production and distribution of iron ore in india

production and distribution of iron ore in india

The standard of living of the people of a country is judged by the consumption of iron. Iron is taken out from mines in the form of iron ore. Different types of iron ore contain varying percentage of pure iron.

This is the best quality of iron ore and contains 72 per cent pure iron. It possesses magnetic property and hence is called magnetite. It is found in Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Goa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

The total in situ reserves of iron ore in the country are about 12,317.3 million tonnes of haematite and 5395.2 million tonnes of magnetite. The resources of very high grade ore are limited and are restricted mainly in Bailadila sector of Chhattisgarh and to a lesser extent in Bellary-Hospet area of Karnataka and in Jharkhand and Orissa.

Haematite resources are located in Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. Magnetic resources are located in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Kerala, Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.

Although some quantity of iron ore is found in several parts of the country, the major part of the reserves are highly concentrated in a few selected areas. Only six states i.e. Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and Goa account for over 95 per cent of the total reserves of India.

Jharkhand has the largest reserves accounting for about 25 per cent of the total reserves of India. This is followed by Orissa (21%), Karnataka (20%), Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh (18%) and Goa (11%). The remaining 5 per cent is shared by Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Assam. However, the pattern of actual production presents a slightly different picture (see Table 25.2).

It is worth mentioning that significant changes have taken place in the distribution pattern itself during the last few years. Earlier, Bihar (most of the iron producing areas has gone to Jharkhand now) was the largest producer which was excelled by Goa and Karnataka in quick succession. Goa occupied the first position among the major iron ore producing states for over a decade, but has been overtaken by Karnataka, Orissa and Chhattisgarh in due course of time.

At present, over 99 per cent of India s iron ore is produced by just five states of Karnataka, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Goa and Jharkhand. This fact speaks volumes of high concentration of iron ore reserves and their lopsided distribution in the country.

Iron ores are widely distributed in the state, but high grade ore deposits are those of Kemmangundi in Bababudan hills of Chikmagalur district and Sandur and Hospet in Bellary district. Most of the ores are high grade haematite and magnetite. The other important producing districts are Chitradurga, Uttar Kannad, Shimoga, Dharwar and Tumkur.

Orissa produces over 22 per cent iron ore of India. The most important deposits occur in Sundargarh, Mayurbhanj, Cuttack, Sambalpur, Keonjhar and Koraput districts. Indias richest haematite deposits are located in Barabil-Koira valley where 100 deposits are spread over 53 sq km. The ores are rich in haematites with 60 per cent iron content.

Sizeable deposits occur near Gorumahisani, Sulaipat and Badampahar in Mayurbhanj district; Banspani, Tahkurani, Toda, Kodekola, Kurband, Phillora and Kiriburu in Keonjhar district; near Malangtoli, Kandadhar Pahar, Koira and Barsua in Sundargarh district, Tomka range between Patwali and Kassa in Sukind area of Cuttack district, Daitari hill along the boundary between Keonjhar and Cuttack districts, Hirapur hills in Koraput district and Nalibassa hill in Sambalpur district.

Chhattisgarh has about 18 per cent of the total iron ore reserves of India. This state produced about 20 per cent of the total iron ore production of the country in 2002-03. The iron ores are widely distributed, the prominent deposits being those of Bastar and Durg districts.

The reserves in these districts are estimated to be of the order of 4,064 million tonnes. These reserves are of high grade ore, containing over 65 per cent iron. Bailadila in Bastar district and Dalli Rajhara in Durg district are important producers. In Bailadila, 14 deposits are located in 48 km long range running in north-south direction.

With estimated reserves of about 1,422 million tonnes, the Bailadila mine is the largest mechanised mine in Asia. An additional ore beneficiation plant with a capacity of 7.8 million tonnes is being set up in Bailadila. A 270 km long slurry pipeline is being constructed to bring the ore from the Bailadila pithead to the Vizag plant. This will reduce the pressure on road route to a great extent.

Bailadila produces high grade ore which is exported through Vishakhapatnam to Japan and other countries where it is in great demand. The Dalli-Rajhara range is 32 km long with iron ore reserves of about 120 million tonnes.

The ferrous content in this ore is estimated to be 68-69 per cent. The deposits of this range are being worked by the Hindustan Steels Plant at Bhilai. A new broad gauge rail line is planned to connect this range with Jagdalpur. Raigarh, Bilaspur, and Surguja are other iron ore producing districts.

Production of iron ore in Goa started quite late and it is a recent development. Starting from a non-identity, Goa is now the fourth largest producer of iron ore in India. Though its reserves, amounting to only 11 per cent of India, are not very impressive as compared to other major producing states, it occupied the first position among the iron ore producers for several years and yielded this place to M.P. in 1990s.

At present, Karantaka, Orissa and Chhattisgarh produce more iron ore, relegating Goa to fourth place. Goa now produces over 18 per cent of the total production of India. In 1975, the Geological Survey of India located 34 iron bearing reserves with estimated the total ore deposits of 390 million tonnes. There are nearly 315 mines in North Goa, Central Goa and South Goa.

Important deposits occur in Pima-Adolpale-Asnora, Sirigao-Bicholim-Daldal, Sanquelim-Onda, Kudnem-Pisurlem and Kudnem-Surla areas in North Goa; Tolsia-Dongarvado-Sanvordem and Quirapale-Santone-Costi in Central Goa; and Borgadongar, Netarlim, Rivona-Solomba and Barazan in South Goa.

The richest ore deposits are located in North Goa. These areas have the advantage of river transport or ropeways for local transport and that of Marmagao port for exporting the ore. Most of Goas iron ore is exported to Japan.

Most of the ore is of low grade limo-mite and siderite. Most of the mines are open-caste and mechanised which result in efficient exploitation of iron ore in spite of its inferior quality. About 34,000 people earn their livelihood from iron ore mining and allied activities in Goa.

Jharkhand accounts for 25 per cent of reserves and over 14 per cent of the total iron ore production of the country. Iron ore mining first of all started in the Singhbhum district in 1904 (then a part of Bihar). Iron ore of Singhbhum district is of highest quality and will last for hundreds of years.

The main iron bearing belt forms a range about 50 km long extending from near Gua to near Pantha in Bonai (Orissa). The other deposits in Singhbhum include those of Budhu Buru, Kotamati Burn and Rajori Buru. The well known Noamandi mines are situated at Kotamati Buru. Magnetite ores occur near Daltenganj in Palamu district. Less important magnetite deposits have been found in Santhal Parganas, Hazaribagh, Dhanbad and Ranchi districts.

Apart from the major producing states described above, iron ore in small quantities is produced in some other states also. They include Maharashtra : Chandrapur, Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg; Tamilnadu : Salem, North Arcot Ambedkar, Tiruchirapalli, Coimbatore, Madurai, Nellai Kattabomman (Tirunelveli); Andhra Pradesh : Kumool, Guntur, Cuddapah, Ananthapur, Khammam, Nellore; Rajasthan : Jaipur, Udaipur, Alwar, Sikar, Bundi, Bhilwara; Uttar Pradesh ; Mirzapur, Uttaranchal : Garhwal, Almora, Nainital; Himachal Pradesh : Kangra and Mandi; Haryana : Mahendragarh; West Bengal: Burdwan, Birbhum, Darjeeling; Jammu and Kashmir : Udhampur and Jammu; Gujarat: Bhavnagar, Junagadh, Vadodara; and Kerala : Kozhikode.

India is the fifth largest exporter of iron ore in the world. We export about 50 to 60 per cent of our total iron ore production to countries like Japan, Korea, European countries and lately to Gulf countries. Japan is the biggest buyer of Indian iron ore accounting for about three-fourths of our total exports. Major ports handling iron ore export are Vishakhapatnam, Paradip, Marmagao and Mangalore.

Efforts are being made to increase the production so that sufficient quantity of iron ore is available for export after meeting the requirements of the expanding home market. Export of iron ore is necessary for earning the much needed foreign exchange. Some success has been achieved in this direction as is evident from the export figures for the year 2002-03 and 2003-04 (see Table 25.3).

how the iron ore market works (vale, rio)

how the iron ore market works (vale, rio)

Iron ore is an essential component for the global iron and steel industries. Almost 98% of mined iron ore is used in steel making. About 50 countries mine iron ore, with Australia and Brazil dominating the market share for exports.

Mines in Michigan and Minnesota account for the bulk of iron ore production in the United States. In 2019, U.S. mines produced 48 million metric tons of iron ore. Australia led production with 930 million tons, followed by Brazil with 480 million tons. In 2019, global prices for iron ore averaged $112.15 per ton, an increase of 21% from $93 per ton in 2018. Prices were $88 per ton as of March 2020.

Iron ore is the third most common element making up the Earth. The principle components of iron ore are hematite and magnetite. Taconite is a low-grade iron ore. Iron ore is not strong enough for construction and other purposes, so raw iron is alloyed with other elements such as tungsten, manganese, nickel, vanadium and chromium. The steel made from iron ore is used in construction, automobile manufacturing and other industrial applications.

Over the past decade, the price of iron ore has fluctuated wildly. Prices peaked at $187 per metric ton in February 2011, then plunged to about $41 per ton in December 2015. As of March 2020, prices were about $88 per ton.

The price collapse was largely attributed to a drop in steel demand from China. The country purchases nearly two-thirds of the seaborne iron ore supply, which supports the businesses of major producers such as BHP Billiton (BHP),Rio Tinto (RIO) and Vale (VALE). In addition, these companies have access to low-cost iron ore deposits and benefit from economies of scale. As they ramped up production, the market went into oversupply, which forced high-cost iron ore mines to scale back production or fold.

Operating costs of the top iron ore producers are among the lowest in the world. A fully commercial iron ore mine requires heavycapital investmentin infrastructure such as rail lines and heavy machinery. Other factors impacting cost include the type of metallic iron that is economically retrievable at the mining site, distance to market,government regulations and fuel costs.

In the final quarter of 2019, Fortescue Mining Group (FSUMF) led its peers with a reported cash cost of $12.50 per ton. This compared to the $14.50 per ton cash cost reported by Vale. Rio Tinto had a cash cost of $14-$15 per ton, while the figure was $13 per ton for BHP Billiton.

Though China was the No. 3 iron ore producer, it was also the top importer, buying up 63% of the global trade. Japan was the second-largest importer, purchasing 8.3% of global trade, followed by South Korea at 5.1%.

Large economies of scale benefit the biggest producers, who can afford to weather iron ore price fluctuations. This allows them to take market share from smaller players that have higher costs. Global steel demand is expected to remain healthy, rising 1.7% to 1.8 billion tonnes in 2020.

The long-term investmentplans of the top three iron ore producers show that they intend to reduce costs further and increase production aggressively. Over the long term, the low-cost iron mines could potentially fill the gap that appears as smaller companies go under. The gain in market share would likely benefitmargins, operating cash flow and profits. The threat of a new entrant changing the dynamics in the iron ore market, as it is today, is low.

global iron ore production to recover by 5.1% in 2021 after covid-19 hit output in 2020, says globaldata

global iron ore production to recover by 5.1% in 2021 after covid-19 hit output in 2020, says globaldata

Global iron ore production fell by 3% to 2.2bnt in 2020. Declines from Brazil and India were major contributors to the reduced output in 2020. Combined production from these two countries fell from a collective 638.2Mt in 2019 to an estimated 591.1Mt in 2020. The reduced output from the iron ore giant, Vale was the key factor behind Brazils reduced output while delays in the auctioning of mines in Odisha affected Indias output in 2020. Miners in Australia were relatively unaffected by Covid-19 due to effective measures adopted by the Australian Government while a speedy recovery in China led to a significant 10.4% increase in the countrys iron ore output. Looking ahead, global iron ore production is expected to increase by 111.3Mt to 2,302.5Mt in 2021. Rio Tinto is expected to produce up to 340Mt of iron ore, whilst BHP has released production guidance of 245255Mt, helped by the start of the Samarco project in December, which is expected to produce between 1Mt to 2Mt. The company has retained its guidance for Australian mines at 276Mt to 286Mt on a 100% basis due to scheduled maintenance work at its ore handling plant and tie-in activity at the Area C mine and South-Flank mine. The remaining companies are expected to produce more than 600Mt of iron ore, including FMG, whose production is expected to range between 175Mt and 180Mt, supported by FMGs Eliwana mine that commenced operations in late December 2020 and Anglo American, which is expecting to produce between 64Mt and 67Mt. Vale is expected to resume 40Mt of its production capacity, taking its overall production capacity to 350Mt in 2021, with production guidance of 315Mt to 335Mt. Global production over the forecast period (2021-2025) is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.7% to 2,663.4Mt in 2025. The key contributors to this growth will be Brazil (6.2%), South Africa (4.1%), Australia (3.2%) and India (2.9%). Key upcoming projects expected to commence operations include South Flank in Australia (2021), Zulti in South Africa (H2 2021), Serrote Da Laje in Brazil (H2 2021) and Gudai-Darri (2022). Related Report Global Iron Ore Mining to 2025 Updated with Impact of COVID-19 Get the Report Latest report from Browse over 50,000 other reports on our store. Visit GlobalData Store Related Companies Bulk Mining Explosives (BME) Blast Optimisation Services for the Mining Industry Advanced Fleet Signs LED ID Signs for Mining Vehicles Outotec Minerals Processing Solutions Sustainable Use of Earths Natural Resources Related Companies Bulk Mining Explosives (BME) Blast Optimisation Services for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Advanced Fleet Signs LED ID Signs for Mining Vehicles 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Outotec Minerals Processing Solutions Sustainable Use of Earths Natural Resources 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

Miners in Australia were relatively unaffected by Covid-19 due to effective measures adopted by the Australian Government while a speedy recovery in China led to a significant 10.4% increase in the countrys iron ore output. Looking ahead, global iron ore production is expected to increase by 111.3Mt to 2,302.5Mt in 2021. Rio Tinto is expected to produce up to 340Mt of iron ore, whilst BHP has released production guidance of 245255Mt, helped by the start of the Samarco project in December, which is expected to produce between 1Mt to 2Mt. The company has retained its guidance for Australian mines at 276Mt to 286Mt on a 100% basis due to scheduled maintenance work at its ore handling plant and tie-in activity at the Area C mine and South-Flank mine. The remaining companies are expected to produce more than 600Mt of iron ore, including FMG, whose production is expected to range between 175Mt and 180Mt, supported by FMGs Eliwana mine that commenced operations in late December 2020 and Anglo American, which is expecting to produce between 64Mt and 67Mt. Vale is expected to resume 40Mt of its production capacity, taking its overall production capacity to 350Mt in 2021, with production guidance of 315Mt to 335Mt. Global production over the forecast period (2021-2025) is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.7% to 2,663.4Mt in 2025. The key contributors to this growth will be Brazil (6.2%), South Africa (4.1%), Australia (3.2%) and India (2.9%). Key upcoming projects expected to commence operations include South Flank in Australia (2021), Zulti in South Africa (H2 2021), Serrote Da Laje in Brazil (H2 2021) and Gudai-Darri (2022). Related Report Global Iron Ore Mining to 2025 Updated with Impact of COVID-19 Get the Report Latest report from Browse over 50,000 other reports on our store. Visit GlobalData Store Related Companies Bulk Mining Explosives (BME) Blast Optimisation Services for the Mining Industry Advanced Fleet Signs LED ID Signs for Mining Vehicles Outotec Minerals Processing Solutions Sustainable Use of Earths Natural Resources Related Companies Bulk Mining Explosives (BME) Blast Optimisation Services for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Advanced Fleet Signs LED ID Signs for Mining Vehicles 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Outotec Minerals Processing Solutions Sustainable Use of Earths Natural Resources 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

Looking ahead, global iron ore production is expected to increase by 111.3Mt to 2,302.5Mt in 2021. Rio Tinto is expected to produce up to 340Mt of iron ore, whilst BHP has released production guidance of 245255Mt, helped by the start of the Samarco project in December, which is expected to produce between 1Mt to 2Mt. The company has retained its guidance for Australian mines at 276Mt to 286Mt on a 100% basis due to scheduled maintenance work at its ore handling plant and tie-in activity at the Area C mine and South-Flank mine. The remaining companies are expected to produce more than 600Mt of iron ore, including FMG, whose production is expected to range between 175Mt and 180Mt, supported by FMGs Eliwana mine that commenced operations in late December 2020 and Anglo American, which is expecting to produce between 64Mt and 67Mt. Vale is expected to resume 40Mt of its production capacity, taking its overall production capacity to 350Mt in 2021, with production guidance of 315Mt to 335Mt. Global production over the forecast period (2021-2025) is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.7% to 2,663.4Mt in 2025. The key contributors to this growth will be Brazil (6.2%), South Africa (4.1%), Australia (3.2%) and India (2.9%). Key upcoming projects expected to commence operations include South Flank in Australia (2021), Zulti in South Africa (H2 2021), Serrote Da Laje in Brazil (H2 2021) and Gudai-Darri (2022). Related Report Global Iron Ore Mining to 2025 Updated with Impact of COVID-19 Get the Report Latest report from Browse over 50,000 other reports on our store. Visit GlobalData Store Related Companies Bulk Mining Explosives (BME) Blast Optimisation Services for the Mining Industry Advanced Fleet Signs LED ID Signs for Mining Vehicles Outotec Minerals Processing Solutions Sustainable Use of Earths Natural Resources Related Companies Bulk Mining Explosives (BME) Blast Optimisation Services for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Advanced Fleet Signs LED ID Signs for Mining Vehicles 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Outotec Minerals Processing Solutions Sustainable Use of Earths Natural Resources 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

Looking ahead, global iron ore production is expected to increase by 111.3Mt to 2,302.5Mt in 2021. Rio Tinto is expected to produce up to 340Mt of iron ore, whilst BHP has released production guidance of 245255Mt, helped by the start of the Samarco project in December, which is expected to produce between 1Mt to 2Mt. The company has retained its guidance for Australian mines at 276Mt to 286Mt on a 100% basis due to scheduled maintenance work at its ore handling plant and tie-in activity at the Area C mine and South-Flank mine. The remaining companies are expected to produce more than 600Mt of iron ore, including FMG, whose production is expected to range between 175Mt and 180Mt, supported by FMGs Eliwana mine that commenced operations in late December 2020 and Anglo American, which is expecting to produce between 64Mt and 67Mt. Vale is expected to resume 40Mt of its production capacity, taking its overall production capacity to 350Mt in 2021, with production guidance of 315Mt to 335Mt. Global production over the forecast period (2021-2025) is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.7% to 2,663.4Mt in 2025. The key contributors to this growth will be Brazil (6.2%), South Africa (4.1%), Australia (3.2%) and India (2.9%). Key upcoming projects expected to commence operations include South Flank in Australia (2021), Zulti in South Africa (H2 2021), Serrote Da Laje in Brazil (H2 2021) and Gudai-Darri (2022). Related Report Global Iron Ore Mining to 2025 Updated with Impact of COVID-19 Get the Report Latest report from Browse over 50,000 other reports on our store. Visit GlobalData Store Related Companies Bulk Mining Explosives (BME) Blast Optimisation Services for the Mining Industry Advanced Fleet Signs LED ID Signs for Mining Vehicles Outotec Minerals Processing Solutions Sustainable Use of Earths Natural Resources Related Companies Bulk Mining Explosives (BME) Blast Optimisation Services for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Advanced Fleet Signs LED ID Signs for Mining Vehicles 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Outotec Minerals Processing Solutions Sustainable Use of Earths Natural Resources 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

The remaining companies are expected to produce more than 600Mt of iron ore, including FMG, whose production is expected to range between 175Mt and 180Mt, supported by FMGs Eliwana mine that commenced operations in late December 2020 and Anglo American, which is expecting to produce between 64Mt and 67Mt. Vale is expected to resume 40Mt of its production capacity, taking its overall production capacity to 350Mt in 2021, with production guidance of 315Mt to 335Mt. Global production over the forecast period (2021-2025) is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.7% to 2,663.4Mt in 2025. The key contributors to this growth will be Brazil (6.2%), South Africa (4.1%), Australia (3.2%) and India (2.9%). Key upcoming projects expected to commence operations include South Flank in Australia (2021), Zulti in South Africa (H2 2021), Serrote Da Laje in Brazil (H2 2021) and Gudai-Darri (2022). Related Report Global Iron Ore Mining to 2025 Updated with Impact of COVID-19 Get the Report Latest report from Browse over 50,000 other reports on our store. Visit GlobalData Store Related Companies Bulk Mining Explosives (BME) Blast Optimisation Services for the Mining Industry Advanced Fleet Signs LED ID Signs for Mining Vehicles Outotec Minerals Processing Solutions Sustainable Use of Earths Natural Resources Related Companies Bulk Mining Explosives (BME) Blast Optimisation Services for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Advanced Fleet Signs LED ID Signs for Mining Vehicles 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Outotec Minerals Processing Solutions Sustainable Use of Earths Natural Resources 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

Global production over the forecast period (2021-2025) is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.7% to 2,663.4Mt in 2025. The key contributors to this growth will be Brazil (6.2%), South Africa (4.1%), Australia (3.2%) and India (2.9%). Key upcoming projects expected to commence operations include South Flank in Australia (2021), Zulti in South Africa (H2 2021), Serrote Da Laje in Brazil (H2 2021) and Gudai-Darri (2022). Related Report Global Iron Ore Mining to 2025 Updated with Impact of COVID-19 Get the Report Latest report from Browse over 50,000 other reports on our store. Visit GlobalData Store Related Companies Bulk Mining Explosives (BME) Blast Optimisation Services for the Mining Industry Advanced Fleet Signs LED ID Signs for Mining Vehicles Outotec Minerals Processing Solutions Sustainable Use of Earths Natural Resources Related Companies Bulk Mining Explosives (BME) Blast Optimisation Services for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Advanced Fleet Signs LED ID Signs for Mining Vehicles 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Outotec Minerals Processing Solutions Sustainable Use of Earths Natural Resources 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

costs crisis as labor shortage emerges behind australias closed border

costs crisis as labor shortage emerges behind australias closed border

Mining companies in particular are feeling the squeeze with a growing line of producers reporting cutbacks in output thanks to a shortage of workers with, even those with the most basic skills, such as truck driving.

The result is that the companys major asset in Australia, the Gwalia mine at Leonora, is expected to produce at least 15,000 fewer ounces of gold in the year which ends on June 30 at an additional cost of more than $150/oz.

Investors were quick to sell St Barbara shares after the release of that guidance update on Tuesday, triggering a 14% fall in the companys share price even as the price of gold added $20/oz to $1867/oz.

St Barbara said in a statement to the Australian stock exchange that part of the problem with costs and a reduced production expectation was a slower than predicted changeover in a key mine services contractor and slow recruitment of experienced mine operators.

Guidance for financial 2021 is now forecast to be between 150,000oz-and-160,000oz of gold, previously 175,000oz with the all-in sustaining cost (AISC) between $1412/oz and $1517/oz previously between $1237 and $1268/oz.

Big iron ore miner, Rio Tinto, has reported a shortage of skilled workers to handle routine equipment maintenance and Fortescue Metals has seen work on a new project delayed because of difficulties in flying workers in from other States to its operations in Western Australia.

Earlier the month, the U.S.-based specialty chemical making company, Albemarle, described labor market conditions in Western Australia where it is developing lithium processing assets as being in a crisis.

Competition for skilled labor and equipment from other mining companies, especially those riding a record high iron ore price, is delaying Albemarles project development plans despite it having sold out of lithium for the rest of the year.

Chris Ellison, chief executive of iron ore miner and mine services provider, Mineral Resources, said that despite hiring an extra 1400 people over the past 10 months his mining plans were being effected by the skills shortage.

The core problem for the mining companies is that they are competing for a limited supply of labor, made worse by Australias Covid-closed border, at a time of record high prices for minerals and metals.

I studied geology in the 1960s and worked for a small mining company before getting a start in journalism during the 1969 nickel boom. Since then I've covered repeated booms and busts in the commodities sector for a passing parade of newspapers, magazines and website. I am also a regular contributor to radio and television news services in Australia.

I studied geology in the 1960s and worked for a small mining company before getting a start in journalism during the 1969 nickel boom. Since then I've covered repeated booms and busts in the commodities sector for a passing parade of newspapers, magazines and website. I am also a regular contributor to radio and television news services in Australia.

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