precautions for slag pots in steel plant when tipping over - xinxiang great wall machinery co., ltd - pdf catalogs | technical documentation | brochure

precautions for slag pots in steel plant when tipping over - xinxiang great wall machinery co., ltd - pdf catalogs | technical documentation | brochure

Precautions for slag pots in steel plant when tipping over When the steel plant slag pot is tipped over, it should be noted that the tilting angle of the tilting slag pot needs to be less than 116 degrees. When dumping the slag, it is necessary to select the topography to prevent the slag shell from accidentally hurting people when the slag is poured. 1. The slag pot carrier needs to take a good stop wheel operation before it can turn over the slag tank at a long distance. When turning the slag tank, everyone must stay away from the slag pot carrier. 2. It is also necessary to supply power when turning over the slag tank. This requires the use of some concealed plugs. Soft cables can be used, which need to be operated 30 meters away from the slag tank. 3. When the heavy slag pot cannot turn over the slag, it is necessary to wait for the slag to completely solidify before processing. The slag pot is a casting that is often used by steel plant. Therefore, customers will choose some relatively large-scale casting foundries when they choose. They must have professional casting equipment, so that the quality of steel castings can be assured and the service life is guaranteed. CHAENG has a strong technical team and meticulous production planning, as well as complete casting equipment, testing methods and testing equipment, large-scale machining capabilities allow you to fully enjoy our "three-hearted service"! CHAENG looks forward to working with you ! ! !

roller mill motor - all industrial manufacturers

roller mill motor - all industrial manufacturers

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3 best pepper mills of 2020: peppermate, cole & mason, and more | epicurious

3 best pepper mills of 2020: peppermate, cole & mason, and more | epicurious

We set out to find the best pepper mills because freshly ground pepper is a kitchen essential. No matter what you're cooking, it packs powerful flavor and aroma that you can't get from using pre-ground pepper. And yet, pepper millsseemingly simple kitchen toolsare prone to going dull and breaking. Plus, some can be a pain to refill, leaving peppercorns all over your kitchen floor.

With our eyes on a perfectly functional pepper grinder, we tested 18 manual models to find the best pepper mill for home use. Ahead, read about our top picks. For the specifics on how we tested each grinder and the criteria we looked for, scroll to the bottom of the page.

This pepper grinder has six distinct coarseness settings that can be adjusted easily via a rotating piece of metal at the base of the mill. In our tests, each setting produced a distinct and uniform grind, from very fine to course. The grinding mechanism is made of sharp stainless steel and the settings are easy to adjust, unlike mills that adjust via the metal knob at the top of the mill.

This grinder is fairly traditional in appearance, but the metal ring on the bottom makes it slightly less classic than a uniform wooden pepper mill, like a Peugeot. It's comfortable to twist at the top, and best of all, it's easier to refill than a standard Peugeot. You can remove the top simply by pulling it offthere's no need to twist the metal top piece off. While the opening at the top is still very narrow, making spillage possible when refilling, the ease of removing the top makes up for that inconvenience. We recommend using a funnel, or turning a piece of paper into a funnel to direct your pepper smoothly into the mill. The grinder is made of durable materials, and the metal grinding mechanism stayed sharp after heavy use.

The mill has a lifetime warranty. Reviewers on Amazon generally report that the pepper mill lasts. Overall, this is a classic, high-quality pepper mill with two modern updates: easily adjustable grind settings and an easier refilling system.

Anyone who occasionally needs to measure their freshly ground black pepper knows how tedious the task can be using a standard pepper mill. The PepperMate Pepper Mill deserves special acknowledgement because this mill grinds directly into a compartment that attaches to its base. You can easily snap the compartment off and scoop from the container filled with ground pepper with a teaspoon, making it the best pepper mill for measuring an exact amount of freshly ground pepper. And since the base is easily removable, you can opt to grind without it and grind pepper directly over a plate or skillet when you don't care about measuring the exact amount.

It also gets bonus points for being the best pepper mill for keeping things tidy. It left no stray pepper behind on the counter every time we set it down. And it is by far the easiest pepper mill to refill. While the coarseness adjustment (a twisting dial at the top of the machine) is a little confusing at first, it becomes intuitive fairly quickly, and its coarseness settings offer a wide range of consistent grinds.

While its coarseness adjustor (a thumbscrew on the bottom of the grinder) is clunky and takes some time to get used to, this grinder's pepper output is notableit really generates notably more ground pepper per crank than any of the others we tested! We also love its stylish design, which makes it an accent piece fit for modern-leaning kitchens. Its also so comfortable to hold and use thanks to the smooth, sleek material. And it's significantly easier to refill than most other modelsyou turn it on its side and then twist open a round door thats large enough to fit a standard teaspoon (no mini-funnel needed). It smartly comes with a matching coaster for the mill to nestle in when its not in use, which helps keep the little dusting of pepper that so often collects on the countertop contained.

As you can guess, the test was pretty straightforwardwe ground a lot of pepper. We first tested 18 manual grinders. In testing, we first used each mill to grind piles of pepper together in the Epicurious test kitchen. Then, we brought the grinders home and used them over the course of several weeks to see how they held up after extended use. Still, this wasn't a totally comprehensive way to test longevity, so we did external research about how these models held up, based on user reviews on Amazon and tests done on other sites. We also refilled each mill to compare the ease of filling the machines up with peppercornsaiming for minimal spilling. If available, we tested the adjustable coarseness settings to see how effective they were. We did not test electric pepper mills, as we think manual ones are best for most home cooks. For each pepper grinder, we also examined the following factors.

We wanted a mill that effectively ground pepper straight out of the box. Pepper mills typically have either metal or ceramic grinding mechanisms. After preliminary research and testing, we found that a metal mechanism is sharper and leads to a more even grind. Metal is also more durable and less prone to dulling than ceramic.

It was important to us that the pepper mill had adjustable settings that allowed for both coarse and fine grindsand options in between. Sometimes you want crunchy flecks of pungent pepper. Other times you want a smooth grind that blends well with salt and disappears into a dish. A good pepper mill will allow for a range of coarseness, with each setting producing a uniform grind.

Traditionally, you adjust the grind of a pepper mill by twisting and untwisting the metal knob at the top. We found this to be an imprecise way of making an adjustment because it's hard to tell exactly how far to twist forward and backward to get your desired grind. Many new pepper mill designs (including the classic Peugeot that used to have a screw knob) have labeled adjustable settings on the bottom of the mill. We found pepper mills with this functionality to be preferable and easier to figure out because you just twist the bottom of the mill to land on one of the settings, which range from coarse to fine.

A classic pepper mill operates by twisting the top portion of the mill, which activates the rotating blade at the bottom of the mill via a metal rod. The pepper gets pushed down and rotated through the blade. However, some models we tested operated by twisting a metal crank or by pushing down on a lever. In our testing, we found that the classic method of twisting at the top was the most comfortable and easy to use.

Generally, pepper mills have a narrow opening that handles refills best when you place no more than one to three peppercorns delicately in the hole at onceany more risks major spillage. Refilling the mill also involves unscrewing the metal knob at the top and placing it asideit's a small thing but we found it inconvenient to remove the small metal piece and keep track of it while refilling. Ideally, a pepper mill will have a wider opening so you can pour a steady stream of peppercorns in at once, without requiring you to remove the metal knob. We tested some mills that refilled from the front, some from the bottom, and some that could be refilled without removing the metal top.

Also, pepper mills that have clear storage containers for the pepper should be largely avoided because peppercorns do lose their flavoreven after a month or two. They need to be stored in a dark place, so grinders that don't expose them to light are better.

For a classic model at a reasonable price, choose the Cole & Mason. It's fairly easy to refill, has effective grind settings, and is sharp and built to last. If you frequently need to measure freshly ground pepper in exact amounts, choose the PepperMate Pepper Mill. For a more distinctive but equally functional designand a pepper mill that boasts an impressive output per crankthe Unicorn Magnum is a widely loved model thatll serve all your cacio e pepe cravings well.

Pre-ground pepper saves time, sure, but freshly ground pepper yields so much more flavor. Buy whole peppercorns and grind them yourself whenever possible. The flavor of a peppercorn is contained within its walls. Once you bust down those walls by grinding it, all those volatile oils come rushing out and are subject to losing flavor over time (just like coffee).

The longer ground pepper sits, the more flavor slips away, which explains the lackluster quality of a typical supermarket jar. Who knows how long ago they ground that stuff, says Tom Erd, co-owner of the Spice House.

Peppercorns are the berries of the piper nigrum plant, which is native to India, the worlds top producer (and consumer) of pepper and the source of what spice experts like Erd consider the best peppercorns around. The other tropical regions where peppercorns thrive include Indonesia, Brazil, and Vietnam, which leads in exports.

Black, green, and white peppercorns are just different versions of the same fruit. Like any berry, they all start out green and turn red as they ripen. The longer they stay on the vine, the more flavor they develop.

Green peppercorns are picked early, while still green. To retain their color, theyre either blanched and dried, pickled in brine, or freeze-dried. They taste fresh and vibrant or, as Erd says, young.

White peppercorns are black peppercorns with the shells removed, either by soaking in water or rubbing dry. Neither method is cheaper or necessarily better than the other, but your nose can tell them apart. The water-soaked method produces a white peppercorn with a distinct fermented flavor after drying. Its not for everyone, but its favored for certain dishes where the pepper flavor but not the color is wanted.

While the three varieties above all come from the same plant, pink peppercorns are the dried berries of a shrub native to South America. They have a sweet, delicate flavor and are used as much for their looks as for their bite.

Sichuan or Szechuan peppercorns are also not technically "pepper". Famed for their numbing effect on the tongue, these aromatic seed husks come from the Chinese prickly ash tree. Theyre actually not hot on their own but are often combined with chiles in Sichuan cooking.

Black, white, green, and pink peppercorns are often sold as a blend, which looks nifty if you have a clear spice mill. But Erd cautions against whats sold as a five-peppercorn blend because of that fifth element: allspice.

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rat terrier dog breed information, pictures, characteristics & facts - dogtime

rat terrier dog breed information, pictures, characteristics & facts - dogtime

Members of the Rat Terrier dog breed are adorable, little, digging escape artists who are true terriers: feisty, funny, energetic, lively, vermin-chasing, and incapable of being boring. Stubborn as all get out, they are not big on pleasing people, but the people who love them laugh all the time.

The Rat Terrier is the ideal farm dog that they were always intended to be. President Theodore Roosevelt is said to have given the breed its name after his own terrier had eradicated the rat infestation at the White House; clearly, the Rat Terrier excels as a public servant as long as its in their own best interest. Theyre an American tradition just like apple pie, but watch your plate, or you may find youre missing dessert.

Contrary to popular belief, small size doesn't necessarily an apartment dog make. Plenty of small dogs are too high-energy and yappy for life in a high-rise. Being quiet, low energy, fairly calm indoors, and polite with the other residents are all good qualities in an apartment dog. And you can find an awesome crate for your dog here to give them a little more personal space in your apartment.

Dogs who are highly sensitive, independent thinking, or assertive may be harder for a first-time dog parent to manage. You'll get your best match if you take your dog-owning experience into account as you choose your new pooch.

You may also want to consider adopting a senior dog, as they tend to be less demanding of your time and energy. You can keep your senior dog active well into old age by providing them with joint supplements to fight the symptoms of arthritis. Adding Glyde Mobility Chews to their routine can help their joints stay healthy.

Some dogs will let a stern reprimand roll off their backs, while others take even a dirty look to heart. Low-sensitivity dogs, also called "easygoing," "tolerant," "resilient," and even "thick-skinned," can better handle a noisy, chaotic household, a louder or more assertive owner, and an inconsistent or variable routine. Do you have young kids, throw lots of dinner parties, play in a garage band, or lead a hectic life? Go with a low-sensitivity dog.

Some breeds bond very closely with their family and are more prone to worry or even panic when left alone by their owner. An anxious dog can be very destructive--barking, whining, chewing, and otherwise causing mayhem. These breeds do best when a family member is home during the day or if you can take the dog to work.

Breeds with very short coats and little or no undercoat or body fat, such as Greyhounds, are vulnerable to the cold. Dogs with a low cold tolerance need to live inside in cool climates and should have a jacket or sweater for chilly walks. You can find a great jacket for your dog here!

Dogs with thick, double coats are more vulnerable to overheating. So are breeds with short noses, like Bulldogs or Pugs, since they can't pant as well to cool themselves off. If you want a heat-sensitive breed, your dog will need to stay indoors with you on warm or humid days, and you'll need to be extra cautious about exercising your dog in the heat.

Some breeds are independent and aloof, even if they've been raised by the same person since puppyhood; others bond closely to one person and are indifferent to everyone else; and some shower the whole family with affection. Breed isn't the only factor that goes into affection levels; dogs who were raised inside a home with people around feel more comfortable with humans and bond more easily.

Being gentle with children, sturdy enough to handle the heavy-handed pets and hugs they can dish out, and having a blas attitude toward running, screaming children are all traits that make a kid-friendly dog. You may be surprised by who's on that list: Fierce-looking Boxers are considered good with children, as are American Staffordshire Terriers (which are considered Pit Bulls). Small, delicate, and potentially snappy dogs such as Chihuahuas aren't always so family-friendly.

**All dogs are individuals. Our ratings are generalizations, and they're not a guarantee of how any breed or individual dog will behave. Dogs from any breed can be good with children based on their past experiences, training on how to get along with kids, and personality. No matter what the breed or breed type, all dogs have strong jaws, sharp pointy teeth, and may bite in stressful circumstances. Young children and dogs of any breed should always be supervised by an adult and never left alone together, period.

Friendliness toward dogs and friendliness toward humans are two completely different things. Some dogs may attack or try to dominate other dogs, even if they're love-bugs with people; others would rather play than fight; and some will turn tail and run. Breed isn't the only factor. Dogs who lived with their littermates and mother until at least six to eight weeks of age and who spent lots of time playing with other dogs during puppyhood, are more likely to have good canine social skills.

Stranger-friendly dogs will greet guests with wagging tails and nuzzles; others are shy, indifferent, or even aggressive. However, no matter what the breed, a dog who was socialized andexposed to lots of different types, ages, sizes, and shapes of people as a puppy will respond better to strangers as an adult. Remember that even friendly dogs should stay on a good, strong leash like this onein public!

If you're going to share your home with a dog, you'll need to deal with some level of dog hair on your clothes and in your house. However, shedding does vary greatly among the breeds. Some dogs shed year-round, some "blow" seasonally, some do both, and some shed hardly at all. If you're a neatnik, you'll need to either pick a low-shedding breed or relax your standards. To help keep your home a little cleaner, you can find a great de-shedding tool here!

Drool-prone dogs may drape ropes of slobber on your arm and leave big, wet spots on your clothes when they come over to say hello. If you've got a laid-back attitude toward slobber, fine; but if you're a neatnik, you may want to choose a dog who rates low in the drool department.

Some breeds are brush-and-go dogs; others require regular bathing, clipping, and other grooming just to stay clean and healthy. Consider whether you have the time and patience for a dog who needs a lot of grooming, or the money to pay someone else to do it.

Due to poor breeding practices, some breeds are prone to certain genetic health problems, such as hip dysplasia. This doesn't mean that every dog of that breed will develop those diseases; it just means that they're at an increased risk.

If you're adopting a puppy, it's a good idea to find out which genetic illnesses are common to the breed you're interested in. You may also want to ask if your shelter or rescue has informationabout the physical health of your potential pup's parents and other relatives.

Many health problems are related to digestion and issues in the gut. AddingBernie's Perfect Poop digestion support treats to your dog's routine can help your pet feel better and improve their overall health!

Some breeds have hearty appetites and tend to put on weight easily. As in humans, being overweight can cause health problems in dogs. If you pick a breed that's prone to packing on pounds, you'll need to limit treats, make sure they get enough exercise, and measure out their daily food servings into regular meals rather than leaving food out all the time.

Ask your vet about your dog's diet and what they recommend for feeding your pooch to keep them at a healthy weight. If your dog has tummy troubles, adding Bernie's Perfect Poop digestion support treats to their diet can help your dog feel better and improve their overall health!

Dogs come in all sizes, from the world's smallest pooch, the Chihuahua, to the towering Great Dane, how much space a dog takes up is a key factor in deciding if they're compatible with you and your living space.Large dog breeds might seem overpowering and intimidating, but some of them are incredibly sweet! Take a look and find the right sized dog for you!

Easy-to-train dogs are more adept at forming an association between a prompt (such as the word "sit"), an action (sitting), and a consequence (getting a treat) very quickly. Other dogs need more time, patience, and repetition during training.

Many breeds are intelligent but approach training with a "What's in it for me?" attitude, in which case you'll need to use rewards and games to teach them to want to comply with your requests. Here are some great treats that can actually improve your dog's digestionto get you started!

Dogs who were bred for jobs that require decision making, intelligence, and concentration, such as herding livestock, need to exercise their brains, just as dogs who were bred to run all day need to exercise their bodies. If they don't get the mental stimulation they need, they'll make their own work--usually with projects you won't like, such as digging and chewing. Obedience training and interactive dog toys are good ways to give a dog a brain workout, as are dog sports and careers, such as agility and search and rescue.

Common in most breeds during puppyhood and in Retriever breeds at all ages, mouthiness means a tendency to nip, chew, and play-bite (a soft, fairly painless bite that doesn't puncture the skin). Mouthy dogs are more likely to use their mouths to hold or "herd" their human family members, and they need training to learn that it's fine to gnaw on chew toys, but not on people. Mouthy breeds tend to really enjoy a game of fetch, as well as a good chew on a toy that's been stuffed with kibble and treats.

Dogs who were bred to hunt, such as Terriers, have an inborn desire to chase--and sometimes kill--other animals. Anything whizzing by, such as cats, squirrels, and perhaps even cars, can trigger that instinct. Dogs who like to chase need to be leashed or kept in a fenced area when outdoors, and you'll need a high, secure fence in your yard. These breeds generally aren't a good fit for homes with smaller pets that can look like prey, such as cats, hamsters, or small dogs. Breeds that were originally used for bird hunting, on the other hand, generally won't chase, but you'll probably have a hard time getting their attention when there are birds flying by.

Some breeds sound off more often than others. When choosing a breed, think about how often the dog vocalizes with barks or howls. If you're considering a hound, would you find their trademark howls musical or maddening? If you're considering a watchdog, will a city full of suspicious "strangers" put your pup on permanent alert? Will the local wildlife literally drive your dog wild? Do you live in housing with noise restrictions? Do you have neighbors nearby? Then you may wish to choose a quieter dog.

Some breeds are more free-spirited than others. Nordic dogs such as Siberian Huskies were bred to range long distances, and given the chance, they'll take off after anything that catches their interest. And many hounds simply must follow their noses--or that bunny that just ran across the path--even if it means leaving you behind.

High-energy dogs are always ready and waiting for action. Originally bred to perform a canine job of some sort, such as retrieving game for hunters or herding livestock, they have the stamina to put in a full workday. They need a significant amount of exercise and mental stimulation, and they're more likely to spend time jumping, playing, and investigating any new sights and smells.

Low-energy dogs are the canine equivalent of a couch potato, content to doze the day away. When picking a breed, consider your own activity level and lifestyle, and think about whether you'll find a frisky, energetic dog invigorating or annoying.

A vigorous dog may or may not have high energy, but everything they do, they do with vigor: they strain on the leash (until you train them not to), try to plow through obstacles, and even eats and drinks with great big gulps. These dynamos need lots of training to learn good manners, and may not be the best fit for a home with young kids or someone who's elderly or frail. A low-vigor dog, on the other hand, has a more subdued approach to life.

Some breeds do fine with a slow evening stroll around the block. Others need daily, vigorous exercise, especially those that were originally bred for physically demanding jobs, like herding or hunting.

Without enough exercise, these breeds may put on weight and vent their pent-up energy in ways you don't like, such as barking, chewing, and digging. Breeds that need a lot of exercise are good for outdoorsy, active people, or those interested in training their dog to compete in a high-energy dog sport, such as agility.

Even older dogs need exercise, and it can help fight symptoms of arthritis and other age-related conditions. Adding Glyde Mobility Chews to your dog's routine can give your dog the joint supplements they need to stay active well into old age.

Some dogs are perpetual puppies -- always begging for a game -- while others are more serious and sedate. Although a playful pup sounds endearing, consider how many games of fetch or tag you want to play each day, and whether you have kids or other dogs who can stand in as playmates for the dog.

You may want to consider adopting an older dog. Seniors can remain playful well into old age and have fewer demands than young dogs. Adding Glyde Mobility Chews to your senior's routine can help fight the symptoms of arthritis and keep your old dog active and playful.

With training, socialization, and a certain forgiveness of their "bad" habits, the intelligent Rat Terrier can be an invaluable member of your family. Thanks to the efforts of breeders and fanciers alike, the Rat Terrier survived his time as a lesser-known breed and is growing in popularity again.

He makes an excellent watchdog and is the ultimate farm dog; his strong jaws and quick movements were invaluable to farmers in eradicating rats and other small vermin from farms. He is often mistaken for a smooth-coated Fox Terrier or a Jack Russell, but owners and breeders alike know of all the wonderful traits that make the Rat Terrier unique.

As you'd expect, Rat Terriers exhibit all the behaviors and stubbornness of a typical terrier. For example, they dig. Digging is an inherent trait in Rat Terriers and they will spend a great deal of time digging in your yard and garden in an urgent quest to reach China by nightfall. Don't despair. Give him one area in the yard to dig up to his heart's content and he'll be fine. He just has to learn what area is his, and he's smart enough to do so.

Be aware: this Houdini Hound has the intelligence and drive to figure out how the key to freedom. It's best to be with him in the yard rather than letting him enjoy it at his solitary leisure. He should wear a collar and tag at all times, as well as be microchipped, because if he starts running you'll never catch up. He may be little, but he's fast. He can jump high too, so a 5- or 6-foot fence is a good idea.

The shrill "yipping" of a Rat Terrier is discernible from that of other dogs. If you live in an apartment or a neighborhood that has noise rules, take his instinct to bark into account while doing your research. Also remember that were bred to be quick runners and need the space and time to exercise that drive.

When training a Rat Terrier, take into account that although they are highly intelligent, they can also give new meaning to the word "stubborn." Many different training techniques are used with Rats; don't give up if one method doesn't work just try another. They need people who are firm and experienced, otherwise Rats will swarm all over their owners.

Fun fact: Rat Terriers puppies are born with their ears up. About the time their eyes begin to open, the ears start to drop. Some of those ears may stay dropped, some may pop back up in a few weeks or months.

Being a farm dog and hunter, the need for the Rat Terrier to catch prey and pests drove breeders to start adding new strains to the breed in the 1910s and 1920s. A Rat Terrier appeared alongside Shirley Temple in the 1930s movie, "The Little Colonel."

In the Midwest, the Rat Terrier was bred to Whippets and Italian Greyhounds to produce a more versatile and quick-footed dog who could help control the jackrabbit problem. The new and improved Rat Terrier was able to keep up with the fast-moving rodent and continued to prove his value.

In the Southern and Central American regions, the Rat Terrier was bred to the Beagle to create a more pack-oriented dog. This is where the Rat Terrier earned his strong sense of smell; his speed came from the Whippet.

In the 1920s, Toy Fox Terriers that were too big for their own breeding program were introduced into the Rat Terrier's breeding program. With this newest strain, Rat Terriers began producing their own toy-sized offspring.

President Theodore Roosevelt is said to have named the breed but not everyone agrees. He called his own dog, who had solved the White House rat problem, a Rat Terrier. There is debate on whether the dog that President Roosevelt owned was in fact the same Rat Terrier as appears today. The short-legged dog that Roosevelt had has become the accepted breed standard for the Terrier named after him, and the Teddy Roosevelt Terrier is also known as the short-legged Rat Terrier.

The Rat Terrier was a common sight on farms between the 1910s and 1940s but eventually started to decline after farmers began using poison to control rodent populations. By the 1950s, the breed was no longer widespread. A handful of breeders sustained the breed until a re-emergence in the late 1970s.

The Decker Rat Terrier is a strain of the breed that is gaining popularity. It first began with a dog owned by avid hunter Milton Decker, who felt his own dog, Henry, possessed terrific qualities that he wanted to preserve in his breeding program.

He succeeded in producing a large Rat Terrier with a fixed ear set a hunting dog who would even retrieve from water. The Deckers were used for hunting wild pig, deer, cougar and bear as well as in the more traditional Rat Terrier roles. Even though the Decker Rat Terrier is considered feisty and tough, he maintains all the traits of a wonderful companion.

In 1972, the first hairless Rat Terrier was born and from that little hairless female a new strain of Rat Terrier was developed. The hairless Rat Terrier is now known as the American Hairless Terrier. The American Hairless Terrier comes in two sizes, miniature and standard.

The Rat Terrier is a small and sturdy dog and should be between 13 to 16 inches in height. The UKC doesn't have a specified weight for standard Rat Terriers as each individual dog has a different weight for their height.

Intelligent, wary, and stubborn, this breed is a dynamo. Understand their general dislike of strangers and know that most warm up to visitors (although chances of that happening are slimmer if you're not there). If they're not properly socialized they will be fine with their family but they could become aggressive to strangers and other animals. They are also absolutely fearless, which can be a wonderful trait, though not if they are aggressive.

A good family pet, Rat Terriers are amazingly perceptive and intuitively respond to your moods. They have a great desire to please, love praise, and will follow you around the house. Bred to work all day on the farm, these guys need a lot of exercise and if they don't get it, their sharp little minds can turn devious to amuse themselves. Their people live with the mantra that a tired dog is a good dog.

As with every dog, the Rat Terrier needs early socialization exposure to many different people, sights, sounds, and experiences when they're young. Socialization helps ensure that your Rat Terrier puppy grows up to be a well-rounded dog.

Enrolling him in a puppy kindergarten class is a great start. Inviting visitors over regularly, and taking him to busy parks, stores that allow dogs, and on leisurely strolls to meet neighbors will also help him polish his social skills.

Rat Terriers are generally healthy, but like all breeds, they're prone to certain health conditions. Not all Rat Terriers will get any or all of these diseases, but it's important to be aware of them if you're considering this breed.

If you're buying a puppy, find a good breeder who will show you health clearances for both your puppy's parents. Health clearances prove that a dog has been tested for and cleared of a particular condition.

In Rat Terriers, you should expect to see health clearances from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) for hip dysplasia (with a score of fair or better), elbow dysplasia, hypothyroidism, and von Willebrand's disease; from Auburn University for thrombopathia; and from the Canine Eye Registry Foundation (CERF) certifying that eyes are normal. You can confirm health clearances by checking the OFA web site (

Crate train your Rat Terrier if you wish to leave the puppy out when he reaches adulthood. Regardless of breed, puppies explore, get into things they shouldn't, and chew things that can harm them. It can be expensive both in fixing or replacing destroyed items and the veterinary bills that could arise.

Never stick your Rat Terrier in a crate all day long, however. It's not a jail, and he shouldn't spend more than a few hours at a time in it except when he's sleeping at night. Rat Terriers are people dogs, and they aren't meant to spend their lives locked up in a crate or kennel.

NOTE: How much your adult dog eats depends on his size, age, build, metabolism, and activity level. Dogs are individuals, just like people, and they don't all need the same amount of food. It almost goes without saying that a highly active dog will need more than a couch potato dog. The quality of dog food you buy also makes a difference the better the dog food, the further it will go toward nourishing your dog and the less of it you'll need to shake into your dog's bowl.

Keep your Rat Terrier in good shape by measuring his food and feeding him twice a day rather than leaving food out all the time. If you're unsure whether he's overweight, give him the eye test and the hands-on test.

First, look down at him. You should be able to see a waist. Then place your hands on his back, thumbs along the spine, with the fingers spread downward. You should be able to feel but not see his ribs without having to press hard. If you can't, he needs less food and more exercise.

A Rat Terrier's coat is short and smooth with dense, shiny fur. You'll see it in several colors and combinations of colors, including white, black with tan or rust, white and black or tan, red, lemon, blue, chocolate and orange. Ticking (intermittent spots) and dark colors are seen too. Generally speaking, all Rats have white markings.

The Rat Terrier is a wonderfully low-maintenance dog to groom and only needs weekly brushings with a soft brush or a rubber curry mitt to remove loose hair. Shedding is heavier in the spring and fall, as well as after whelping or heat cycles. Bathe him only as needed.

Brush your Rat Terrier's teeth at least two or three times a week to remove tartar buildup and the bacteria that lurk inside it. Daily brushing is even better if you want to prevent gum disease and bad breath.

Trim his nails once or twice a month if your dog doesn't wear them down naturally to prevent painful tears and other problems. If you can hear them clicking on the floor, they're too long. Dog toenails have blood vessels in them, and if you cut too far you can cause bleeding and your dog may not cooperate the next time he sees the nail clippers come out. So, if you're not experienced trimming dog nails, ask a vet or groomer for pointers.

His ears should be checked weekly for redness or a bad odor, which can indicate an infection. When you check your dog's ears, wipe them out with a cotton ball dampened with gentle, pH-balanced ear cleaner to help prevent infections. Don't insert anything into the ear canal; just clean the outer ear.

Begin accustoming your Rat Terrier being brushed and examined when he's a puppy. Handle his paws frequently dogs are touchy about their feet and look inside his mouth. Make grooming a positive experience filled with praise and rewards, and you'll lay the groundwork for easy veterinary exams and other handling when he's an adult.

As you groom, check for sores, rashes, or signs of infection such as redness, tenderness, or inflammation on the skin, in the nose, mouth, and eyes, and on the feet. Eyes should be clear, with no redness or discharge. Your careful weekly exam will help you spot potential health problems early.

Although Rats who aren't used to children should be supervised, most Rats are wonderfully patient with kids, even kids who aren't part of the family. They are extremely fond of their family kids. Parents who don't like the idea of the family dog sleeping under the covers with the kids might be in for trouble.

As with every breed, you should always teach children how to approach and touch dogs, and always supervise any interactions between dogs and young children to prevent any biting or ear or tail pulling on the part of either party. Teach your child never to approach any dog while he's eating or sleeping or to try to take the dog's food away. No dog, no matter how friendly, should ever be left unsupervised with a child.

As a matter of fact, many Rats want to play with other dogs, so you need to be on your lookout for dog-reactive or aggressive dogs. Once an aggressive dog provokes a fight, these terriers return the emotion. Unfortunately, they are size-blind and don't care if the aggressor outweighs them five times over.

Rats are prey-driven so any small, quick moving animal, including a hamster, mouse, chinchilla, and of course, a rat, is seen as prey, and may be chased. If a Rat is raised with a cat, bird, chicken, or other animal in a household, they will generally get along as family members.

Rat Terriers are often purchased without any clear understanding of what goes into owning one. There are many Rat Terriers in need of adoption and or fostering. There are a number of rescues that we have not listed. If you don't see a rescue listed for your area, contact the national breed club or a local breed club and they can point you toward a Rat Terrier rescue.

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