The Ferro Alloys and Minerals Division, commonly known as FAMD, is the largest non-steel business unit of Tata Steel. With chrome and manganese ore reserves in the mineral rich state of Odisha, FAMD has set up an integrated value chain, commencing with mining, beneficiation, production and sales of Ferro alloys. It is also the leading manganese alloy producer in India and is a leading supplier of dolomite and pyroxenite.
The data recorded by Statistics in 2020 shows that although in 2019 manganese ore price fell to the bottom, the price in 2020 still gets increased to 4.5 U.S. dollars per metric ton unit CIF even under the impact of COVID-19. Manganese ore prices are forecast to remain at global prices by 2020 over the next two years, which is good news to manganese ore suppliers.
Besides, Justin Brown, managing director of Element 25said Manganese has the traditional end uses in steel, and that market is fairly stable". As people's demand for laptops and electric cars increases, the output of lithium batteries has also soared, and the most important element in lithium batteries is manganese.
Manganese ore after the beneficiation process is applied in many respects in our daily lives. Of annual manganese ore production, 90 percent is used in steelmaking, and the other 10 percent is used respectively in non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical industry, electronics, battery, agriculture, etc.
In the metallurgical industry, manganese ore is mostly used for manganese-forming ferroalloys and manganese metal. The former is used as deoxidizers or alloying element additives for steelmaking, and the latter is used to smelt certain special alloy steels and non-ferrous metal alloys. Manganese ore can also be used directly as an ingredient in steelmaking and ironmaking.
When smelting manganese-based iron alloys, the useful elements in manganese ore are manganese and iron. The level of manganese is the main indicator for measuring the quality of manganese ore. The iron content is required to have a certain ratio with the amount of manganese.
Phosphorus is the most harmful element in manganese ore. The phosphorus in steel reduces the impact of toughness. Although sulfur is also a harmful element, it has a better desulfurization effect during smelting, and sulfur is volatilized into sulfur dioxide or enters the slag in the form of calcium sulfide or manganese sulfide.
Applications in Metallurgy Manganese content (%) Ferromanganese (%) Phosphorus manganese (%) Low carbon ferromanganese 36%40% 68.5 0.0020.0036 Carbon Ferro Manganese 33%40% 3.87.8 0.0020.005 Manganese Silicon Alloy 29%35% 3.37.5 0.00160.0048 Blast Furnace Ferromanganese 30% 27 0.005
In the chemical industry, manganese ore is mainly used to prepare manganese dioxide, manganese sulfate, and potassium permanganate. It is also used to make manganese carbonate, manganese nitrate and manganese chloride.
Since most manganese ore is a fine-grained or fine-grained inlay, and there are a considerable number of high-phosphorus ore, high-iron ore, and symbiotic beneficial metals, it is very difficult to beneficiate.
At present, commonly used manganese ore beneficiation methods include physical beneficiation (washing and screening, gravity separation, strong magnetic separation, flotation separation, joint beneficiation), chemical beneficiation (leaching method) and fire enrichment, etc.
Washing is the use of hydraulic washing or additional mechanical scrubbing to separate the ore from the mud. Commonly used equipment includes washing sieves, cylinder washing machines and trough ore-washing machine.
The washing operation is often accompanied by screening, such as direct flushing on the vibrating screen or sifting the ore (clean ore) obtained by the washing machine to the vibrating screen. Screening is used as an independent operation to separate products of different sizes and grades for various purposes.
At present, the gravity separation is only used to beneficiate manganese ore with simple structure and coarse grain size and is especially suitable for manganese oxide ore with high density. Common methods include heavy media separation, jigging and tabling dressing.
It is essential to recover as much manganese as possible in the gravity concentration zone because its grinding cost is much lower than the manganese in the flotation process, and simple operations are more active.
Because of the simple operation, easy control and strong adaptability of magnetic separation can be used for dressing various manganese ore, and it has dominated the manganese ore dressing in recent years.
Gravity-magnetic separation plant of manganese ore mainly deals with leaching manganese oxide ore, using the jig to treat 30~3 mm of cleaned ore can obtain high-quality manganese-containing more than 40% of manganese. And then can be used as manganese powder of battery raw material.
The jigging tailings and less than 3 mm washed ore are ground to less than 1mm, and then being processed by strong magnetic separator. The manganese concentrate grade would be increased by 24% to 25%, and reaches to 36% to 40%.
Adopting strong magnetic-flotation desulfurization can directly obtain the integrated manganese concentrate product; the use of petroleum sodium sulfonate instead of oxidized paraffin soap as a collector can make the pulp be sorted at neutral and normal temperature, thus saving reagent consumption and energy consumption.
The enrichment of manganese ore by fire is another dressing method for high-phosphorus and high-iron manganese ore which is difficult to select. It is generally called the manganese-rich slag method.
The manganese-rich slag generally contains 35% to 45% Mn, Mn/Fe 12-38, P/Mn<0.002, and is a high-quality raw material to manganese-based alloy. Therefore, fire enrichment is also a promising method for mineral processing for low-manganese with high-phosphorus and high-iron.
Manganese ore also can be recovered by acid leaching for production of battery grade manganese dioxide for low-manganese ores. Leaching of manganese ore was carried out with diluted sulphuric acid in the presence of pyrite in the temperature range from 323 to 363 K.
After processed by hydraulic cone crusher, the smaller-sized manganese ore would be fed to grinding machine- ball mill. It can grind the ore to a relatively fine and uniform particle size, which lays a foundation for further magnetic separation of manganese ore.
It is indispensable grading equipment in the manganese ore beneficiation plant. Because by taking advantage of the natural settling characteristics of ore, a spiral classifier can effectively classify and separate the manganese ore size to help control the amount of grinding required.
The flexibility of flotation is relatively high. You can choose different reagents according to the type and grade of the ore. Although the entire process of froth flotation is expensive, it can extract higher-grade manganese ore.
The magnetic separator is a highly targeted magnetic separation device specially developed for the properties of manganese ore. The device not only has the advantages of small size, lightweight, high automation, simple and reasonable structure, but also has high magnetic separation efficiency and high output.
If you want to beneficiate high-grade manganese ore and maximize the value of manganese concentration, Fote Company is an ore beneficiation equipment manufacturer with more that 35-years designing and manufacturing experience and can give you the most professional advice and offer you all machines needed in the ore beneficiation plant (form crushing stage to ore dressing stage). All machines are tailored to your project requirements.
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As is well known, the process of direct reduction and magnetic separation is effective route to deal with low-grade saprolite laterite, but generally limited by the reduction of nickel (iron)-bearing minerals and growth of Fe-Ni alloy particles in the reduction process, causing the low recovery of nickel and iron. To improve beneficiation of nickel and iron from low-grade saprolite laterite with 1.29wt.%Ni and 16.31wt.%Fe, co-reduction with limonitic laterite ore and basicity optimization were adopted as strengthening measures in this paper with better economic efficiency than before. The enhancing mechanism was investigated via the thermodynamics analysis and mineralogical study. The phase transformation and growth behaviors of metallic alloy particles during reduction process were revealed as well. The results indicated that co-reduction with limonitic laterite ore is capable of promoting phase transformation from Ni2SiO4 in saprolite laterite to NiFe2O4. CaCO3 can not only destroy the structure of magnesium silicate to release nickel(iron)-bearing phase, but also enhance the reduction of Fe2SiO4 to form efficiently iron-based eutectoid with nickel and liquid phases to accelerate the growth of Fe-Ni fine particles larger than 40m. A superior crude alloy was obtained with 5.11wt.%Ni and 82.15wt.%Fe with corresponding recovery rates of 91.89% and 85.15% respectively.
The low-grade siliceous chromite ore from Ghutrigaon, Odisha, India, containing ~16% Cr2O3, with Cr/Fe ratio of 1.97 and ~55% of SiO2, does not find any use in metallurgical industry and hence considered as waste. Mineralogical investigation indicates the presence of chromite and quartz as major minerals with minor fuchsite and kaolinite. The beneficiation studies reveal that the product can be enriched to a Cr/Fe ratio of 3.35 and 3.02 by gravity concentration (wet shaking table) and wet high intensitymagnetic separation, respectively. Tiny Cr-grains within quartz and fine silica dusts within chromite inhibit liberation of chromite resulting in poor response to physical beneficiation. As an alternative, processing of ore through pyro-metallurgical route was evaluated. Chromite fines mixed with carbon and lime in the form of pellets/granules was charged to a plasma reactor. In about ten minutes, the metal globules/prills were separated from the slag in 1:6 ratio. The metal, examined through XRD and optical microscope, was found to be ferrochrome alloy. In situ EDAX analysis indicated the metal to have 61.51% Cr, 26.52% Fe and 13.1% C with minor silica (2.42%), and the slag was composed of Ca2Al2SiO7 which revealed that both metal and slag so obtained could suitably be used in different industries.
Cicek T, Cocen I, and Birlik M, Applicability of multi-gravity separation to Kop chromite concentration plant, in Mineral Processing on the Verge of the 21th Century, Balkema, Rotterdam. Proceedings of 8th International Mineral Processing Symposium, Antalya (2000), p 87.
Meegoda JN, Hu Z, and Kamolpornwijit W, Conversion of Chromium Ore Processing Residue to Chrome Steel. Final Report, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, New Jersey Institute of Technology (2007), p 19.
Murthy I N, Babu A N, and Rao J B, High Carbon Ferro Chrome SlagAlternative Mould Material for Foundry Industry, in International Conference on Solid Waste Management, 5IconSWM, Procedia Environmental Sciences 35 (2016) p 597.
The authors wish to thank the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) for the financial support to one of the authors (AKD) in the form of JRF[09/1036(0014)/2019-EMR I]. The authors would like to thank The Director of Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (IMMT)-CSIR for providing necessary facilities to carry out the various experiments. The authors would also like to acknowledge Ravenshaw University for providing necessary laboratory facilities for carrying out the work.
Das, A.K., Khaoash, S., Das, S.P. et al. Processing of Low-Grade Chromite Ore for Ferroalloy Production: A Case Study from Ghutrigaon, Odisha, India. Trans Indian Inst Met 73, 23092320 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12666-020-02032-5Get in Touch with Mechanic