There are two kinds of transmission forms of ball mill, i.e. center transmission and edge transmission. The two kinds of transmission have their own advantages and disadvantages. The central transmission adopts a high-speed planetary reducer, which is safe and reliable, with a service life of up to 10 years, low maintenance cost, but large one-time investment.
The girth gear(big ring gear) and pinion are the key of the edge transmission device. Their reliable operation is directly related to the stable production of the mill. In order to ensure their reliable operation, in addition to strengthening the daily maintenance and regular maintenance, the installation and alignment of the girth gear and pinion are also important.
Cleaning of gear ring and mill flange positioning of gear ring coarse alignment of large gear ring positioning and coarse alignment of pinion installation of motor reducer primary grouting fine alignment of large gear ring fine alignment of pinion fine alignment of motor reducer.
In order to reduce the workload of installing gears on site, hobs with similar wear conditions should be selected during finishing of large and small gears, so as to make the meshing profile of large and small gears as close as possible and increase the contact area. Before the gear is installed, the tooth thickness vernier caliper can be used to check the tooth thickness of the gear ring indexing circle chord, or the tooth shape template can be made of sheet steel to retest the tooth shape. If necessary, it needs to be repaired on site.
After the ring gear is closed to the cylinder according to the installation mark, tighten the connecting bolts on the mating surface, and check whether there is a step on the side of the gear (the step is required to be as small as possible, otherwise it will affect the end runout of the ring gear). Use a feeler gauge of 0.04mm to check the matching condition. It is required that the insertion depth is not more than 50mm, and the cumulative length of the gap is not more than 1 / 4 of the tooth width.
When measuring the radial jump, a winch shall be used for disc grinding. Before disc grinding, the sliding shoes or hollow shaft oil station of the mill must be opened, and the floating capacity of the mill shall be checked with a dial indicator. Only when the floating capacity reaches 0.15mm can the disc grinding be carried out.
Most on-site dial gauges are installed in Figure 1 or figure 2, both of which have advantages and disadvantages. The position in Figure 1 can directly measure the radial jump at the top of the gear, but a worker is required to press and hold the dial indicator under the gear ring, and release the dial indicator when the tooth to be measured turns around, which is complex to operate and easy to cause injury to workers; the position in Figure 2 is simple to operate, but it is not the real radial jump of the gear. Therefore, we suggest to make a measuring tool (Figure 3) and install it on the head of the dial indicator, so that it is easier to measure the radial jump (Figure 4).
When measuring the end jump, a winch is still needed for disc grinding. Before disc grinding, the sliding shoes or hollow shaft oil station of the mill must be opened, and the floating capacity of the mill shall be checked with a dial indicator. Only when the floating capacity reaches 0.15mm, can the disc grinding be carried out. If the site personnel are sufficient, the end jump and the radial jump can be measured at the same time.
The end run out must be detected by double meter method to eliminate the error caused by the axial movement of the mill. When two dial indicators are installed on the same side of the ring gear, as shown in the left side of Figure 6, calculate the end jump according to line 4 of Table 1; when two dial indicators are installed on both sides of the ring gear, as shown in the right side of Figure 6, calculate the end jump according to line 5 of Table 1. The installation position of the two dial indicators must be 180 and 8 points need to be measured around the ring gear, as shown in Figure 5.
After the alignment of the big gear ring is completed, the pinion device shall be put in place according to the requirements of the drawings, the center height of the pinion shall be retested with a level gauge, and the sizing block shall be replaced if necessary to adjust the elevation. Use feeler gauge to roughly find tooth top clearance and tooth side clearance, and install diaphragm coupling, main reducer, auxiliary transmission device and main reducer lubricating oil station.
Grouting the anchor bolts of the pinion device once. After the primary grouting strength reaches 70% of the design strength, use the auxiliary drive plate to grind, and retest the runout of the big gear ring again, and then start the fine alignment of the pinion.
Most of the site is to use feeler gauge and red lead powder to detect the contact condition of the gear. There is no basis for the adjustment of this detection method, so the adjustment amount of the bearing seat can only be determined by experience, which is time-consuming and laborious. Compared with this method, the lead wire method can accurately calculate the amount of each adjustment, which is more accurate and saves installation time.
Before alignment, the lead wire shall be used to make a measuring tool as shown in Figure 7. In the figure, the left tool is used to measure the side gap and the right tool is used to measure the top gap. Set 12 sets of jackscrews at the 1-12 positions of the pinion bearing pedestal, and set 8 dial indicators at the 1-8 positions, as shown in Figure 8.
If there is no error in the processing of large and small gears, the graduation circle shall be tangent during installation, and its top clearance shall be 1 / 4 gear module. Considering the processing error caused by the hob wear and the floating amount of the mill when it is running relative to the static state and other factors, in order to avoid the gnawing back of the gear when it is running, it is recommended to increase the top clearance by 1.5-2.5mm during the installation, which can be adjusted according to the actual situation on site.
On the basis of meeting the above requirements, the larger the top clearance and side clearance is, the better, and the side clearance deviation on both sides of the gear is not more than 0.1mm, and the top clearance deviation on both sides of the gear is not more than 0.3mm. 8 points are measured in a week, and 5 points meet the requirements.
(3) Measuring points: 4, 7. If another point meets the requirements, the alignment is completed (i.e. at least 5 of the 8 points meet the requirements), otherwise, it is necessary to re measure after adjustment.
When adjusting the top clearance, refer to the reading of 5-8 position dial indicator and adjust 1-4 jacking screws; when adjusting the side clearance, refer to the reading of 1-8 position dial indicator and add or remove the adjusting gasket under the bearing pedestal.
After the lead wire method is used for alignment, the contact condition of the engagement surface of the large and small gears shall be retested with blue or red lead powder. The contact area shall not be less than 40% of the tooth height and 50% of the tooth width, and the contact on both sides of the gear shall be uniform, and only one side contact is not allowed, otherwise further adjustment is required.
In the daily production of theball mill, there will always be some sudden failures, such as severe vibration of the ball mill gear, cracking of the large gear ring of the ball mill, or the sudden increase in the temperature of the ball mill bearing. accident. Fodamon engineers shares the reasons and solutions of the severe vibration of the ball mill pinion.
The normal operation of the ball mill uses the motor to drive the ball mill to perform rotation operation. The motor drives the ball mill to directly connect the pinion through the elastic pin coupling and drive the big gear ring to realize the operation of the ball mill. In the process of operation, if the pinion and its base are found to vibrate violently, it is mainly because the distance between the pinion and the anchor bolt is far, and there is no fixed point in the middle, which makes the amplitude of the middle part of the pinion base larger, and the frequent vibration will cause serious wear of the pinion.
Solution: replace the pinion of the ball mill, add two anchor bolts on the inner side of the pinion and the meshing side of the big gear, and reinforce the base again. After the operation, the foundation shall be cleaned first, and the levelness, elevation and position and height of foundation bolts shall be checked.Drill the diameter hole (the size of the hole needs to be determined according to the size of the ball mill), install the anchor bolts, and grouting and pouring. After solidification, use the wedge iron to find the initial alignment. Then adjust the gap between the pinion gear and the large gear, correct the pinion gear by adjusting the height of the wedge, and then perform the second grouting, retain the motor-side half coupling, survey and map the pinion shaft, and redesign the small gear Gear half coupling.
Because the half coupling at the end of the pinion is in interference fit with the shaft, it needs to be hot installed. First, make a test bar that is larger than the online dimension of the shaft, fix the pinion shaft, and then heat the shaft hole of the half coupling. When the test bar can pass through the shaft hole of the half coupling completely, it can be assembled. Put the pinion shaft and bearing into the bearing housing, and adjust the tooth top clearance and tooth side clearance between the pinion and the big gear. Then the gap between the base and the ground shall be grouted twice, and the test run shall be carried out after solidification.It is suggested that if the vibration failure of the ball mill pinion is to be reduced, the ball mill can be installed in accordance with this method
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Ball mills are the most widely used grinding machines in heavy industry such as power generation, mineral processing, chemical and building materials. It can grind materials of various hardness and ultimately meet the requirements of process specifications. Our units ball mill is mainly used for slurry preparation. Because it is the core equipment of the enterprise, it requires a high operation rate. Vibration at the ball bearing housing of the ball mill is a device failure that affects the normal operation of the ball mill. There are many reasons for causing low-frequency vibrations, and the vibrations and hazards caused by their respective causes are also different. There are various repair methods. Therefore, it is necessary to first identify the main causes of vibration and solve the main contradictions. Now combined with the transmission structure of the ball bearing pinion bearing housing, the common causes and treatment methods of vibration are analyzed. 1. Vibration of the pinion housing caused by imbalance 1) The gear hole position is defective 2) The inner diameter of the gear shaft is eccentric 3) The gear material is defective and has trachoma 4) Partial wear of the gear. 5) The steel ball in the body of the large ring gear is bonded to the material, resulting in an imbalance. 2.Couplings are equipped with vibrations caused by different shafts There are three types of couplings for different shafts: the two-axis centerline has a radial offset, the two-axis and the centerline are skewed; the two-axis centerline simultaneously offsets and measures the axial and radial directions of the coupling gap. Excessive deviations will cause additional loads on the coupling, drive shaft and bearings, resulting in heat, vibration, wear and even fatigue and breakage. 3. Vibration caused by unreasonable assembly of the gear shaft 1) The pinion vibration caused by the flank clearance and the top clearance of the large and small gears. First check if the flank clearance and top clearance of the large and small gears meet the requirements. The side clearance and top clearance of the gear drive should be appropriate. A certain side and top clearance can compensate for the manufacturing and assembly deviation of the gear, compensate for thermal expansion and form an oil film to prevent jamming. However, too large a gap can cause an impact. If the gap is too large or too small, it will cause additional load, increase the wear of the gear transmission, and even bring accidents. The common method of measuring the gap is to use the lead method. Second, the pinion vibration caused by the unreasonable contact of the pinion tooth surface. The contact area of the gear is represented by the percentage of the total length of the tooth and the total height of the tooth in the contact portion between the tooth length and the tooth height, and the normal contact surface should be evenly distributed on the working surface of the tooth. If the contact surface is small or the contact position is incorrect, the load will be concentrated, causing local wear and vibration. The causes of the following tooth surface contact are analyzed and adjustment measures are proposed.
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Asarel Medet AD is among the largest Bulgarian mining companies for the extraction and enrichment of copper ores, located in the territory of Panagyurishte in the Pazardzhik district. The company is recovering and processing about 13 million tons of copper ore annually, producing and exporting copper concentrates and cathode copper.
The customer has an Intellinova online system, mainly Intellinova Standard, comprising twenty-seven Commander Units which monitor 570 measuring points on critical machines in the open pit mine and flotation plant. The equipment in the mine consists mostly of conveyor belts (electrical motors, gearboxes, and rolls) and in the flotation plant of ball mills, autogenous mills, and flotation machines (electrical motors and gearboxes).
SPM HD Spectrum from the NDE bearing shows a clear match of the BPFO (Ball Pass Frequency Outer Race) symptom. According to the customer, following the indications for bearing damage from Condmaster Ruby they replaced the pinion shaft, where they found visible signs of outer race damage on the NDE bearing.
At the beginning (February 2017), the SPM HD trend had varying shock pulse levels HDm/HDc (depending on the load on the mill) from 14/-2 dB (green evaluation) to 29/-3 dB (yellow evaluation). From April 23rd, 2017 the levels started to increase, and after July 2017 they exceeded red evaluation, i.e., alarm status. After September 17th, 2017 the levels reached HDm/HDc = 63/-4 dB (red evaluation). In the SPM HD Spectrum, there were clear BPFO symptom matches for the 22380YMB bearing.
In a continuously operating ball mill, the feed material (copper ore) passes through the central hole of one of the caps into the drum where it is exposed to the grinding media. The grinding of the material occurs during impact with the falling grinding balls and abrasion of the particles between them. Then, the discharge of the ground material takes place through the central hole in the discharge cap or through the grid.
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