge chrome.

Major share (98.6%) of chromite resources in the country is located in state of Odisha. Other states contributing to the countrys resources of chromite are Manipur, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

All these deposits are associated with ultramafic rocks. The chromite deposits of Odisha occur in number of localities associated with ultramafic complexes of Sukinda (District: Jajpur), Baula-Nausahi (District: Keonjhar) and similar occurrences of ultramafic rocks at Bhalukasoni (District: Balasore) and Ramgiri (District: Koraput).

Chromite deposits in India fall into the following types: (1) evenly scattered (or disseminated) eg. Kodapalle, A.P.; (2) Schlieren bands as bands and segregations, eg. Chaibasa, Singhbhum District, Keonjhar, Odisha; (3) Stratified (with a bedded appearance), eg. South of Kaliapani, Sukinda; (4) Sack-form (or pockety) eg. Kodapalle, A.P.; and (5) Fissure form (or vein-like) eg. Shinduvalli, Mysore, Sittampundi Salem District, Tamilnadu.

Five major seams have been identified in Sukinda ultramafic complex comprising Dunite partially or fully altered to feebly schistose talc-serpentine mass is the host rock for chromite ore. All the ore seams are mostly friable and partly lumpy, except for the Mahagiri Ore seam, which is lumpy in nature.

Chromite occurs as persistent thick bands, seams, lenses within ultramafic complex. All the seams are fairly thick and friable in nature. The chromite deposit of Sukinda belt is mainly stratiform type and can be classified into the categories like lumpy ore, granular ore, friable ore, ferruginous ore, disseminated ore and banded ore.

In the ultramafic complex of Nausahi area the chromite bodies occurring in form of discontinuous bands and lenses, are confined to the altered dunite / peridotite. The chromite seams in the Baula-Nausahi area are thin, small, mostly hard and lumpy. The chromite deposit is mainly straitiform type with categories like lumpy and granular ore, friable ore, ferruginous ore, banded ore, disseminated ore and magnetic ore. The magnetic chromite ore is found in Baula area where both chromite and magnetite are so intimately mixed that poses problem for their separation.

India comes under high grade group with countries having average grade of 39% Cr2O3. Chromite ore is mainly used for ferro-alloy production (Fero-chrome/charged chrome) that is input material of chromium for steel making. High-grade lumpy ore/briquetted fines assaying in the range of over 44 to 48% Cr2O3 having minimum Cr: Fe ratio of 1.6:1 & 2.8:1, is needed for charge chrome and ferro-chrome production respectively.

The low to medium grade r.o.m. ore (below 40% Cr2O3) either in-situ deposit or generated on account of selective mining and hand sorting is however resorted to crude beneficiation technique with prime objective is to meet the physical as well as chemical stipulations necessitated for ferro-alloy industry.

The compromise in optimum/best possible chromite recovery by the lessees is primarily due to surplus ore reserves, readily available flourishing and unrestricted (no quantity ceiling) export market and ease of value addition, technology of which is supplied by a few engineering consultant and equipment manufacturer/supplier. Primary aim of these consultants and equipment manufacturers was sale of their machinery/equipment for easy recovery and rather than optimum recovery in the interest of conservation. Thus, development of proper flow sheet and scientific material accounting was seldom in their agenda.

kazakhstan chrome exploitationand processing line

kazakhstan chrome exploitationand processing line

Kazakhstan is rich in natural resources. There were more than 90 kinds of minerals have been proven the reserves. Among them, the chrome ore reserve in Kazakhstan ranks second in the world, just behind South Africa. Currently, more than 20 chrome ore mines havebeen proven reserves in Kazakhstan. And the total reserves of them are more than 400 million tons, accounts 1/3 of the worlds total reserves. Almost all Kazakhstan chrome ore concentrated in Aktobe.

Currently, there are two million to three million tons chrome ores are mined every year. According to the annual production, chrome ore can be mined in Kazakhstan more than 100 years. Kazakhstan chrome ore with an average grade of 40%. Now mostly mined are bonanza with the grade more than 45%. Kazakhstan has highly competitive in the international chromium. Kazakhstan has 23 chrome ore mines over the country. Kazakhstan's largest chrome ore producer located in Aktobe, which is one of the largest chrome ore mining companies of the world.The raw materials are from the world's second largest chrome ore mine.

Chrome is a silver-white metal. It is extremely hard. TheMohs hardness of it is 9. Due to impurities chrome showing the characteristics of hard and brittle. Chrome ore crusher is the specialized machinery, which is used to process the large size of chrome ore into the required size. Chrome ore crusher can be divided into coarse crusher, medium crusher, fine crusher, ultrafine mill.

First stage: crushing and screening Send the chunks of chrome ore evenlyto jaw crusher or mobile jaw crusher for primary crushing by the vibrating feeder. After the separation of vibrating screen, transport the crushed chrome ore to the single-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher for secondary crushing by belt conveyor. Then, send the chrome minerals to the multi-cylinder hydraulic cone the crusher for fine crushing.

Recent years, in order to meet the crushing require of high strength, high hardness materials in metallurgical, mining, construction and other industrial sectors, our company absorbedthe successful experience of similar products at home and abroad.Through many years painstaking research, we developed the efficient chrome ore jaw crusher. Now, this medium-sized jaw crusher is one of my company's start products.Particularly in the design and production, it has been the absolute leader. Chrome ore crusher will promote the rapid development of Kazakhstan chrome ore.

Kazakhstan has rich chrome ore. It will also provide a good opportunity for chrome ore processing equipment manufacturers. Faced with fierce competition in chrome ore crusher enterprises, in order to seek a breakthrough, we continue to introduce new products to respond to changing market demands. In such a competitive environment, we have launched a chrome ore crusher, chrome sand making machine and other products. We continue to incorporate new technological processes to improve production efficiency, increase environmental philosophy injection.

Chrome ore has a wide range of usesin various industries.Many countries which have chrome ore resources or lack of chrome resources are studying chrome ore beneficiation. Replacement of chrome ore crusher will promote chromium ore effectively developedin Kazakhstan. In contrast, with the continuous development of Kazakhstan chrome ore resources, it will also bring chrome ore crusher industry to flourish.

mexico minerals exploitation and processing line

mexico minerals exploitation and processing line

Mexico is located in North America, and the capital of it is Mexico City. Mexico is adjacent with United States in north, Guatemala and Belize in southeast. Its two sides are surrounded by sea, east of the Gulf of Mexico, west of the Pacific Ocean. Its area is 1,970,000 square kilometers. Mexico is a free economy market, and it has modernization industry and agriculture, the proportion of private economy has also increased significantly in recent years. Mexico is one of the large economy countries of Latin America. Its industry and agriculture are more developed. Its industrial sectors are complete, industry and mining account for 30% of GDP.

Mexico is one of the world's major mining producers, it has rich mineral resources. The reserves of silver, graphite and other resources rank top few of the world. Gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc and other 15 kinds of mineral reserves are rich in Mexico. Other mineral resources are also very rich, such as arsenic, bismuth, mercury, cadmium, antimony, apatite, lapis lazuli, graphite, sulfur, fluorite, barite, fluorite, etc. Silver production ranks first in the world for many years. So Mexico is known as the "Silver Kingdom". The productions of bismuth, cadmium, mercury rank second in the world. While barite, antimony productions rank third in the world.

The minerals exploitation in Mexico developed rapidly in recent years. Different minerals have different processing methods. But it always includes crushing, screening and beneficiation. First of all, we need transport the raw ores to the jaw crusher evenly and continuously by vibrating feeder for primary crushing. Then, send the crushed ores to cone crusher or impact crusher for secondary crushing. In the whole plant, belt conveyor is used to transport materials. It can improve the efficiency and degree of automation greatly. Vibrating screen is used to separate the materials into different sizes. If the size of particle meets the requirement, it will be transported to beneficiation equipment. While the rest part will be send to cone crusher or impact crusher for re-crushing. In this way, it forms a circle processing line.

Except some of the common ores, there are some unique minerals in Mexico, and they have their own features. Now I will introduce some of them to you. Obsidian is the National Stone of Mexico. It is also known as natural glass, and it is a common black gem. The colors of obsidian are transparent, black, there may be all monochrome, striped or spotted. The main producers are the United States, Japan and Indonesia.

Fire opal is also a gem. It will diffract and scatter into the color spectrum when white light shots on it. Fire opal has many different colors, such as yellow, orange or bright red, it is almost transparent. The main origin of fire opal is Mexico, and other origins are Guatemala, Honduras, the United States and Australia.

Fire agate is mainly produced in northern Mexico. About tens of millions of years ago, the intense volcanic activity took place in northern Mexico and the southwestern region of the United States, thus formed the unique Mexican Fire Agate. Although in the southwest of United States have produced, but the best quality fire agate is still produced in Mexico. These minerals have their own features, but the raw ores processing methods are almost the same. If you want to know more professional suggestion, please contact us, we will help you build a large capacity and efficient ore processing line.

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