what are the differences between ball mill and rod mill? | fote machinery

what are the differences between ball mill and rod mill? | fote machinery

Ball mill and rod mill are the common grinding equipment applied in the grinding process. They are similar in appearance and both of them are horizontal cylindrical structures. Their cylinders are equipped with grinding medium, feeder, gears, and transmission device.

The working principle of ball mill and rod mill machine is similar, too. That is, the cylinder drives the movement of the grinding medium (lifting the grinding medium to a certain height then dropping). Under the action of centrifugal force and friction, the material is impacted and ground to required size, so as to realize the operation of mineral grinding.

Grate discharge ball mill can discharge material through sieve plate, with the advantage of the low height of the discharge port which can make the material pass quickly so tha t to avoid over-grinding of material. Under the same condition, it has a higher capacity and can save more energy than other types of mills;

It is better to choose a grate discharge ball mill when the required discharge size is in the range of 0.2 to 0.3 mm. Grate discharge ball mill is usually applied in the first grinding system because it can discharge the qualified product immediately.

Overflow discharge ball mill can grind ores into the size under 0.2 mm, so it is very suitable for the second grinding system. The capacity of it is about 15% lower than grate discharge ball mill in the same specification, and the loaded grinding medium is also less than that one.

It can be divided into three types of rod mills according to the discharge methods, center and side discharge rod mill, end and side discharge rod mill and shaft neck overflow discharge rod mill.

It is fed through the shaft necks in the two ends of rod mill, and discharges ore pulp through the port in the center of the cylinder. Center and side discharge rod mill can grind ores coarsely because of its structure.

This kind of rod mill can be used for wet grinding and dry grinding. "A rod mill is recommended if we want to properly grind large grains, because the ball mill will not attack them as well as rod mills will."

It is fed through one end of the shaft neck, and with the help of several circular holes, the ore pulp is discharged to the next ring groove. The rod mill is mainly used for dry and wet grinding processes that require the production of medium-sized products.

The diameter of the shaft neck is larger than the diameter of the feeding port about 10 to 20 centimeters, so that the height difference can form a gradient for ore pulp flow. There is equipped with a spiral screen in the discharge shaft neck to remove the impurities.

It has high toughness, good manufacturability and low price. The surface layer of high manganese steel will harden rapidly under the action of great impact or contact. The harder index is five to seven times higher than other materials, and the wear resistance is greatly improved.

It has high toughness, good manufacturability and low price. The surface layer of high manganese steel will harden rapidly under the action of great impact or contact. The harder index is five to seven times higher than other materials, and the wear resistance is greatly improved.

It is made of several elements such as chromium and molybdenum, which has high hardness and good toughness. Under the same work condition, the service of this kind of ball is one time longer than the high manganese steel ball.

After the professional technology straightening and quenching processing process, a high carbon steel rod has high hardness, excellent performance, good wear resistance and outstanding quality.

The steel ball of ball mill and the mineral material are in point contact, so the finished product has a high degree of fineness, but it is also prone to over-grinding. Therefore, it is suitable for the production with high material fineness and is not suitable for the gravity beneficiation of metal ores.

The steel rod and the material are in line or surface contact, and most of the coarse particles are first crushed and then ground. Therefore, the finished product is uniform in quality, excellent in particle size, and high in qualification rate.

The cylinder shape of the rod mill and the ball mill is different: the cylinder of the rod mill is a long type, and the floor area is large. The ratio of the length to the diameter of the cylinder is generally 1.5 to 2.0;

The cylinder of the ball mill is a barrel or a cone. And the ratio of the length to the diameter of the cylinder is small, and in most cases the ratio is only slightly larger than 1, and the floor area is small, too.

The above is the main content of this article. The ball mill and the rod mill are the same type of machine on the appearance, but there are still great differences in the interior. It is very necessary to select a suitable machine for the production to optimize the product effect and maximize its efficiency.

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how to improve the production of ball mills?

how to improve the production of ball mills?

Ball mill as a kind of popular grinding and ore beneficiation equipment is widely used in cement manufacturing, silicate products, construction materials, refractory and other industries. It is suitable for processing quartz, iron ore, copper ore, gold ore, cement clinker, glass etc.

But currently there are some shortcomings existing in ball mill grinder such as the low production output and the large power consumption, so how to improve the yield of ball mill machine is the common problem for all enterprises, today let's analyze this question that how to improve the ball mills production together.

Firstly, the ball mill is the grinding equipment after the material is broken; The crushing grain size of the material is very important before being grinded, so we can start from this aspect. Crushing the material into smaller particle size as much as possible before the materials into the ball miller, the solution is to configure a crusher with fine crushing granularity such as hammer mill, cone crusher or tertiary impact crusher, so that the material can also achieve the material granularity grinding requirements with short time, improve the ball mill production.

Secondly, the material in the ball grinder mill for grinding; If it has reached the grinding particle size requirement, but due to the ball mills'own limitations, making the material not timely discharged, will take place the over-grinding phenomenon on the material, this phenomenon not only leads to the reduction of finished material, the yield decreased, the waste of resources but increases the load of the ball mill itself. The solution is that the operator must ensure the ventilation rate of ball mill and install the air suction device in the drawing pipes, to improve the over-grinding phenomenon of raw material.

Thirdly, the transformation of internal structure of ball milling machine is the most direct way to increase ball mill production; The disadvantage of the ball mills is very obvious at present, the lining inside of ball mill machine can be transformed into the ladder lining board, in order to make the corresponding adjustment more flexible and exquisite according to the performance of different materials. In addition, we can also refer to the hardness and wear-resisting degree of the material itself to increase or reduce the amount of steel grinding balls, so as to produce finished products faster and more efficiently.

Fourthly,this is a major statement for the management of the ball mill; All mechanical equipment needs to be maintained, whether the equipment in the work or after work, they always need people to carry on the inspection and maintenance. Pay attention to the working state of the large ball mill constantly and use them with correct operation process, which can also guarantee that the small ball mill production will not have the large jump.

These are the methods of improving the yield of ball mill, of course, the method more than these. We need to constantly find problems, then solve the problems, to make the ball mill develop better and use minimal costs to create more profits for users.

epc/turnkey service-ball mills-flotation cells-mineral dressing equipment-yantai xinhai mining machinery co.,ltd

epc/turnkey service-ball mills-flotation cells-mineral dressing equipment-yantai xinhai mining machinery co.,ltd

Xinhai EPC provides services of samples test, mine design, equipment manufacture, etc. for clients, and solves the common problems in plant construction such as budget over-run, schedule delays, unqualified equipment, unclear recovery efficiency, disputes of the manufacturers, and unclear responsibility of after-sale service

Flotation process can achieve ideal separation effect, and separately recover low-grade ore then enrich multiple high-grade concentrates. Different ore properties means different flotation process. According to the dissemination characteristics of metal minerals, Xinhai has determined four kinds of flotation processes.

case study: a gold processing plant process transformation and upgrade - news

case study: a gold processing plant process transformation and upgrade - news

A gold processing plant in Song County, Henan Province adoptsflotation + cyanide leaching + carbon slurry adsorption process. The final product is gold-loaded carbon, and cyanide tailings are directly discharged after pressure filtration. In actual production, the concentrating plant often has the phenomenon of process interruption and operation stoppage due to equipment failure, which greatly reduces the equipment operation rate and seriously affects the smoothness and continuity of the process.In addition, thisgold processing plant has been in operation for a long time, the grade of feeding ore selected by the processing plant is decreasing year by year, and the ore is depleted seriously, the recovery rate of ore dressing is also reduced. Therefore, the process method has been modified to improve the equipment operation rate and the ore recovery rate, thereby improving the economic benefits of the enterprise.

The type of ore in a gold mine is altered coarse-faced rock. The main types of alteration are pyrolysis,silicification, pyrite mineralization, chlorite petrochemical, localsilicificationis strong, and quartz veins are visible. The ore is all native ore. The ore process type is a smallsulphidegold ore, and the metal mineral is mainly pyrite.

Ore structure:anhedralform grain structure, inclusion structure, self-half self-shaped grain structure,polygranularstructure, plaque structure, rough surface structure and so on. Most of the pyrite and natural gold, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena are crystallized in the ore to formaanhedralform grain structure.

The gold grade in the ore is 1.56g/t, mainly fine particles, and little micro-particles. Most of which are concentrated in the range of 0.037-0.01mm. Natural gold is mainly embedded in pyrite, mainly inclusion gold (89.64%), followed by cracked gold (10.36%).

The raw ore from the primary binfirstlyenters the C80 type jaw crusher for coarse crushing, and then enters the JP158 cone crusher for medium crushing. After the medium crushing, it enters the 10mm*10mm vibrating screen. The ore larger than 10mm returns to the JP108 cone crusher for fine crushing. Ore less than 10mm directly enters the powder ore bin.

The ore directly enters the GQC2700*3600 grateball mill (grinding medium is 100mm cast steel ball) from the powder ore mine, and then enters the single spiral classifier. The coarse particles in the slurry become grit, and the fine particles are discharged from the overflow port. The finer particles passing through the classifier overflow into thehydrocyclonefor re-classification. The overflow flows directly into the flotation process through the high-efficiency agitation tank, and the grit returnsto the ball mill for re-grinding, thus forming a closed loop.

The flotation process is a closed circuit including once roughselection,three times fine selections, and twice sweep selections. The supplements are butyl xanthate and black no. 25, and the foaming agent is No. 2 oil. The flotation concentrate enters the thickener for concentration, and the flotation tailings are pumped into the tailings pond through a ball isolation pump.

The flotation concentrate is re-grinded by 3 mixing mills (grinding medium is 10mm steel balls), so that the fineness of the ore particles reaches -0.037mm, accounting for more than 90%, and then the slurry concentration is controlled to 37% by the mixing tank. 40%, and finally enter the charcoal dipping tank for leaching and adsorption to obtain gold-loaded charcoal.

In actual production, improving equipment integrity and operation rate, maintaining production and process continuity and stability, can create favorable conditions for improving various technical indicators of mineral processing. In the process of mineral processing, promoting energy conservation and consumption reduction can effectively reduce energy costs and improve economic efficiency. As current production costs increase, metal loss should be reduced as much as possible. Therefore, reducing production costs and increasing the recovery rate of the processing planthasbecome important issues for it.

There are 2 ball isolation pumps in the processingplant, which correspond to 2 multi-stage centrifugal pumps, which can be used for 1 operation and 1 preparation. The multistage centrifugal water pump is connected to the ball isolation pump as shown in Figure 1.

1 - Multi-stage centrifugal water pump 2 - Transformer 3 - Controller 4 - Buffer tank 5 - Hydraulic station 6 - Inlet clean water valve 7 - Back clean water valve 8 - Isolation tank 9 - Slurry outlet check valve 10 - Slurry inlet check valve

In actual production, each device may malfunction at any time. This may cause No. 1 pumpfailor No. 1 ball isolation pump fail. ThenNo. 2 pump and the No. 2 ball isolation pumpmust be used, ifNo. 2 pump or No. 2 ball isolation pump also failed, which inevitably caused the entire concentrating plant to be interrupted. In order to avoid such problems, the connection method between the pump and the ball isolation pump shall be improved: crosslink the inlet pipe of the No. 2 isolation pump, that is, the outlet pipe of the No. 2 pump, is cross-connected, which makes the No. 1 pump and 2 The ball isolation pump is connected, and the peer pump also connects the No. 2 pump to the No. 1 ball isolation pump, so that each pump or each ball isolation pump corresponds to the No. 2 ball isolation pump or the No. 2 pump. Therefore, when the No. 1 pump fails, it is only necessary to use the No. 2 pump, and it is not necessary to use the ball to isolate the pump. Other cases as well.

The re-grinding operation of the processing plantis carried out by three agitating mills. Although the fineness of grinding can meet the production requirements, from the perspective of energy saving and consumption reduction, the motor power of the agitating mill is 75kW, the power consumption is large, and the equipment is too old, and the work is not continuous. Therefore, it is replaced with a tower mill (motor power is 50kW), which not only can achieve continuous operation, but also consumes less than 1/3 of the agitatingmill, which can greatly reduce the cost. The structure of the tower mill is shown in Figure 2.

The grinding fineness of the regrind operation can ensure good leaching effect at present, but in order to further improve the gold recovery rate, the barrenliquid(mass concentration about 0.01 g/m3) after the activated carbon is adsorbed to the activated carbon is again sent to the activated carbon adsorption tower for further re-extraction. The adsorption (mass concentration after adsorption is 0.004 g/m3) can further increase the recovery rate by about 0.02%.

In the cyanidation tailing, due to the high gradeof lead and other metals, the direct discharge afterpress filteringleads to the loss of metal. In the subsequent process, add a cyclone-static micro-bubble flotation column (see Figure 3). The slag is pumped into the flotation column for flotation, which can effectively recover metals such as lead.

Different conditions were tested on the new cyclone-static micro-bubble flotation column, and the flotation condition of the flotation column was discussed. The total mass fraction of the preparation was 20%. The test results are shown in Table 1.

Under different experimental conditions, through the comparison and comprehensive analysis of the recovery rates of gold, silver and lead metals, it can be seen that when the concentrationdensityis about 37%, the dosage of butyl (butyl ketone + butyl ammonium black medicine) is 30mL, higher recovery rate can be obtained.

The processing capacity of the processing plantis 900t/d, and the output rate of cyanide tailing is about 3.8%, that is, the daily output of cyanide tailing is about 34.2t. The cyanide tailing gold grade is about 3.1g/t, the silver grade is about 34g/t, and the lead grade is about 3.5g/t. It can be estimated that the annual recovery of gold is 16.58kg, silver 48.19kg and lead 23.14kg. It can be seen that by increasing the flotation column, the re-recycling of gold, silver and lead can achieve certain economic benefits.

In the actual production of the processing plant, failureof any one equipmentmay lead to interruption of the production process, so the high operating rate of the equipment is the guarantee of the stability and continuity of the production process. With the reduction of feeding ore grade and energy conservation and consumption reduction, it is urgent to reduce production costs and increase the recovery rate of ore dressing.

4.1 The modification of the ball isolation pump changed the previous "1 to 1" to "1 to 2", which avoidsor reducesthe stoppage of the production operation of the processing plantand improvesthe operation rate of the equipment.

4.3 The gold recovery rate can be improved by re-injecting the hydrogen-depleted lean liquid into the carbon adsorption column. The use of flotation column to re-recycle the metal in the cyanide tailing can greatly improve the processrecovery rate, reduce metal loss, and obtain certain economic benefits.

With dozens of mineral processing experts in the field of gold, copper, lead-zinc, silver, coal and etc.,HOT Miningcan provide services for new mineral processing plant engineeringdesign(feasibility study, preliminary design, detail design and construction design) and existing mineral processing plant modification and upgrade. Especially we have rich experience in goldCIP,CIL, CICandflotation.

ball mills

ball mills

In all ore dressing and milling Operations, including flotation, cyanidation, gravity concentration, and amalgamation, the Working Principle is to crush and grind, often with rob mill & ball mills, the ore in order to liberate the minerals. In the chemical and process industries, grinding is an important step in preparing raw materials for subsequent treatment.In present day practice, ore is reduced to a size many times finer than can be obtained with crushers. Over a period of many years various fine grinding machines have been developed and used, but the ball mill has become standard due to its simplicity and low operating cost.

A ball millefficiently operated performs a wide variety of services. In small milling plants, where simplicity is most essential, it is not economical to use more than single stage crushing, because the Steel-Head Ball or Rod Mill will take up to 2 feed and grind it to the desired fineness. In larger plants where several stages of coarse and fine crushing are used, it is customary to crush from 1/2 to as fine as 8 mesh.

Many grinding circuits necessitate regrinding of concentrates or middling products to extremely fine sizes to liberate the closely associated minerals from each other. In these cases, the feed to the ball mill may be from 10 to 100 mesh or even finer.

Where the finished product does not have to be uniform, a ball mill may be operated in open circuit, but where the finished product must be uniform it is essential that the grinding mill be used in closed circuit with a screen, if a coarse product is desired, and with a classifier if a fine product is required. In most cases it is desirable to operate the grinding mill in closed circuit with a screen or classifier as higher efficiency and capacity are obtained. Often a mill using steel rods as the grinding medium is recommended, where the product must have the minimum amount of fines (rods give a more nearly uniform product).

Often a problem requires some study to determine the economic fineness to which a product can or should be ground. In this case the 911Equipment Company offers its complete testing service so that accurate grinding mill size may be determined.

Until recently many operators have believed that one particular type of grinding mill had greater efficiency and resulting capacity than some other type. However, it is now commonly agreed and accepted that the work done by any ballmill depends directly upon the power input; the maximum power input into any ball or rod mill depends upon weight of grinding charge, mill speed, and liner design.

The apparent difference in capacities between grinding mills (listed as being the same size) is due to the fact that there is no uniform method of designating the size of a mill, for example: a 5 x 5 Ball Mill has a working diameter of 5 inside the liners and has 20 per cent more capacity than all other ball mills designated as 5 x 5 where the shell is 5 inside diameter and the working diameter is only 48 with the liners in place.

Ball-Rod Mills, based on 4 liners and capacity varying as 2.6 power of mill diameter, on the 5 size give 20 per cent increased capacity; on the 4 size, 25 per cent; and on the 3 size, 28 per cent. This fact should be carefully kept in mind when determining the capacity of a Steel- Head Ball-Rod Mill, as this unit can carry a greater ball or rod charge and has potentially higher capacity in a given size when the full ball or rod charge is carried.

A mill shorter in length may be used if the grinding problem indicates a definite power input. This allows the alternative of greater capacity at a later date or a considerable saving in first cost with a shorter mill, if reserve capacity is not desired. The capacities of Ball-Rod Mills are considerably higher than many other types because the diameters are measured inside the liners.

The correct grinding mill depends so much upon the particular ore being treated and the product desired, that a mill must have maximum flexibility in length, type of grinding medium, type of discharge, and speed.With the Ball-Rod Mill it is possible to build this unit in exact accordance with your requirements, as illustrated.

To best serve your needs, the Trunnion can be furnished with small (standard), medium, or large diameter opening for each type of discharge. The sketch shows diagrammatic arrangements of the four different types of discharge for each size of trunnion opening, and peripheral discharge is described later.

Ball-Rod Mills of the grate discharge type are made by adding the improved type of grates to a standard Ball-Rod Mill. These grates are bolted to the discharge head in much the same manner as the standard headliners.

The grates are of alloy steel and are cast integral with the lifter bars which are essential to the efficient operation of this type of ball or rod mill. These lifter bars have a similar action to a pump:i. e., in lifting the product so as to discharge quickly through the mill trunnion.

These Discharge Grates also incorporate as an integral part, a liner between the lifters and steel head of the ball mill to prevent wear of the mill head. By combining these parts into a single casting, repairs and maintenance are greatly simplified. The center of the grate discharge end of this mill is open to permit adding of balls or for adding water to the mill through the discharge end.

Instead of being constructed of bars cast into a frame, Grates are cast entire and have cored holes which widen toward the outside of the mill similar to the taper in grizzly bars. The grate type discharge is illustrated.

The peripheral discharge type of Ball-Rod Mill is a modification of the grate type, and is recommended where a free gravity discharge is desired. It is particularly applicable when production of too many fine particles is detrimental and a quick pass through the mill is desired, and for dry grinding.

The drawings show the arrangement of the peripheral discharge. The discharge consists of openings in the shell into which bushings with holes of the desired size are inserted. On the outside of the mill, flanges are used to attach a stationary discharge hopper to prevent pulp splash or too much dust.

The mill may be operated either as a peripheral discharge or a combination or peripheral and trunnion discharge unit, depending on the desired operating conditions. If at any time the peripheral discharge is undesirable, plugs inserted into the bushings will convert the mill to a trunnion discharge type mill.

Unless otherwise specified, a hard iron liner is furnished. This liner is made of the best grade white iron and is most serviceable for the smaller size mills where large balls are not used. Hard iron liners have a much lower first cost.

Electric steel, although more expensive than hard iron, has advantage of minimum breakage and allows final wear to thinner section. Steel liners are recommended when the mills are for export or where the source of liner replacement is at a considerable distance.

Molychrome steel has longer wearing qualities and greater strength than hard iron. Breakage is not so apt to occur during shipment, and any size ball can be charged into a mill equipped with molychrome liners.

Manganese liners for Ball-Rod Mills are the world famous AMSCO Brand, and are the best obtainable. The first cost is the highest, but in most cases the cost per ton of ore ground is the lowest. These liners contain 12 to 14% manganese.

The feed and discharge trunnions are provided with cast iron or white iron throat liners. As these parts are not subjected to impact and must only withstand abrasion, alloys are not commonly used but can be supplied.

Gears for Ball-Rod Mills drives are furnished as standard on the discharge end of the mill where they are out of the way of the classifier return, scoop feeder, or original feed. Due to convertible type construction the mills can be furnished with gears on the feed end. Gear drives are available in two alternative combinations, which are:

All pinions are properly bored, key-seated, and pressed onto the steel countershaft, which is oversize and properly keyseated for the pinion and drive pulleys or sheaves. The countershaft operates on high grade, heavy duty, nickel babbitt bearings.

Any type of drive can be furnished for Ball-Rod Mills in accordance with your requirements. Belt drives are available with pulleys either plain or equipped with friction clutch. Various V- Rope combinations can also be supplied.

The most economical drive to use up to 50 H. P., is a high starting torque motor connected to the pinion shaft by means of a flat or V-Rope drive. For larger size motors the wound rotor (slip ring) is recommended due to its low current requirement in starting up the ball mill.

Should you be operating your own power plant or have D. C. current, please specify so that there will be no confusion as to motor characteristics. If switches are to be supplied, exact voltage to be used should be given.

Even though many ores require fine grinding for maximum recovery, most ores liberate a large percentage of the minerals during the first pass through the grinding unit. Thus, if the free minerals can be immediately removed from the ball mill classifier circuit, there is little chance for overgrinding.

This is actually what has happened wherever Mineral Jigs or Unit Flotation Cells have been installed in the ball mill classifier circuit. With the installation of one or both of these machines between the ball mill and classifier, as high as 70 per cent of the free gold and sulphide minerals can be immediately removed, thus reducing grinding costs and improving over-all recovery. The advantage of this method lies in the fact that heavy and usually valuable minerals, which otherwise would be ground finer because of their faster settling in the classifier and consequent return to the grinding mill, are removed from the circuit as soon as freed. This applies particularly to gold and lead ores.

Ball-Rod Mills have heavy rolled steel plate shells which are arc welded inside and outside to the steel heads or to rolled steel flanges, depending upon the type of mill. The double welding not only gives increased structural strength, but eliminates any possibility of leakage.

Where a single or double flanged shell is used, the faces are accurately machined and drilled to template to insure perfect fit and alignment with the holes in the head. These flanges are machined with male and female joints which take the shearing stresses off the bolts.

The Ball-Rod Mill Heads are oversize in section, heavily ribbed and are cast from electric furnace steel which has a strength of approximately four times that of cast iron. The head and trunnion bearings are designed to support a mill with length double its diameter. This extra strength, besides eliminating the possibility of head breakage or other structural failure (either while in transit or while in service), imparts to Ball-Rod Mills a flexibility heretofore lacking in grinding mills. Also, for instance, if you have a 5 x 5 mill, you can add another 5 shell length and thus get double the original capacity; or any length required up to a maximum of 12 total length.

On Type A mills the steel heads are double welded to the rolled steel shell. On type B and other flanged type mills the heads are machined with male and female joints to match the shell flanges, thus taking the shearing stresses from the heavy machine bolts which connect the shell flanges to the heads.

The manhole cover is protected from wear by heavy liners. An extended lip is provided for loosening the door with a crow-bar, and lifting handles are also provided. The manhole door is furnished with suitable gaskets to prevent leakage.

The mill trunnions are carried on heavy babbitt bearings which provide ample surface to insure low bearing pressure. If at any time the normal length is doubled to obtain increased capacity, these large trunnion bearings will easily support the additional load. Trunnion bearings are of the rigid type, as the perfect alignment of the trunnion surface on Ball-Rod Mills eliminates any need for the more expensive self-aligning type of bearing.

The cap on the upper half of the trunnion bearing is provided with a shroud which extends over the drip flange of the trunnion and effectively prevents the entrance of dirt or grit. The bearing has a large space for wool waste and lubricant and this is easily accessible through a large opening which is covered to prevent dirt from getting into the bearing.Ball and socket bearings can be furnished.

Scoop Feeders for Ball-Rod Mills are made in various radius sizes. Standard scoops are made of cast iron and for the 3 size a 13 or 19 feeder is supplied, for the 4 size a 30 or 36, for the 5 a 36 or 42, and for the 6 a 42 or 48 feeder. Welded steel scoop feeders can, however, be supplied in any radius.

The correct size of feeder depends upon the size of the classifier, and the smallest feeder should be used which will permit gravity flow for closed circuit grinding between classifier and the ball or rod mill. All feeders are built with a removable wearing lip which can be easily replaced and are designed to give minimum scoop wear.

A combination drum and scoop feeder can be supplied if necessary. This feeder is made of heavy steel plate and strongly welded. These drum-scoop feeders are available in the same sizes as the cast iron feeders but can be built in any radius. Scoop liners can be furnished.

The trunnions on Ball-Rod Mills are flanged and carefully machined so that scoops are held in place by large machine bolts and not cap screws or stud bolts. The feed trunnion flange is machined with a shoulder for insuring a proper fit for the feed scoop, and the weight of the scoop is carried on this shoulder so that all strain is removed from the bolts which hold the scoop.

High carbon steel rods are recommended, hot rolled, hot sawed or sheared, to a length of 2 less than actual length of mill taken inside the liners. The initial rod charge is generally a mixture ranging from 1.5 to 3 in diameter. During operation, rod make-up is generally the maximum size. The weights per lineal foot of rods of various diameters are approximately: 1.5 to 6 lbs.; 2-10.7 lbs.; 2.5-16.7 lbs.; and 3-24 lbs.

Forged from the best high carbon manganese steel, they are of the finest quality which can be produced and give long, satisfactory service. Data on ball charges for Ball-Rod Mills are listed in Table 5. Further information regarding grinding balls is included in Table 6.

Rod Mills has a very define and narrow discharge product size range. Feeding a Rod Mill finer rocks will greatly impact its tonnage while not significantly affect its discharge product sizes. The 3.5 diameter rod of a mill, can only grind so fine.

Crushers are well understood by most. Rod and Ball Mills not so much however as their size reduction actions are hidden in the tube (mill). As for Rod Mills, the image above best expresses what is going on inside. As rocks is feed into the mill, they are crushed (pinched) by the weight of its 3.5 x 16 rods at one end while the smaller particles migrate towards the discharge end and get slightly abraded (as in a Ball Mill) on the way there.

We haveSmall Ball Mills for sale coming in at very good prices. These ball mills are relatively small, bearing mounted on a steel frame. All ball mills are sold with motor, gears, steel liners and optional grinding media charge/load.

Ball Mills or Rod Mills in a complete range of sizes up to 10 diameter x20 long, offer features of operation and convertibility to meet your exactneeds. They may be used for pulverizing and either wet or dry grindingsystems. Mills are available in both light-duty and heavy-duty constructionto meet your specific requirements.

All Mills feature electric cast steel heads and heavy rolled steelplate shells. Self-aligning main trunnion bearings on large mills are sealedand internally flood-lubricated. Replaceable mill trunnions. Pinion shaftbearings are self-aligning, roller bearing type, enclosed in dust-tightcarrier. Adjustable, single-unit soleplate under trunnion and drive pinionsfor perfect, permanent gear alignment.

Ball Mills can be supplied with either ceramic or rubber linings for wet or dry grinding, for continuous or batch type operation, in sizes from 15 x 21 to 8 x 12. High density ceramic linings of uniform hardness male possible thinner linings and greater and more effective grinding volume. Mills are shipped with liners installed.

Complete laboratory testing service, mill and air classifier engineering and proven equipment make possible a single source for your complete dry-grinding mill installation. Units available with air swept design and centrifugal classifiers or with elevators and mechanical type air classifiers. All sizes and capacities of units. Laboratory-size air classifier also available.

A special purpose batch mill designed especially for grinding and mixing involving acids and corrosive materials. No corners mean easy cleaning and choice of rubber or ceramic linings make it corrosion resistant. Shape of mill and ball segregation gives preferential grinding action for grinding and mixing of pigments and catalysts. Made in 2, 3 and 4 diameter grinding drums.

Nowadays grinding mills are almost extensively used for comminution of materials ranging from 5 mm to 40 mm (3/161 5/8) down to varying product sizes. They have vast applications within different branches of industry such as for example the ore dressing, cement, lime, porcelain and chemical industries and can be designed for continuous as well as batch grinding.

Ball mills can be used for coarse grinding as described for the rod mill. They will, however, in that application produce more fines and tramp oversize and will in any case necessitate installation of effective classification.If finer grinding is wanted two or three stage grinding is advisable as for instant primary rod mill with 75100 mm (34) rods, secondary ball mill with 2540 mm(11) balls and possibly tertiary ball mill with 20 mm () balls or cylpebs.To obtain a close size distribution in the fine range the specific surface of the grinding media should be as high as possible. Thus as small balls as possible should be used in each stage.

The principal field of rod mill usage is the preparation of products in the 5 mm0.4 mm (4 mesh to 35 mesh) range. It may sometimes be recommended also for finer grinding. Within these limits a rod mill is usually superior to and more efficient than a ball mill. The basic principle for rod grinding is reduction by line contact between rods extending the full length of the mill, resulting in selective grinding carried out on the largest particle sizes. This results in a minimum production of extreme fines or slimes and more effective grinding work as compared with a ball mill. One stage rod mill grinding is therefore suitable for preparation of feed to gravimetric ore dressing methods, certain flotation processes with slime problems and magnetic cobbing. Rod mills are frequently used as primary mills to produce suitable feed to the second grinding stage. Rod mills have usually a length/diameter ratio of at least 1.4.

Tube mills are in principle to be considered as ball mills, the basic difference being that the length/diameter ratio is greater (35). They are commonly used for surface cleaning or scrubbing action and fine grinding in open circuit.

In some cases it is suitable to use screened fractions of the material as grinding media. Such mills are usually called pebble mills, but the working principle is the same as for ball mills. As the power input is approximately directly proportional to the volume weight of the grinding media, the power input for pebble mills is correspondingly smaller than for a ball mill.

A dry process requires usually dry grinding. If the feed is wet and sticky, it is often necessary to lower the moisture content below 1 %. Grinding in front of wet processes can be done wet or dry. In dry grinding the energy consumption is higher, but the wear of linings and charge is less than for wet grinding, especially when treating highly abrasive and corrosive material. When comparing the economy of wet and dry grinding, the different costs for the entire process must be considered.

An increase in the mill speed will give a directly proportional increase in mill power but there seems to be a square proportional increase in the wear. Rod mills generally operate within the range of 6075 % of critical speed in order to avoid excessive wear and tangled rods. Ball and pebble mills are usually operated at 7085 % of critical speed. For dry grinding the speed is usually somewhat lower.

The mill lining can be made of rubber or different types of steel (manganese or Ni-hard) with liner types according to the customers requirements. For special applications we can also supply porcelain, basalt and other linings.

The mill power is approximately directly proportional to the charge volume within the normal range. When calculating a mill 40 % charge volume is generally used. In pebble and ball mills quite often charge volumes close to 50 % are used. In a pebble mill the pebble consumption ranges from 315 % and the charge has to be controlled automatically to maintain uniform power consumption.

In all cases the net energy consumption per ton (kWh/ton) must be known either from previous experience or laboratory tests before mill size can be determined. The required mill net power P kW ( = ton/hX kWh/ton) is obtained from

Trunnions of S.G. iron or steel castings with machined flange and bearing seat incl. device for dismantling the bearings. For smaller mills the heads and trunnions are sometimes made in grey cast iron.

The mills can be used either for dry or wet, rod or ball grinding. By using a separate attachment the discharge end can be changed so that the mills can be used for peripheral instead of overflow discharge.

how to reduce the wear of steel ball in the ball mill machine?-xinhai

how to reduce the wear of steel ball in the ball mill machine?-xinhai

Xinhai mineral processing equipment mainly include: grinding equipment, flotation equipment, dewatering equipment, magnetic separation equipment, and so on. Some of the equipment is Xinhai independent research and development, and has been awarded national patent. View details

Gold CIP Production Line adsorbs gold from cyaniding pulp by active carbon including 7 steps: leaching pulp preparation, cyaniding leaching, carbon adsorption, gold loaded carbon desorption, pregnant solution electrodeposit, carbon acid regeneration, leaching pulp. View details

In the grinding operation, the consumption of steel ball is very large, which is about 10 times more than the loss of ball mill liner. In order to make up for the loss of steel ball and keep the size of the steel ball unchanged in the ball mill machine, it is necessary to add the steel ball regularly according to a certain ratio.

The consumption of steel ball in the ball mill machine is mainly caused by mechanical wear and corrosion wear, which are the irreversible physical-mechanical process and physical-chemical process on the solid surface. So how to effectively reduce the energy consumption of steel ball on the premise of guaranteeing the quality of grinding quality of ball mill machine?

The grindability of feed material to the ball mill machine is one of the reasons that affect the energy consumption of steel ball. Generally, if the grindability of the feed material is small, the ore is easy to grind, the wear of steel ball in the ball mill machine is low, and the consumption of steel ball in the ball mill machine is low.

In the actual production, if the ore is difficult to grind or the ore requires the fine grinding, adding a certain chemical reagent in the grinding process can improve the grinding effect and increase the grinding efficiency if the economic and site conditions allow. Besides, heating the ore can change the mechanical properties of the whole ore, reduce the hardness of the mineral. These two methods can effectively reduce the energy consumption of the ball mill machine.

If the feed size of the ball mill machine is large, the work of the ball mill machine on the material is also larger. In order to reach the specified grinding fineness, the workload of the ball mill machine is bound to increase, and the energy consumption of the steel ball will be increased correspondingly.

In order to reduce the power consumption of the ball mill machine, the feed size can be reduced. Therefore, the particle size of the crushing product is required to be small, that is, more crushing and less grinding.

When the rotation speed of the ball mill machine reaches a certain degree, the filling rate is large, and the impacting times of steel ball on the material are more, the grinding area is large and the wear is fast. In addition, the too-high filling rate will change the movement state of the steel ball in the ball mill machine, reduce the impact effect on the large particle material. On the contrary, if the filling rate is too small, the grinding effect is weak.

At present, the filling rate of steel ball in the grid type ball mill is 45%~50%, and the filling rate of steel ball in the overflow type ball mill is 38%~42%. Of course, the mentioned are not reasonable filling rates for all mineral processing plants. The ball load should be determined according to the mineral processing test.

The steel ball in the ball mill machine and the material is point-to-point contact. If the diameter of the steel ball is too large, the crushing force is large, which will lead to excessive wear, and the material break along the direction of penetration force, thus affecting the grinding efficiency.

In addition, under the same filling rate of steel balls, the individual number of steel balls will be less if the ball diameter is too large, the probability of crushing is low, so the over-crushing phenomenon will be intensified, and the product granularity will be uneven. The too-small steel ball has a small crushing force on the ore, and the grinding efficiency is low. Therefore, the reasonable size and ratio of steel ball can not only reduce the consumption of steel ball in the ball mill machine, but also effectively improve the grinding efficiency.

The grinding concentration will affect the specific gravity of the pulp, the adhesion of the material around the steel ball and the fluidity of the pulp. If the grinding concentration is appropriate, the adhesive degree of the material around the steel ball is good, the impact and grinding effect of the steel ball on the material are also great, so the steel ball wears fast.

On the premise of reasonable steel ball ratio of ball mill machine, the steel ball inside the cylinder will be thrown down, rather than falling with the increasing of the rotate speed of ball mill machine. When the rotation rate is increased to a certain level, the useful power will reach the upper limit. At this time, the grinding effect is better and the wear of the ball mill machine is also reasonable.

The theoretical critical speed of ball mill machine is generally 78%~ 85%. Due to the nature of materials and other factors, the rotate speed of the ball mill machine should be determined according to the actual situation.

In addition, the quality of the steel ball will affect the productivity and the consumption of steel ball, thus affecting the grinding cost. When choosing the steel ball, the steel ball has its proper hardness value. if only consider the consumption of steel ball, the higher the hardness is, the lower consumption is. But for the productivity of the ball mill machine, the productivity will increase with the increasing ball hardness under a certain range, but once the hardness is over a certain range, the productivity of the ball mill machine will be decreased, and the steel ball is fragile. Moreover, the density of the steel ball is also a problem that cannot be ignored.

There are many factors affecting the energy consumption of steel ball in the grinding process, and most of the factors are difficult to make quantitative analysis, which can only be qualitatively analyzed. In order to reduce the power consumption of steel ball under the premise of guaranteeing the quality of reasonable index, we must consider it from the multiple links, and control each link to achieve the good technical and economic indexes.

xinhai grid type ball mill-xinhai

xinhai grid type ball mill-xinhai

After understanding and screening of gold ore dressing enterprises in china, a gold ore main owner in Cambodia finally made a decision to cooperate with Xinhai. Our team did a detail field investigation then. We found that when using a common ball mill, due to the substrate, it would cause some problems, like discharge block, abnormal plate fracture, etc., which result the breaking down of grinding machine. To solve this problem, while taking into account that capacity reaches 1200 t/d, Xinhai decides to select MQGg 2145 Wet-Type Energy-Saving Ball Mill as the main grinding device. The ball mill grinding effect is high, the discharging granularity is more controllable. Finally, the whole grinding process is efficiently performed. The grid plate is forcibly discharged ore, and ore discharge efficiency is high. This mill ore discharge end with a grid plate. the grid plate is provided with a plurality of small holes for discharging pulp. The grid plate closed to one side of the discharge end installs the lifting device, which is a radial rib. The ribs divided the room between the grid plate and the end cover into a plurality of fan chambers leading to neck of hollow shaft. When the mill rotates, the radial ribs will improve pulp. The pulp discharging from small holes on the grid plate is raised to the ore discharge hollow journal, and through the hollow journal and then discharged from the ore grinding machine. It forces the ore discharge, and improve production capacity. By using large double-row self-aligning roller shaft and a wave-type liner plate, the productivity is improved. This ball mill applies large double-row spherical roller bearings instead of a sliding bearing. The friction force is greatly reduced. And start easily, energy saving by 20 -30%. The cylinder body adopts a wave-shaped lining plate, which increases contact surface of the steel ball and the gold and also reduces the energy consumption. High speed of ore discharge greatly reduces the over-crushing. The wet type energy-saving grid ball mill has high speed of ore discharge, which greatly reduces the phenomenon of over crushing, and can increase the yield per unit volume. Compared with a straight energy-saving overflow type ball mill, the yield of this ball mill is higher. According to test, our team found ore components was very complex. Separation was extremely difficult. Finally the gold mine designed to flotation-based gold ore dressing production line, a three-stage closed-circuit crushing, one stage grinding, the flotation process, and the tailings discharge process. This production line overcomes the production problems caused by the multi-point ore supply, like unstable operating conditions, the concentrate quality fluctuation, the tailings grade-running is high, etc.

After understanding and screening of gold ore dressing enterprises in china, a gold ore main owner in Cambodia finally made a decision to cooperate with Xinhai. Our team did a detail field investigation then. We found that when using a common ball mill, due to the substrate, it would cause some problems, like discharge block, abnormal plate fracture, etc., which result the breaking down of grinding machine. To solve this problem, while taking into account that capacity reaches 1200 t/d, Xinhai decides to select MQGg 2145 Wet-Type Energy-Saving Ball Mill as the main grinding device. The ball mill grinding effect is high, the discharging granularity is more controllable. Finally, the whole grinding process is efficiently performed.

The grid plate is forcibly discharged ore, and ore discharge efficiency is high. This mill ore discharge end with a grid plate. the grid plate is provided with a plurality of small holes for discharging pulp. The grid plate closed to one side of the discharge end installs the lifting device, which is a radial rib. The ribs divided the room between the grid plate and the end cover into a plurality of fan chambers leading to neck of hollow shaft. When the mill rotates, the radial ribs will improve pulp. The pulp discharging from small holes on the grid plate is raised to the ore discharge hollow journal, and through the hollow journal and then discharged from the ore grinding machine. It forces the ore discharge, and improve production capacity.

By using large double-row self-aligning roller shaft and a wave-type liner plate, the productivity is improved. This ball mill applies large double-row spherical roller bearings instead of a sliding bearing. The friction force is greatly reduced. And start easily, energy saving by 20 -30%. The cylinder body adopts a wave-shaped lining plate, which increases contact surface of the steel ball and the gold and also reduces the energy consumption.

High speed of ore discharge greatly reduces the over-crushing. The wet type energy-saving grid ball mill has high speed of ore discharge, which greatly reduces the phenomenon of over crushing, and can increase the yield per unit volume. Compared with a straight energy-saving overflow type ball mill, the yield of this ball mill is higher.

According to test, our team found ore components was very complex. Separation was extremely difficult. Finally the gold mine designed to flotation-based gold ore dressing production line, a three-stage closed-circuit crushing, one stage grinding, the flotation process, and the tailings discharge process. This production line overcomes the production problems caused by the multi-point ore supply, like unstable operating conditions, the concentrate quality fluctuation, the tailings grade-running is high, etc.

Mineral processing test is an important part of Xinhai mineral processing plant, which is also the technology base of construction and production of the plant. Xinhai mineral processing test can me... [more]

mexus ball mill operational; heap leach findings expected to provide substantial gold production | mexus gold us

mexus ball mill operational; heap leach findings expected to provide substantial gold production | mexus gold us

M CABORCA, Mexico, October 5th, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) Mexus Gold US (OTCQB: MXSG) (Mexus or the Company) announced that its ball mill gravity gold recovery system is now operational. This system will allow the company to run high grade material from the Julio quartz vein at its Santa Elena mine located in Caborca, MX. In addition, the company announced an important discovery concerning gold recovery from its heap leach pad at the mine site. Mexus has been and continues to recover gold from the mineralized material placed on the heap leach pad. The resulting gold production from this work has been variable leading to an analysis of the heap leach pad. It has been found that the salt placed on the pad by the prior operator continues to limit gold recovery. Assays of the cyanide solution returning to the pregnant pond are not representative of the material being placed on the pad. The company decided to remove the material from the top of the heap leach pad down to 2 meters from the bottom and have it assayed. These assays showed that salt is causing issues with gold recovery. The silver in this material, when coming into contact with salt, turns to silver chloride. Cyanide solution with gold reacts with silver chloride and turns the gold to a metallic state inhibiting recovery. The silver chloride found in the bottom 2 meters was assayed and showed an extremely high level of gold value (ounces to the ton). Mexus CEO, Paul Thompson, along with Chief Geologist, Cesar Lemas, determined that the bottom 2 meters of the heap leach pad needs to be removed and run through the ball mill gravity system. Tests have shown that 95% of the gold in the silver chloride material can be recovered using the companys gravity ball mill circuit. This work has already begun. These efforts accomplish two things for the company. First, this allows for gold recovery of highly assayed material at the bottom of the heap leach pad. Secondly, it fixes the heap leach pad allowing for normal and consistent recovery of gold going forward. Mexus will continue to produce gold in the last quarter of 2020. The company was looking to give guidance for the 4th quarter of 2020 but determined that the recent findings have made it difficult to give an estimate. In the near future, shareholders of Mexus can expect an update on both the heap leach and ball mill gravity gold recovery circuits. Mexus CEO, Paul Thompson added, Im excited for gold production in the coming weeks. We believe that a substantial amount of gold trapped on the pad is now going to be recovered.

About Mexus Gold US Mexus Gold US is an American based mining company with holdings in Mexico. The fully owned Santa Elena mine is located 54km NW of Caborca, Mexico. Mexus also owns rights to the Ures property located 80km N of Hermosillo, Mexico. This property contains 6900 acres and has both gold and copper on the property. Founded in 2009, Mexus Gold US is committed to protecting the environment, mine safety and employing members of the communities in which it operates. For more information on Mexus Gold US, visit www.mexusgoldus.com. Mexus Gold US (775) 721-9960 Cautionary Statement Forward looking Statement: Statements in this press release may constitute forward-looking statements and are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including the failure to complete successfully the development of new or enhanced products, the Companys future capital needs, the lack of market demand for any new or enhanced products the Company may develop, any actions by the Companys partners that may be adverse to the Company, the success of competitive products, other economic factors affecting the Company and its markets, seasonal changes, and other risks detailed from time to time in the Companys filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The actual results may differ materially from those contained in this press release. The Company disclaims any obligation to update any statements in this press release.

energy efficient cement ball mill from flsmidth

energy efficient cement ball mill from flsmidth

You decide whether to operate the mill in open or closed circuit, with or without a pre-grinder and with side or central drive, according to your plant layout and end product specifications. Even the lining types are tailored to your operating parameters.

In addition, the large through-flow areas enable the mill to operate with large volumes of venting air and a low pressure drop across the mill. This reduces the energy consumption of the mill ventilation fan and keeps your energy costs down.

The mill is based on standard modules and can be adapted to your plant layout, end product specifications and drive type. The horizontal slide shoe bearing design enables much simpler foundations and reduced installation height, making installation quicker and less expensive.

Our shell linings are designed to suit the task at hand. In our two-compartment cement mills, the first compartment (for coarse grinding) has a step lining suitable for large grinding media. It protects the shell while ensuring optimum lifting of the mill charge. In the second compartment (and also in our one-compartment cement mills) we use a corrugated lining designed to obtain the maximum power absorption and grinding efficiency. For special applications, we can supply a classifying shell lining for fine grinding in the mill.

In fact, the entire mill is protected with bolted on lining plates designed for the specific wear faced by each part of the mill. This attention to detail ensures both minimal wear and easy maintenance. When a wear part has reached the end of its life, it is easily replaced.

The grinding media are supplied in various sizes to ensure optimum grinding efficiency. The STANEX diaphragm is designed to maximise the effective grinding area, enabling a higher throughput. It is fitted with adjustable lifters to ensure the material levels in each compartment are right. Best of all, the STANEX diaphragm works for all applications, even when material flow rates are high and the mill feed is moist.

The mills are typically driven by our FLSmidth MAAG LGDX side drive - gearing rated to the latest proven AGMA standards. The mill drive is provided with an auxiliary drive for slow turning of the mill. The LGDX includes two independent lubrication systems, one which services the girth gear guard and intakes more dust, and a second which supplies oil for the fast-rotating gearing and bearings and stays clean. If requested, however, the mills can be provided with a central drive: the FLSmidth MAAG CPU planetary gearbox. The mill design differs slightly, depending on whether the side or central drive is chosen.

Each grinding compartment has two man-hole covers to give easy access for maintenance. As there are minimal moving parts, the maintenance requirement is low and simple changes like replacing wear linings and topping up grinding media can be completed quickly and easily. Horizontal slide shoe bearings prevent oil spillages from the casing and offers easy replacement of slide shoes.

Buying a new mill is a huge investment. With over a century of ball mill experience and more than 4000 installations worldwide, rest assured we have the expertise to deliver the right solution for your project. Our ball mill is based on standard modules and the highly flexible design can be adapted to your requirements. The mill comprises the following parts.

The mill body consists of an all-welded mill shell and a T-sectional welded-up slide ring at either end, the cylindrical part of which is welded onto the ends of the shell. The mill shell has four manholes, two for each grinding compartment.

Each slide ring runs in a bearing with two self-aligning and hydrodynamically lubricated slide shoes. One of the slide shoes at the drive end holds the mill in axial direction. In the others, the slide rings can move freely in axial direction to allow for longitudinal thermal expansion and contraction of the mill body.

The slide shoes are water-cooled, and each bearing is provided with a panel-enclosed lubrication unit including oil tank, motorised low- and high-pressure oil pumps, as well as an oil conditioning circuit with motorised pump for heating/cooling and filtration of the oil.

The stationary steel plate inlet duct leads the venting air into the mill. It is equipped with a manually operated throttle valve and a pressure monitor to adjust the pressure at the inlet end, thus preventing dust emission from the inlet. The feed chute is lined with bolted-on wear plates and slopes down through the air duct to the mill inlet opening.

The more control you have over the mill, the better your grinding efficiency is likely to be. Our ball mills include monitoring systems to continuously measure the material and air temperatures as well as the pressure at the mill exit. The venting of the mill is adjusted by a damper in the inlet to the mill fan. And the material fill level is continuously monitored by means of sensors. For ball mills operating in closed circuit, the circulation load is monitored by weighing the flow of reject material from the separator. These measures ensure you achieve optimum mill performance, giving you the quality, efficiency, safetyand reliability that you need.

FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.

mexus ball mill operational; heap leach findings expected to provide substantial gold production mexico mining center

mexus ball mill operational; heap leach findings expected to provide substantial gold production mexico mining center

CABORCA, Mexico, October 5th, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) Mexus Gold US (OTCQB: MXSG) (Mexus or the Company) announced that its ball mill gravity gold recovery system is now operational. This system will allow the company to run high grade material from the Julio quartz vein at its Santa Elena mine located in Caborca, MX.

In addition, the company announced an important discovery concerning gold recovery from its heap leach pad at the mine site. Mexus has been and continues to recover gold from the mineralized material placed on the heap leach pad. The resulting gold production from this work has been variable leading to an analysis of the heap leach pad. It has been found that the salt placed on the pad by the prior operator continues to limit gold recovery. Assays of the cyanide solution returning to the pregnant pond are not representative of the material being placed on the pad. The company decided to remove the material from the top of the heap leach pad down to 2 meters from the bottom and have it assayed. These assays showed that salt is causing issues with gold recovery. The silver in this material, when coming into contact with salt, turns to silver chloride. Cyanide solution with gold reacts with silver chloride and turns the gold to a metallic state inhibiting recovery. The silver chloride found in the bottom 2 meters was assayed and showed an extremely high level of gold value (ounces to the ton). Mexus CEO, Paul Thompson, along with Chief Geologist, Cesar Lemas, determined that the bottom 2 meters of the heap leach pad needs to be removed and run through the ball mill gravity system. Tests have shown that 95% of the gold in the silver chloride material can be recovered using the companys gravity ball mill circuit. This work has already begun. These efforts accomplish two things for the company. First, this allows for gold recovery of highly assayed material at the bottom of the heap leach pad. Secondly, it fixes the heap leach pad allowing for normal and consistent recovery of gold going forward.

Mexus will continue to produce gold in the last quarter of 2020. The company was looking to give guidance for the 4th quarter of 2020 but determined that the recent findings have made it difficult to give an estimate. In the near future, shareholders of Mexus can expect an update on both the heap leach and ball mill gravity gold recovery circuits. Mexus CEO, Paul Thompson added, Im excited for gold production in the coming weeks. We believe that a substantial amount of gold trapped on the pad is now going to be recovered.

Mexus Gold US is an American based mining company with holdings in Mexico. The fully owned Santa Elena mine is located 54km NW of Caborca, Mexico. Mexus also owns rights to the Ures property located 80km N of Hermosillo, Mexico. This property contains 6900 acres and has both gold and copper on the property. Founded in 2009, Mexus Gold US is committed to protecting the environment, mine safety and employing members of the communities in which it operates.For more information on Mexus Gold US, visit www.mexusgoldus.com.Mexus Gold US (775) 721-9960

Forward looking Statement: Statements in this press release may constitute forward-looking statements and are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including the failure to complete successfully the development of new or enhanced products, the Companys future capital needs, the lack of market demand for any new or enhanced products the Company may develop, any actions by the Companys partners that may be adverse to the Company, the success of competitive products, other economic factors affecting the Company and its markets, seasonal changes, and other risks detailed from time to time in the Companys filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The actual results may differ materially from those contained in this press release. The Company disclaims any obligation to update any statements in this press release.

Fast. PhotoSat solutions are ideal for large, inaccessible, or remote sites. With no permits needed, we can efficiently produce engineering-grade surveys and alteration mineral maps over hundreds or even thousands of square kilometers. No site access is required, and all data processing is completed without involvement from ground crews. Global. Satellites are not restricted by borders, permits, or ground logistics. We have completed more than 1,300 projects in over 75 countries, with exacting standards of accuracy and consistency. Reliable. Each PhotoSat project is produced from satellite photos, with each photo covering hundreds of square kilometers. As a result, our data sets are consistent, time-stamped and robust, with high data point density. Innovative. PhotoSat is a leader in satellite-based surveying technology and alteration mineral mapping. We use proprietary deep learning algorithms in our data processing. Our unique technology produces outstanding results that are trusted by mining companies and engineering consultants around the world.

The promotion and dissemination as essential elements to understand and disseminate our Mineral resources, that is why today it is pleased to make the document Mining Panorama available to society, by state.

GeoInfoMex, is the consultation system of the Mexican Geological Service that allows users to know geoscientific information and make decisions with savings in time and resources, helping to promote mining activity.

The DOF is the organ of the Constitutional Government of the United Mexican States, which has the function of publishing in the national territory, to so that they are properly observed and applied in their respective areas of competence.

gold processing | britannica

gold processing | britannica

For thousands of years the word gold has connoted something of beauty or value. These images are derived from two properties of gold, its colour and its chemical stability. The colour of gold is due to the electronic structure of the gold atom, which absorbs electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths less than 5600 angstroms but reflects wavelengths greater than 5600 angstromsthe wavelength of yellow light. Golds chemical stability is based on the relative instability of the compounds that it forms with oxygen and watera characteristic that allows gold to be refined from less noble metals by oxidizing the other metals and then separating them from the molten gold as a dross. However, gold is readily dissolved in a number of solvents, including oxidizing solutions of hydrochloric acid and dilute solutions of sodium cyanide. Gold readily dissolves in these solvents because of the formation of complex ions that are very stable.

Gold (Au) melts at a temperature of 1,064 C (1,947 F). Its relatively high density (19.3 grams per cubic centimetre) has made it amenable to recovery by placer mining and gravity concentration techniques. With a face-centred cubic crystal structure, it is characterized by a softness or malleability that lends itself to being shaped into intricate structures without sophisticated metalworking equipment. This in turn has led to its application, from earliest times, to the fabrication of jewelry and decorative items.

The history of gold extends back at least 6,000 years, the earliest identifiable, realistically dated finds having been made in Egypt and Mesopotamia c. 4000 bc. The earliest major find was located on the Bulgarian shores of the Black Sea near the present city of Varna. By 3000 bc gold rings were used as a method of payment. Until the time of Christ, Egypt remained the centre of gold production. Gold was, however, also found in India, Ireland, Gaul, and the Iberian Peninsula. With the exception of coinage, virtually all uses of the metal were decorativee.g., for weapons, goblets, jewelry, and statuary.

Egyptian wall reliefs from 2300 bc show gold in various stages of refining and mechanical working. During these ancient times, gold was mined from alluvial placersthat is, particles of elemental gold found in river sands. The gold was concentrated by washing away the lighter river sands with water, leaving behind the dense gold particles, which could then be further concentrated by melting. By 2000 bc the process of purifying gold-silver alloys with salt to remove the silver was developed. The mining of alluvial deposits and, later, lode or vein deposits required crushing prior to gold extraction, and this consumed immense amounts of manpower. By ad 100, up to 40,000 slaves were employed in gold mining in Spain. The advent of Christianity somewhat tempered the demand for gold until about the 10th century. The technique of amalgamation, alloying with mercury to improve the recovery of gold, was discovered at about this time.

The colonization of South and Central America that began during the 16th century resulted in the mining and refining of gold in the New World before its transferal to Europe; however, the American mines were a greater source of silver than gold. During the early to mid-18th century, large gold deposits were discovered in Brazil and on the eastern slopes of the Ural Mountains in Russia. Major alluvial deposits were found in Siberia in 1840, and gold was discovered in California in 1848. The largest gold find in history is in the Witwatersrand of South Africa. Discovered in 1886, it produced 25 percent of the worlds gold by 1899 and 40 percent by 1985. The discovery of the Witwatersrand deposit coincided with the discovery of the cyanidation process, which made it possible to recover gold values that had escaped both gravity concentration and amalgamation. With E.B. Millers process of refining impure gold with chlorine gas (patented in Britain in 1867) and Emil Wohlwills electrorefining process (introduced in Hamburg, Ger., in 1878), it became possible routinely to achieve higher purities than had been allowed by fire refining.

The major ores of gold contain gold in its native form and are both exogenetic (formed at the Earths surface) and endogenetic (formed within the Earth). The best-known of the exogenetic ores is alluvial gold. Alluvial gold refers to gold found in riverbeds, streambeds, and floodplains. It is invariably elemental gold and usually made up of very fine particles. Alluvial gold deposits are formed through the weathering actions of wind, rain, and temperature change on rocks containing gold. They were the type most commonly mined in antiquity. Exogenetic gold can also exist as oxidized ore bodies that have formed under a process called secondary enrichment, in which other metallic elements and sulfides are gradually leached away, leaving behind gold and insoluble oxide minerals as surface deposits.

Endogenetic gold ores include vein and lode deposits of elemental gold in quartzite or mixtures of quartzite and various iron sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite (FeS2) and pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS). When present in sulfide ore bodies, the gold, although still elemental in form, is so finely disseminated that concentration by methods such as those applied to alluvial gold is impossible.

Native gold is the most common mineral of gold, accounting for about 80 percent of the metal in the Earths crust. It occasionally is found as nuggets as large as 12 millimetres (0.5 inch) in diameter, and on rare occasions nuggets of native gold weighing up to 50 kilograms are foundthe largest having weighed 92 kilograms. Native gold invariably contains about 0.1 to 4 percent silver. Electrum is a gold-silver alloy containing 20 to 45 percent silver. It varies from pale yellow to silver white in colour and is usually associated with silver sulfide mineral deposits.

Gold also forms minerals with the element tellurium; the most common of these are calaverite (AuTe2) and sylvanite (AuAgTe4). Other minerals of gold are sufficiently rare as to have little economic significance.

Of the worlds known mineral reserves of gold ore, 50 percent is found in South Africa, and most of the rest is divided among Russia, Canada, Australia, Brazil, and the United States. The largest single gold ore body in the world is in the Witwatersrand of South Africa.

mexus ball mill operational; heap leach findings expected to provide substantial gold production

mexus ball mill operational; heap leach findings expected to provide substantial gold production

CABORCA, Mexico, Oct. 05, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Mexus Gold US (OTCQB: MXSG) (Mexus or the Company) announced that its ball mill gravity gold recovery system is now operational. This system will allow the company to run high grade material from the Julio quartz vein at its Santa Elena mine located in Caborca, MX.

In addition, the company announced an important discovery concerning gold recovery from its heap leach pad at the mine site. Mexus has been and continues to recover gold from the mineralized material placed on the heap leach pad. The resulting gold production from this work has been variable leading to an analysis of the heap leach pad. It has been found that the salt placed on the pad by the prior operator continues to limit gold recovery. Assays of the cyanide solution returning to the pregnant pond are not representative of the material being placed on the pad. The company decided to remove the material from the top of the heap leach pad down to 2 meters from the bottom and have it assayed. These assays showed that salt is causing issues with gold recovery. The silver in this material, when coming into contact with salt, turns to silver chloride. Cyanide solution with gold reacts with silver chloride and turns the gold to a metallic state inhibiting recovery. The silver chloride found in the bottom 2 meters was assayed and showed an extremely high level of gold value (ounces to the ton). Mexus CEO, Paul Thompson, along with Chief Geologist, Cesar Lemas, determined that the bottom 2 meters of the heap leach pad needs to be removed and run through the ball mill gravity system. Tests have shown that 95% of the gold in the silver chloride material can be recovered using the companys gravity ball mill circuit. This work has already begun. These efforts accomplish two things for the company. First, this allows for gold recovery of highly assayed material at the bottom of the heap leach pad. Secondly, it fixes the heap leach pad allowing for normal and consistent recovery of gold going forward.

Mexus will continue to produce gold in the last quarter of 2020. The company was looking to give guidance for the 4th quarter of 2020 but determined that the recent findings have made it difficult to give an estimate. In the near future, shareholders of Mexus can expect an update on both the heap leach and ball mill gravity gold recovery circuits. Mexus CEO, Paul Thompson added, Im excited for gold production in the coming weeks. We believe that a substantial amount of gold trapped on the pad is now going to be recovered.

Mexus Gold US is an American based mining company with holdings in Mexico. The fully owned Santa Elena mine is located 54km NW of Caborca, Mexico. Mexus also owns rights to the Ures property located 80km N of Hermosillo, Mexico. This property contains 6900 acres and has both gold and copper on the property. Founded in 2009, Mexus Gold US is committed to protecting the environment, mine safety and employing members of the communities in which it operates.

Forward looking Statement: Statements in this press release may constitute forward-looking statements and are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including the failure to complete successfully the development of new or enhanced products, the Company's future capital needs, the lack of market demand for any new or enhanced products the Company may develop, any actions by the Company's partners that may be adverse to the Company, the success of competitive products, other economic factors affecting the Company and its markets, seasonal changes, and other risks detailed from time to time in the Company's filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The actual results may differ materially from those contained in this press release. The Company disclaims any obligation to update any statements in this press release.

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The good news: That pension and your savings are and will be great assets for you in retirement, so congratulations on that! There are many factors that go into knowing how much youll need for retirement, and a few ways to break down these annual estimates. For example, if you were to use the 4% rule, which is a traditional rule of thumb that suggests you take out 4% of your retirement savings every year to live on, youd generate about $30,000 to $35,000 a year, said Morgan Hill, chief executive officer of Hill and Hill Financial.

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A woman has been accused of punching a 6-year-old Asian boy while hurling racial slurs at him and his mother in Las Vegas this week. What you need to know: The incident occurred at The Shops at Crystals, an upscale shopping mall located in the CityCenter complex. Tiktok user @uhmmajo managed to film part of the alleged attack, which shows the woman having an unhinged meltdown.

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