Having trouble understanding mining terminology? Heres a comprehensive A-Z guide of mining terms you need to know if you are considering investing in the mining industry or are just curious about how mining works.
Bankable feasibility study (BFS): A BFS represents a base case for financiers. A positive BFS is one that satisfactorily provides all of the information necessary for a bank to determine that the project is viable.
Blast furnace: A reaction vessel in which mixed charges of oxide ores, fluxes and fuels are blown with a continuous blast of hot air and oxygen-enriched air for the chemical reduction of metals to their metallic state.
Carbon in leach (CIL) process: A recovery process in which a slurry of gold ore, carbon granules and cyanide are mixed together. The cyanide dissolves the gold content and the gold is absorbed on the carbon; the carbon is subsequently separated from the slurry for further gold removal.
Carbon in pulp (CIP) process: Similar to carbon-in-leach process, but initially the slurry is subjected to cyanide leaching in separate tanks followed by carbon-in-pulp. Carbon-in-leach is a simultaneous process.
CFR (Cost and freight): A trade term requiring the seller to arrange for the carriage of goods by sea to a port of destination. Under CFR, the seller does not have to get insurance against the risk of loss or damage to the goods during transit.
Coking coal (metallurgical coal): A grade of coal that meets the requirements for making coke. It must have a low ash and sulfur content and form a coke that is capable of supporting the charge of iron ore and limestone in a blast furnace.
DSO (Direct shipping ore): High grade hematite is often referred to as DSO because it is mined and beneficiated using a relatively simple crushing and screening process before being exported for use in steel mills.
Feasibility study: An evaluation of a proposed mining project to determine whether the mineral resource can be mined economically. There are four types of feasibility studies used in mining: scoping, preliminary feasibility (PFS), definitive feasibility (DFS) and bankable feasibility (BFS).
Itabirite: A term widely used in Brazil to denote a banded iron formation containing between 20% and 64% Fe. Unlike the typical Australian magnetite, itabirite requires very little energy to liberate the iron, and therefore is significantly easier and cheaper to upgrade to a saleable product.
RC drilling: Reverse circulation drilling; RC drilling is similar to air core drilling, in that the drill cuttings are returned to surface inside the rods. RC drilling is slower and costlier but achieves better penetration than RAB or air core drilling.
Reserves: are valuable, and legally, economically and technically feasible to extract. Reserves can be classified as proven or probable for miners. For oil and gas companies, reserves are proven, probable or possible.
Seismic survey: Exploration method in which strong low-frequency sound waves are generated on the surface or in the water to find subsurface rock structures that may contain hydrocarbons. 3-D Seismic means seismic data that is acquired and processed to yield a three-dimensional picture of the subsurface.
Strip ratio: The ratio of tonnes removed as waste relative to the number of tonnes of ore removed from an open-pit mine. For example, a 3:1 stripping ratio means that mining one cubic metre of ore will require mining three cubic metres of waste rock.
Sulphide ore: Sulphide ores are generally found hundreds of metres below surface, and generally require underground mining infrastructure. The main benefit to sulphide ores is that they can be concentrated using a simple physical separation technique called flotation.
Working interest: A working interest in an oil or gas property is one that is burdened with the cost of development and operation of the property, such as the responsibility to share expenses of drilling.
S3 Consortium Pty Ltd (CAR No.433913) is a corporate authorised representative of LeMessurier Securities Pty Ltd (AFSL No. 296877). The information contained in this article is general information only. Any advice is general advice only. Neither your personal objectives, financial situation nor needs have been taken into consideration. Accordingly you should consider how appropriate the advice (if any) is to those objectives, financial situation and needs, before acting on the advice.
S3 Consortium Pty Ltd does and seeks to do business with companies featured in its articles. As a result, investors should be aware that the Firm may have a conflict of interest that could affect the objectivity of this article. Investors should consider this article as only a single factor in making any investment decision. The publishers of this article also wish to disclose that they may hold this stock in their portfolios and that any decision to purchase this stock should be done so after the purchaser has made their own inquires as to the validity of any information in this article.
The information contained in this article is current at the finalised date. The information contained in this article is based on sources reasonably considered to be reliable by S3 Consortium Pty Ltd, and available in the public domain. No insider information is ever sourced, disclosed or used by S3 Consortium.
As the first digital publication dedicated specifically to this space, Finfeed soon became the most trusted publication in the market, quickly garnering over two million page views a number that continues to rise.
Finfeed.com provides its readers with informative articles that tackle the latest in market moving #ASX small cap news, plus exclusive content you wont find anywhere else. It is aimed at those with an interest in investing, market education, company performance, start-ups and much more.
Over the years, the website has expanded beyond exclusively reporting on small caps, to profile Australias leading ASX listed small, mid and large caps as well as some of the countrys most successful CEOs and business leaders to find out what makes them tick.
The information in this website is general information only. Any advice is general advice only. Your personal objectives, financial situation or needs have not been taken into consideration. Accordingly you should consider how appropriate the advice (if any) is to those objectives, financial situation and needs, before acting on the advice. S3 Consortium Pty Ltd (CAR No.433913) is a corporate authorised representative of LeMessurier Securities Pty Ltd (AFSL No. 296877).
Most of our products and continuous improvements made were initiated from field experience. We actively review the performance in operation and make necessary modifications to ensure that our products have the lowest owning and operating costs in the industry.
The original millMAX pump revolutionised the slurry pump industry with the initial patented suction side anti-recirculation device. This feature gained rapid acceptance in the mining industry, enabling FLSmidth to expand the range of KREBS pumps to what it is today.
The nature of slurry pumping requires excellent availability of spare parts. To provide the support our customers need and expect, we manufacture in several locations and have warehousing in many countries and regions. The right part at the right time and at the right location is essential to our customers, and therefore, to us.
Since 1952, our advanced hydrocyclone technology has evolved to the latest generation KREBS gMAX cyclone with patented geometry enhancements, providing high throughput and industry-leading performance. The finer and sharper separations resulting from these improvements benefit processes from hard rock mining, coal, pulp & paper, chemicals, power (FGD), and much more.
As we constantly expand usage of advanced engineered wear materials, we continually extend the life of our cyclones, thus reducing maintenance requirements and lowering total cost of ownership. Combined with unique condition monitoring solutions, the performance of downstream processes is also enhanced, reducing unscheduled downtime and increasing plant production.
Our KREBSTechnequip valves are designed as a premium heavy-duty slurry valve that can measure up to the most demanding applications. The full range of slurry valve styles and options we have available give us the flexibility to ensure you get a product that is well suited for your specific needs.
We believe that providing our customers with solutions that generate sustainable productivity benefits requires more than just industry-leading products. It requires a team of passionate people dedicated to making your operations a success.
To fulfil our customers needs, we have a large team of experienced service engineers employed to constantly monitor performance and train the customers maintenance personnel. Thanks to our worldwide sales and service networks, KREBS products are now accepted in all mining regions.
TheKREBSbrand was born out of a small company started in 1952. Brothers Dick and Kelly Krebs manufactured and sold their first cyclone in 1953 to an aggregate company in Orange, California. Over the next 12 years, the Krebs brothers took a revolutionary approach to the calculation, design, and production of cyclones, laying the foundation for the success of KREBScyclones.
By 1965, the company has become renowned for its products, not just in United States, but in other countries, as well. The cyclone models were sold to industrial, water treatment, mining and other industries.
Today, KREBS pumps, cyclones and valves are sold in almost every country on the globe. We stand by our products and we continue to design and innovate the cyclones that the Krebs boys started almost 70 years ago.
FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.
Costs are an inherent aspect of evaluating, advancing and generating profits from any mining property. They often make or break projects and are typically the final stop before go/no go development decisions are made. As such, costs, in some formor another, are one of the biggest topics of discussion in the mining industry. Despite that fact, I would also suggest that the process for obtaining costs is one of the least discussed topics in our industry.
An obvious generic answer to when costs should be obtained and considered might be on-going, but for prefeasibil-ity costing the true answer is when you have a measured and indicated resource. Exploration stage properties or properties with only an inferred resource do require cost considerations (scoping or preliminary economic analysis [PEA]) but they are still too speculative and provide only a hint of what could be. Similarly, if much of your engineering work is complete and of final feasibility detail (feasibility study [FS]), youve waited too long and possibly sunk unnecessary costs into the project. Figure 1 highlights the parameters for each study level.
While these comments may seem rudimentary, the reality is that many in our industry do not fully understand the concept of prefeasibility. It is the authors opinion that prefeasibility is the point at which you have enough scientific data in hand that you can safely say, Ive really got something here!
If you will notice, I have indicated that prefeasibility is contingent upon the amount of scientific data in hand, not engineering data. Generally speaking, when entering a prefeasibility level study, your project will have had very little engineering completed. This is important to remember because the input data is all you will have to work with when we talk about the hurdles that must be overcome to obtain costs.
The output side of a prefeasibility level project provides insight as to what costs are needed and how the costing data is utilized. For example, for a pre-feasibility level project, preliminary equip-ment lists and subsequent development costs are derived based on the results of trade-off studies for proposed mining and pro-cessing methods (Figure 2). Unfortunately, one of the larger tasks encountered during a pre-feasibility study is related to the process of obtaining costs for the needed equipment.
As noted earlier, it is typical at the prefeasibility level to have very little engineering data available. For example, while you mayknow that you have a surface copper project that requires loaders and trucks followed by crushing, milling and flotation, you may not have enough metallurgical work completed to know how fine the material must be ground or how the flotation circuit needs to be configured for the best recovery of all byproducts. This lack of data becomes an issue when you call equipment manufactures to obtain budget quotes for their products.
This issue of a general lack of data is compounded by the highly engineered and integrated systems we have in the mining industry today. This is particularly true for the processing side of the equa-tion, where the cost estimator may no longer be able to simply derive overall costs from off-the-shelf component prices. In fact, most manufacturers of complex processing equipment will not provide component costs at the prefeasibility level.
The time involved to obtain cost data can be substantial on the order of weeks and months given the strategies that must be employed to mitigate the first two hurdles noted earlier. The more complex the project, the more time is needed to prepare quote requests and gather quotes. Time is money.
The acquisition of cost data for prefeasibility level mine development studies is not simple. A thorough understanding of the three primary study levels is required to identify the types and accuracy of costing data appropriate for each level. Moreover, a well identified procurement strategy is recommended to overcome thehurdles associated with the acquisition of costs.
Max Feeding size <25mm Discharge size0.075-0.4mm Typesoverflow ball mills, grate discharge ball mills Service 24hrs quotation, custom made parts, processing flow design & optimization, one year warranty, on-site installation.
Ball mill, also known as ball grinding machine, a well-known ore grinding machine, widely used in the mining, construction, aggregate application. JXSC start the ball mill business since 1985, supply globally service includes design, manufacturing, installation, and free operation training. Type according to the discharge type, overflow ball mill, grate discharge ball mill; according to the grinding conditions, wet milling, dry grinding; according to the ball mill media. Wet grinding gold, chrome, tin, coltan, tantalite, silica sand, lead, pebble, and the like mining application. Dry grinding cement, building stone, power, etc. Grinding media ball steel ball, manganese, chrome, ceramic ball, etc. Common steel ball sizes 40mm, 60mm, 80mm, 100mm, 120mm. Ball mill liner Natural rubber plate, manganese steel plate, 50-130mm custom thickness. Features 1. Effective grinding technology for diverse applications 2. Long life and minimum maintenance 3. Automatization 4. Working Continuously 5. Quality guarantee, safe operation, energy-saving. The ball grinding mill machine usually coordinates with other rock crusher machines, like jaw crusher, cone crusher, to reduce the ore particle into fine and superfine size. Ball mills grinding tasks can be done under dry or wet conditions. Get to know more details of rock crushers, ore grinders, contact us!
Ball mill parts feed, discharge, barrel, gear, motor, reducer, bearing, bearing seat, frame, liner plate, steel ball, etc. Contact our overseas office for buying ball mill components, wear parts, and your mine site visits. Ball mill working principle High energy ball milling is a type of powder grinding mill used to grind ores and other materials to 25 mesh or extremely fine powders, mainly used in the mineral processing industry, both in open or closed circuits. Ball milling is a grinding method that reduces the product into a controlled final grind and a uniform size, usually, the manganese, iron, steel balls or ceramic are used in the collision container. The ball milling process prepared by rod mill, sag mill (autogenous / semi autogenous grinding mill), jaw crusher, cone crusher, and other single or multistage crushing and screening. Ball mill manufacturer With more than 35 years of experience in grinding balls mill technology, JXSC design and produce heavy-duty scientific ball mill with long life minimum maintenance among industrial use, laboratory use. Besides, portable ball mills are designed for the mobile mineral processing plant. How much the ball mill, and how much invest a crushing plant? contact us today! Find more ball mill diagram at ball mill PDF ServiceBall mill design, Testing of the material, grinding circuit design, on site installation. The ball grinding mill machine usually coordinates with other rock crusher machines, like jaw crusher, cone crusher, get to know more details of rock crushers, ore grinders, contact us! sag mill vs ball mill, rod mill vs ball mill
How many types of ball mill 1. Based on the axial orientation a. Horizontal ball mill. It is the most common type supplied from ball mill manufacturers in China. Although the capacity, specification, and structure may vary from every supplier, they are basically shaped like a cylinder with a drum inside its chamber. As the name implies, it comes in a longer and thinner shape form that vertical ball mills. Most horizontal ball mills have timers that shut down automatically when the material is fully processed. b. Vertical ball mills are not very commonly used in industries owing to its capacity limitation and specific structure. Vertical roller mill comes in the form of an erect cylinder rather than a horizontal type like a detachable drum, that is the vertical grinding mill only produced base on custom requirements by vertical ball mill manufacturers. 2. Base on the loading capacity Ball mill manufacturers in China design different ball mill sizes to meet the customers from various sectors of the public administration, such as colleges and universities, metallurgical institutes, and mines. a. Industrial ball mills. They are applied in the manufacturing factories, where they need them to grind a huge amount of material into specific particles, and alway interlink with other equipment like feeder, vibrating screen. Such as ball mill for mining, ceramic industry, cement grinding. b. Planetary Ball Mills, small ball mill. They are intended for usage in the testing laboratory, usually come in the form of vertical structure, has a small chamber and small loading capacity. Ball mill for sale In all the ore mining beneficiation and concentrating processes, including gravity separation, chemical, froth flotation, the working principle is to prepare fine size ores by crushing and grinding often with rock crushers, rod mill, and ball mils for the subsequent treatment. Over a period of many years development, the fine grinding fineness have been reduced many times, and the ball mill machine has become the widest used grinding machine in various applications due to solid structure, and low operation cost. The ball miller machine is a tumbling mill that uses steel milling balls as the grinding media, applied in either primary grinding or secondary grinding applications. The feed can be dry or wet, as for dry materials process, the shell dustproof to minimize the dust pollution. Gear drive mill barrel tumbles iron or steel balls with the ore at a speed. Usually, the balls filling rate about 40%, the mill balls size are initially 3080 cm diameter but gradually wore away as the ore was ground. In general, ball mill grinder can be fed either wet or dry, the ball mill machine is classed by electric power rather than diameter and capacity. JXSC ball mill manufacturer has industrial ball mill and small ball mill for sale, power range 18.5-800KW. During the production process, the ball grinding machine may be called cement mill, limestone ball mill, sand mill, coal mill, pebble mill, rotary ball mill, wet grinding mill, etc. JXSC ball mills are designed for high capacity long service, good quality match Metso ball mill. Grinding media Grinding balls for mining usually adopt wet grinding ball mills, mostly manganese, steel, lead balls. Ceramic balls for ball mill often seen in the laboratory. Types of ball mill: wet grinding ball mill, dry grinding ball mill, horizontal ball mill, vibration mill, large ball mill, coal mill, stone mill grinder, tumbling ball mill, etc. The ball mill barrel is filled with powder and milling media, the powder can reduce the balls falling impact, but if the power too much that may cause balls to stick to the container side. Along with the rotational force, the crushing action mill the power, so, it is essential to ensure that there is enough space for media to tumble effectively. How does ball mill work The material fed into the drum through the hopper, motor drive cylinder rotates, causing grinding balls rises and falls follow the drum rotation direction, the grinding media be lifted to a certain height and then fall back into the cylinder and onto the material to be ground. The rotation speed is a key point related to the ball mill efficiency, rotation speed too great or too small, neither bring good grinding result. Based on experience, the rotat
ion is usually set between 4-20/minute, if the speed too great, may create centrifuge force thus the grinding balls stay with the mill perimeter and dont fall. In summary, it depends on the mill diameter, the larger the diameter, the slower the rotation (the suitable rotation speed adjusted before delivery). What is critical speed of ball mill? The critical speed of the ball mill is the speed at which the centrifugal force is equal to the gravity on the inner surface of the mill so that no ball falls from its position onto the mill shell. Ball mill machines usually operates at 65-75% of critical speed. What is the ball mill price? There are many factors affects the ball mill cost, for quicker quotations, kindly let me know the following basic information. (1) Application, what is the grinding material? (2) required capacity, feeding and discharge size (3) dry or wet grinding (4) single machine or complete processing plant, etc.
When crafting one of these tools they have around a 10% chance to become a lucky tool, which gives a +80% increased chance of getting extra materials which gathering. This is the same as a Magic Tool, but lucky tools have a lower durability and higher gathering time.
You should aim to get gathering level 5 to increase your gathering speed. This can be done a number of ways but should be fairly easy. Most people can get between level +1 to +3 from their passive guild buff. You can then use a Balenos Meal for an additional +2, or use an Alchemy Stone/Life Spirit Stone for +2.Ideally you will then want to use Fig Pie for the increased Gathering Item Drop Rate and Life Mastery clothing and accessories to increase your drops as much as possible.Here is an excellent gear roadmap made by DMUK on the Lifeskill discord. This shows what you should aim for to improve your Gathering Mastery.
These rotations were collected and compiled by the amazing community on the Lifeskill discord. Full credit goes to the discord for these resources and I highly recommend joining for an updated list and other helpful resources.I also recommend taking a look at this Gathering Calculator to help you work out what is best for you to gather depending on your goals.Gathering certain basic resources have a higher or lower rate for EXP, Black Gem Fragments and Ancient Spirit Dust/Caphras.
Estimators, engineers, mine planners, appraisers and purchasing agents have relied on the Mine & Mill Equipment Cost Guide for over 20 years. Gathered directly from the source, with manufacturers, dealers and mining companies providing the most current information available.
Our Equipment Cost Guide is the most reliable source of equipment costs available to the mining industry. Estimators now have access to a convenient source of hourly operating costs as well as capital costs for virtually every piece of equipment listed in our previous guides.
Included are capital and operating costs for over 3,000 equipment items most commonly found at mines and mills around the world from 2 HP pumps to 2,000 HP trucks, from $200 slusher buckets to $30,000,000 walking draglines.
Calculate capital and hourly operating costs for virtually every equipment item needed for your project in a matter of minutes. Never guess at costs or waste time trying to locate a manufacturer to give you prices. The Mine & Mill Equipment Cost Guide has tabulated all the cost data you need in a convenient look-up format. Our capital costs are actual list prices or reliable estimations, and our operating costs are solid engineering estimates.
The Mine & Mill Equipment Cost Guide covers more than 3,000 items of mobile, portable, and stationary equipment commonly required by mining and milling operations. Select from a full range of sizes and types, with productivity information for many items.
Our equipment cost data also comes in a convenient online format. The Equipment Cost Calculator allows you to build your equipment fleet, tabulate its costs, adjust for local economics and conditions, and export the data into your own spreadsheet for further analysis.Get in Touch with Mechanic