major mines & projects | candelaria mine

major mines & projects | candelaria mine

The copper-gold sulphide mineralization found at the Candelaria Copper Mining Complex is generally referred to as iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) mineralization. The sulphide mineralization occurs in breccias, stockwork veinlets, disseminations in andesite, and as an internal tuff unit. There are also some localized controls to mineralization in the form of faults, breccias, veins, and foliation. Candelaria has become an exploration model for Andean-type IOCG deposits that display close relationships to the plutonic complexes and broadly coeval fault systems. Depending on lithology and the structural setting, the polymetallic sulphide mineralization can occur as veins, hydrothermal breccias, replacement mantos, and calcic skarns. The Candelaria IOCG system lies within the thermal aureole of the Lower Cretaceous magmatic arc plutonic suite in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre district.The main mineralized body at the Candelaria mine is hosted in rocks of the Punta del Cobre Formation. Specifically, the host rocks are massive andesite and breccias of the lower andesite, and volcanic tuffs and volcaniclastic rocks at the base of the upper andesite. In the metasedimentary rock, the mineralization is confined to a few isolated layers (mantos).The mineralized body is up to 400 metres thick in its central part and thins towards the edges. In east-west sections, the mineralization has a lenticular, downward concave shape with a steep eastern limb and a shallowly dipping western limb. The shape of the mineralized body in north-south section is irregular. In plan view, the extent of the mineralization is approximately 1,400 metres by 2,400 metres. The mineralized body was folded after its formation. The north-northeast-trending fold axis corresponds to the Tierra Amarilla anticline.The mineralization assemblage in the Candelaria mine consists of chalcopyrite, magnetite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. Biotite, calc-silicate minerals, and potassium feldspar constitute the gangue minerals. Pervasive potassic alteration is associated with the mineralization.Chalcopyrite is the only primary copper sulphide present in the Santos mine. Additionally to copper mineralization, there are economic values of gold. Most frequent gangue minerals are pyrite, magnetite, actinolite, k-feldspar, chlorite, biotite and hematite. In the Santos mine, three types of mineralized bodies are observed: veins, mantos, and breccia bodies. An important vein in the Santos mine is the Isabel, which is oriented northwest-striking, and extends over 1 kilometre in length and between 4 and 30 metres in width. Manto-type mineralization occurs as tabular bodies hosted in two sedimentary horizons located in the floor and roof of the albitophyre. The manto mineralization is characterized by variable iron contents with magnetite common in the north and deeper areas, and specular hematite in the south. Mineralization occurs within breccia bodies is typically contained with the albitoforo and lower andesite and is formed by steeply west-dipping and north-northwest- to northwest-striking bodies. Mineralized bodies at the Alcaparrosa mine have a manto-type geometry that trend to the northeast and dip to the west. Ore and gangue mineralogy consists of chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite, with trace pyrrhotite, molybdenite, and arsenopyrite. Mineralization styles at the Alcaparrosa mine also occurs as veinlets defining dense stockwork, breccias (hydrothermal potassium feldspar and magnetite), as well as fine dissemination in biotite meta-andesites. High grade bodies are also found in massive veins striking north-northwest, north, and east.

Minera Candelaria consists of the Candelaria Open Pit and the Candelaria Underground mines. Minera Ojos del Salado consists of the Santos and Alcaparrosa underground mines. The Candelaria and the Minera Ojos del Salado facilities are close to each other.The Candelaria Open Pit mine operates with an overall mining rate of approximately 310,000 tonnes per day over the next 10 years including an average of 45,000 tonnes per day of ore sent to the Candelaria processing plant together with substantial quantities of ore recovered from the WIP stockpiles. The average grade of the ore that will be mined from the open pit over the remaining life of mine (LOM) is estimated at 0.49 percent copper, while stockpiled work-in-progress material is estimated to have an average grade of 0.33 percent copper.The Candelaria Underground mine is forecast to produce 9,000 tonnes per day of ore in 2018, ramping up to a steady state of 14,000 tonnes per day by 2021 as per the LOM plan. The average LOM grade is 0.85 percent copper. The Alcaparrosa mine currently produces 4,300 tonnes per day of ore and is expected to maintain that rate in the LOM plan. The LOM average grade is 0.79 percent copper. The Santos mine will continue to produce at its current rate of production of 5,200 tonnes per day of ore with an average LOM grade of 0.91 percent copper. The mining method in all three underground mines is sublevel open stoping.The LOM plan for the Candelaria Copper Mining Complex is largely driven by supplying ore to the Candelaria processing plant from the Candelaria and Espaola open pit open pits although higher grade underground sources are of increasing importance. Surface WIP stockpiles are fed to the plant once the open pit Mineral Reserves have been depleted. The open pit and work-in-progress stockpile Proven and Probable Mineral Reserves are estimated at 499.9 million tonnes at an average grade of 0.45 percent copper, 0.11 gram of gold per tonne, and 1.47 grams per tonne silver.The Candelaria open pit was designed to be mined in several phases of development. As of June 2018, five phases of development remain in the LOM plan (Phases 9 to 13). The overall strip ratio is expected to be 2.45:1 including ore that is initially delivered to stockpiles. The total in-pit waste is 939.6 million tonnes and the overall life of the open pit mine is 17 years.For the Espaola project the total in-pit waste is 83.2 million tonnes and the overall life estimated in 7 years.The three underground mines (Candelaria Underground, Santos, and Alcaparrosa) utilize a sublevel stoping mining method for ore extraction. This method is ideal for relatively large, vertical, as well as thick deposits with favourable and stable host rock. Stopes can typically be up to 180 metres high with sublevels at 20 to 60 metre intervals. The length of the stopes is generally 40 to 100 metres with widths varying between 20 to 30 metres. Stopes are drilled down from the sublevel drilling drifts as benches using 114 to 140 mm diameter down-the-hole holes. The holes are loaded and blasted in vertical slices towards an open face created by the slot blasting. The blasted ore gravitates to the bottom of the stope and is collected in draw points at the production level below. This lower level also consists of the haulage (transport) drift. The undercut levels, which feed the draw points, are 15 to 20 metres high and inclined at 50 to 60 degrees to allow the blasted ore to flow easily by gravity. An Epiroc Simba tophammer rig drills 64 mm up holes within the undercut, which are loaded and blasted with the downholes. Once the stope is mined, a remaining rib pillar, which can be another 20 to 30 metres wide, may be blasted into the stope to increase the extraction tonnage. Typically, a 20-metre structural pillar remains between each stope and no backfill is used at these operations. Mucked ore is dumped into 60 tonne underground trucks or 30 tonne highway type trucks (being replaced by the former trucks) and hauled up the ramp to a surface stockpile for subsequent re-handling and processing

Minera CandelariaRun-of-mine ore is trucked to a primary gyratory crusher. The crushed product is transported using an overland conveyor belt to a coarse ore stockpile with a combined live and dead capacity of 500,000 tonnes. Semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mills are followed by pebble crushing, with separate grinding of a portion of the crushed pebbles and the remainder brought back to the SAG mills. This circuit is followed by closed-circuit ball milling with hydrocyclones to classify the flotation feed size.Minera Ojos del SaladoThe concentrator flowsheet comprises a closed-circuit crushing plant including a primary jaw crusher (48 by 60 inches), a secondary cone crusher and two tertiary cone crushers.The grinding plant has three ball mills (one 9 by 9 feet and two 10.5 by 13 feet) operating in parallel and in closed-circuit with hydrocyclones.

The Candelaria processing plant receives ore from the Candelaria Open Pit and the Candelaria Underground (North Sector) and Alcaparrosa underground mines. It has a nameplate capacity of 75,000 tonnes per day. The Pedro Aguirre Cerda (PAC) processing plant receives ore from the Santos underground mine and has a design capacity of 3,800 tonnes per day.The Candelaria processing plant flowsheet is conventional, comprising two parallel process lines for grinding and flotation, reclaimed process water from a conventional tailings dam, final concentrate filtration, and shipping of bulk copper concentrates. Run of mine ore is trucked to a primary gyratory crusher. Grinding takes place in a multi-stage closed circuit using semi- autogenous grinding (SAG) mills, ball mills, and pebble crushing. A multi-stage flotation circuit using an arrangement of mechanical cells, regrind mills and column cells produces copper concentrate. Final flotation copper concentrate with gold and silver by ........

feldspar dry processing 	--foshan powtech machinery technology company limited

feldspar dry processing --foshan powtech machinery technology company limited

The ultrafine grinding of non-metallic minerals and the general fineness of D97 > 5um, such as calcite, talcum, and wollastonite, are preferred to dry fine grinding technology and dry fine grinding equipment under the current C ultra-fine grinding technology, such as Raymond machine, classifier, roller crusher, high speed impact crusher, ball mill, vibratory mill. Machine, mixer, and other equipment configuration, choose the appropriate dry ultrafine grinding equipment to produce products that meet the size requirements.

Dry ultrafine grinding process is simple, and subsequent filtration and drying type one, no other equipment is needed. The technology of drying superfine grinding is easy to operate and easy to realize automatic control, and the operation cost is relatively low.

major mines & projects | ojos del salado mine

major mines & projects | ojos del salado mine

The copper-gold sulphide mineralization found at the Candelaria Copper Mining Complex is generally referred to as iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) mineralization. The sulphide mineralization occurs in breccias, stockwork veinlets, disseminations in andesite, and as an internal tuff unit. There are also some localized controls to mineralization in the form of faults, breccias, veins, and foliation. Candelaria has become an exploration model for Andean-type IOCG deposits that display close relationships to the plutonic complexes and broadly coeval fault systems. Depending on lithology and the structural setting, the polymetallic sulphide mineralization can occur as veins, hydrothermal breccias, replacement mantos, and calcic skarns. The Candelaria IOCG system lies within the thermal aureole of the Lower Cretaceous magmatic arc plutonic suite in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre district.Chalcopyrite is the only primary copper sulphide present in the Santos mine. Additionally to copper mineralization, there are economic values of gold. Most frequent gangue minerals are pyrite, magnetite, actinolite, k-feldspar, chlorite, biotite and hematite.In the Santos mine, three types of mineralized bodies are observed: veins, mantos, and breccia bodies. An important vein in the Santos mine is the Isabel, which is oriented northwest-striking, and extends over 1 kilometre in length and between 4 and 30 metres in width. Manto-type mineralization occurs as tabular bodies hosted in two sedimentary horizons located in the floor and roof of the albitophyre. The manto mineralization is characterized by variable iron contents with magnetite common in the north and deeper areas, and specular hematite in the south. Mineralization occurs within breccia bodies is typically contained with the albitoforo and lower andesite and is formed by steeply west-dipping and north-northwest- to northwest-striking bodies. Mineralized bodies at the Alcaparrosa mine have a manto-type geometry that trend to the northeast and dip to the west. Ore and gangue mineralogy consists of chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite, with trace pyrrhotite, molybdenite, and arsenopyrite. Mineralization styles at the Alcaparrosa mine also occurs as veinlets defining dense stockwork, breccias (hydrothermal potassium feldspar and magnetite), as well as fine dissemination in biotite meta-andesites. High grade bodies are also found in massive veins striking north-northwest, north, and east.

Minera Ojos del Salado consists of the Santos and Alcaparrosa underground mines.The Alcaparrosa mine currently produces 4,300 tonnes per day of ore and is expected to keep it as a steady state production rate. The life of mine average grade is 0.77 percent copper. The Santos mine will continue to produce at its current rate of production of 5,100 tonnes per day of ore with an average life of mine grade of 0.94 percent copper. The three underground mines (Candelaria Underground, Santos, and Alcaparrosa) utilize a sublevel stoping mining method for ore extraction. This method is ideal for relatively large, vertical, as well as thick deposits with favourable and stable host rock. Stopes can typically be up to 100 metres high with sublevels at 20 to 60 metre intervals. The length of the stopes is generally 20 to 80 metres with widths varying between 20 to 30 metres. Stopes are drilled down from the sublevel drilling drifts as benches using 4.5 inch diameter downthe-hole holes. The holes are loaded and blasted in vertical slices towards an open face. The blasted ore gravitates to the bottom of the stope and is collected through drawpoints at the production level below. Ore is mucked from the drawpoints using surface type front-end loaders and load haul dumps. The mucked ore is dumped into 30-tonne highway type trucks and hauled up the ramp to a surface stockpile for subsequent rehandling and processing.

Minera Candelaria (for the Alcaparrosa underground mine)Run-of-mine ore is trucked to a primary gyratory crusher. The crushed product is transported using an overland conveyor belt to a coarse ore stockpile with a combined live and dead capacity of 500,000 tonnes. Semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mills are followed by pebble crushing, with separate grinding of a portion of the crushed pebbles and the remainder brought back to the SAG mills. This circuit is followed by closed-circuit ball milling with hydrocyclones to classify the flotation feed size.Minera Ojos del SaladoThe concentrator flowsheet comprises a closed-circuit crushing plant including a primary jaw crusher (48 by 60 inches), a secondary cone crusher and two tertiary cone crushers.The grinding plant has three ball mills (one 9 by 9 feet and two 10.5 by 13 feet) operating in parallel and in closed-circuit with hydrocyclones.

Minera Ojos del Salado PAC PlantThe PAC concentrator of Minera Ojos del Salado has been in operation since 1929. The concentrator processes 3,800 tonnes per day of fresh feed from the Santos underground mine with an historical average head grade of 0.85 percent copper with a copper recovery of 94 percent. Copper concentrate produced has averaged 30 percent copper, 5 g/t gold, and 67 g/t silver since 2004. Gold and silver recoveries are slightly lower than Candelaria, at 72 percent each.The flotation plant uses multi-stage, mechanical (self-aspirated and forced-air) flotation cells varying in size from 100 to 1500 cubic feet. After rougher flotation, regrind milling and column cells are used to generate a final concentrate which is thickened and filtered using a 30-square- metre ceramic disc filter. Final flotation tailings from the PAC plant are pumped to the main Minera Candelaria tailings storage facility but not processed through the magnetite recovery plant.

how ball mill ore feed size affects tonnage & capacity

how ball mill ore feed size affects tonnage & capacity

The important of crushing your ore and rock fine and properly is often forgotten. The finer you crush, the higher your ball mill tonnage and capacity will be. The effect of ball mill feed size and how it affects circuit throughput can be hard to estimate. Here we described a method of designing a crushing plant using power drawn and power rate to define reduction ratios in each stage of crushing. The plant power and power rates were computed from a Bond calculation as applied to the crushing plant feed and output sizes. A comparison of the low and high energy configurations.

We would design this plant differently today using energy parameters from the pendulum impact tests for calculations. It would only be necessary to use the Bond feed and product size calculation if no pendulum results were available.

This new high energy or power rate crushing brings a different perspective to comminution flow sheet selection.Generally, up until the early 1960s the classical flow sheet for a beneficiation plant was primary crushing followed by two stages of cone crushing in closed or open circuit, making feed for rod mills, followed by ball mills. The rod mill was needed to reduce feed size to the ball mill because crushing plant output was normally coarser than 80% passing 10,000 microns. Such feed causes power inefficiency if fed directly to a ball mill. Even though the rod mill could be a relatively inefficient device for both energy and metal consumption, as was evidenced by Bond, it still made the overall circuit energy consumption more efficient.

Under the right operating conditions, high power rate crushing can bring mill feed size down to near 80% passing 7,000 microns and finer, which can be handledmore efficiently by ball mills. Based on average field observations, the crushers can do this for less than half the energy and between one-tenth and one-twentieth of the metal consumed in a rod mill.

It is, therefore, feasible to look at designing more efficient single stage ball mill circuits following two stages of fine crushing. The result will be an overall reduction in total applied crushing and milling energy for the same size reduction.

To make the most efficient use of both the crushing and grinding comminution energy, both reductions should be treated as dynamic components of the same system. When the feed to the grinding mills gets coarser and/or harder and the production rate drops, the crushing plant feed rate should be readjusted to a lower level to maximize power rate, which will flow on as a benefit helping to increase the mill output.

We will consider an ore with a ball mill work index varying between 16 and 13, feeding into a single stage ball mill operation with one million kilowatts per day consumed power. For the particular mill configuration, a performance graph, Fig. (21), has been constructed according to Bonds methods.

Providing the crushing plant design allows for the machines to be fed continuously and the power on each crushing unit is maximized by adjusting both the feed rate and settings. The power drawn and reduction achieved to the grinding mill feed will be maximized.

The grinding mill output will vary considerably with the Work Index. If the feed size was 13,000 micrometers for the same grind production size, theoretical output from Fig. (21) would change from about 90,000 tons per day on the 13 Work Index down to 65,000 tons per day on the 16 Work Index.

Because of the superior energy efficiency of crushing over milling type processing, when the ore becomes harder in this system significant gains will be made if the feed rate to the crushing plant is reduced to closely match the mill production rate. If we consider the crushing plant runs at an average of 100,000 kilowatt hours per 20-hour day, the available energy for reduction will be:

For the purposes of this example, we will hypothesize that the the crushing index of the hard ore with the increased energy input of 1.54 kw/t reduces the ball millfeed size to 6,500 micrometers. As a result, the mill output will increase with this reduced size to approximately 77,000 tons per day. The gain in production compared to the 13,000 micrometer feed will be:

The theoretical gain will actually be greater because the graph in Fig. (21) is constructed according to the Gates-Gaudin-Schuhmann size distribution used by Bond. We have already shown that this does not apply to crushing processes, which generate increased proportions of fines with higher energy input levels. As a consequence of this, the actual, gain is likely to be closer to 25% and the mill production increased to 65,000 x 1.25 = 81,250 tons per day.

Obviously, this will increase the capacity of the crushing plant and coarsen its reduction, again influencing mill output. Ideally a control system for the whole plant would balance both crushing and milling operations to maximize the benefits described.

Again, we might hypothesize that the crushing and milling output would fluctuate between rates of 78,000 and 90,000 tons per day instead of 65,000 and 90,000 tons per day. The advantages are obvious to all.

vitrified tiles manufacturing process | types of tiles | ceramic tiles manufacturing process

vitrified tiles manufacturing process | types of tiles | ceramic tiles manufacturing process

Since many years tiles were just a flooring product, but now days tiles are used extensively for interiors as well as exteriors. This is possible just because of newly introduced technology and innovations for tiles manufacturing which enhanced the standard and beauty of tiles.

In India Tile size of from 300 MM X 300 MM to 1600 MM X 3200 MM are produced. These sizes are produced in various surfaces such as Rustic matt, Satin matt, Matt polish, Glossy polish, Sugar, Metallic, carving, Lustre and Super white.

Vitrified tiles are produced extensively now days because of its strength, making of tiles initially starts from selecting raw materials for body composition, this composition consists raw materials like Soda Feldspar, Potash Feldspar, Plastic clay, Talc, Quartz, Ukraine clay. A body composition of vitrified tiles is developed by Ceramic engineers and technicians as years of experience and knowledge is required for making a perfect composition to achieve ceramic vitrified body properties like very low water absorption, High bending strength, glossiness, scratch resistance, control over planarity at high temperature firing and stress releasing at cooling from high temperature.

Raw Materials as per batch composition and chemical composition are grinned in rotating cylindrical ball mills which consists high purity alumina balls as grinding media. Generally two types of grindings are done in ceramics one is Wet grinding and second is dry grinding of raw material batch, Mostly in tiles manufacturing wet grinding is preferred because of homogeneous grinding, low costing and less grinding time required.

Wet grinding of raw material batch is carried in ball mills of 20-100 Metric tons per day (Ball mill capacity depends on the production of the manufacturing unit), For wet grinding 30-50% water is added in the ball mill after addition of raw materials in ball mill. Body binder additives are also added during the grinding for suspension of non plastic raw materials.

Grinding is carried out in ball mills until the required particle size (Residue), Density and viscosity is achieved. Residue determination is required for particle size range control and Density Viscosity are necessary for Slip flow and homogeneity. Prepared batch or raw material body slip is then stored in under earth tanks for aging as well as for cooling. Aging is a process in ceramics to achieve rheological properties of ceramic mix and slip. 48 hours slip is stored in the tanks for aging.

After aging prepared viscous slip is then dried in spray drier at about 600-700C using heat of the fuel such as coal and natural gas, Spray drier is vessel type machine in which body slip is sprayed from the middle of the vessel to top of the vessel using different types of nozzles and heat flow is from top (Inlet) to bottom. When slip comes in contact with high temperature heat water is evaporated and spherical particle is formed.

Spray dried powder consists different size of particles, Particle size range of the powder is controlled by performing Particle size distribution analysis or Sieve analysis. Prepared powder is then stored into Silos for minimum 24 hours for cooling.

Pressing of ceramic tiles is an important step in tiles manufacturing as it gives shape and size to tiles, Heavy duty Hydraulic press are most common machineries used for the pressing of tiles. As technology is improving nowadays rotating belt press are used for the making of big size slab tiles such as 1200 MM X 2400 MM, 1600 MM X 3200 MM.

Iso-static Hydraulic presses are equipped with die box fix bottom and moving top punch. Spherical particle powder named as body powder is feed by feeder in die box punch. Quantity of powder is dependent on size and desired thickness of tile. Pressure of 30000 to 60000 KG/Cm2 is applied on tiles in 4 strokes to make it dense strong and accurate.

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