harvey tool general machining guidelines

harvey tool general machining guidelines

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The tip radius on this Harvey Tool offering of Double Angle Shank Cutters improves strength and wear resistance. Use this tool for several machining operations, including back chamfering, chamfering, deburring, and milling a "V-groove."

We offer a comprehensive selection of more than 24,000 miniature and specialty cutting tools that are all fully stocked. The breadth and depth of our products help solve the industrys toughest machining challenges.

Harvey Tool is committed to designing unique geometries that optimize cutting performance for a variety of materials and applications. We introduce hundreds of new tools to the market every 6 months, offering our customers the solutions they need most.

The tip radius on this Harvey Tool offering of Double Angle Shank Cutters improves strength and wear resistance. Use this tool for several machining operations, including back chamfering, chamfering, deburring, and milling a "V-groove."

We offer a comprehensive selection of more than 24,000 miniature and specialty cutting tools that are all fully stocked. The breadth and depth of our products help solve the industrys toughest machining challenges.

Harvey Tool is committed to designing unique geometries that optimize cutting performance for a variety of materials and applications. We introduce hundreds of new tools to the market every 6 months, offering our customers the solutions they need most.

Using the data tables and the milling formulas below, you can calculate the speeds and feeds of any carbide end mills and diamond end mills. Are you using a Harvey tool? Click here for speeds and feeds specific to your tool.

Using the data tables and the milling formulas below, you can calculate the speeds and feeds of any carbide end mills and diamond end mills. Are you using a Harvey tool? Click here for speeds and feeds specific to your tool.

milling process, defects, equipment

milling process, defects, equipment

Milling is the most common form of machining, a material removal process, which can create a variety of features on a part by cutting away the unwanted material. The milling process requires a milling machine, workpiece, fixture, and cutter. The workpiece is a piece of pre-shaped material that is secured to the fixture, which itself is attached to a platform inside the milling machine. The cutter is a cutting tool with sharp teeth that is also secured in the milling machine and rotates at high speeds. By feeding the workpiece into the rotating cutter, material is cut away from this workpiece in the form of small chips to create the desired shape. Milling is typically used to produce parts that are not axially symmetric and have many features, such as holes, slots, pockets, and even three dimensional surface contours. Parts that are fabricated completely through milling often include components that are used in limited quantities, perhaps for prototypes, such as custom designed fasteners or brackets. Another application of milling is the fabrication of tooling for other processes. For example, three-dimensional molds are typically milled. Milling is also commonly used as a secondary process to add or refine features on parts that were manufactured using a different process. Due to the high tolerances and surface finishes that milling can offer, it is ideal for adding precision features to a part whose basic shape has already been formed.

The time required to produce a given quantity of parts includes the initial setup time and the cycle time for each part. The setup time is composed of the time to setup the milling machine, plan the tool movements (whether performed manually or by machine), and install the fixture device into the milling machine. The cycle time can be divided into the following four times:

Following the milling process cycle, there is no post processing that is required. However, secondary processes may be used to improve the surface finish of the part if it is required. The scrap material, in the form of small material chips cut from the workpiece, is propelled away from the workpiece by the motion of the cutter and the spraying of lubricant. Therefore, no process cycle step is required to remove the scrap material, which can be collected and discarded after the production. Cutting parameters In milling, the speed and motion of the cutting tool is specified through several parameters. These parameters are selected for each operation based upon the workpiece material, tool material, tool size, and more.

During the process cycle, a variety of operations may be performed to the workpiece to yield the desired part shape. The following operations are each defined by the type of cutter used and the path of that cutter to remove material from the workpiece.

Milling machines can be found in a variety of sizes and designs, yet they still possess the same main components that enable the workpiece to be moved in three directions relative to the tool. These components include the following:

The above components of the milling machine can be oriented either vertically or horizontally, creating two very distinct forms of milling machine. A horizontal milling machine uses a cutter that is mounted on a horizontal shaft, called an arbor, above the workpiece. For this reason, horizontal milling is sometimes referred to as arbor milling. The arbor is supported on one side by an overarm, which is connected to the column, and on the other side by the spindle. The spindle is driven by a motor and therefore rotates the arbor. During milling, the cutter rotates along a horizontal axis and the side of the cutter removes material from the workpiece. A vertical milling machine, on the other hand, orients the cutter vertically. The cutter is secured inside a piece called a collet, which is then attached to the vertically oriented spindle. The spindle is located inside the milling head, which is attached to the column. The milling operations performed on a vertical milling machine remove material by using both the bottom and sides of the cutter. Milling machines can also be classified by the type of control that is used. A manual milling machine requires the operator to control the motion of the cutter during the milling operation. The operator adjusts the position of the cutter by using hand cranks that move the table, saddle, and knee. Milling machines are also able to be computer controlled, in which case they are referred to as a computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine. CNC milling machines move the workpiece and cutter based on commands that are preprogrammed and offer very high precision. The programs that are written are often called G-codes or NC-codes. Many CNC milling machines also contain another axis of motion besides the standard X-Y-Z motion. The angle of the spindle and cutter can be changed, allowing for even more complex shapes to be milled.

The tooling that is required for milling is a sharp cutter that will be rotated by the spindle. The cutter is a cylindrical tool with sharp teeth spaced around the exterior. The spaces between the teeth are called flutes and allow the material chips to move away from the workpiece. The teeth may be straight along the side of the cutter, but are more commonly arranged in a helix. The helix angle reduces the load on the teeth by distributing the forces. Also, the number of teeth on a cutter varies. A larger number of teeth will provide a better surface finish. The cutters that can be used for milling operations are highly diverse, thus allowing for the formation of a variety of features. While these cutters differ greatly in diameter, length, and by the shape of the cut they will form, they also differ based upon their orientation, whether they will be used horizontally or vertically. A cutter that will be used in a horizontal milling machine will have the teeth extend along the entire length of the tool. The interior of the tool will be hollow so that it can be mounted onto the arbor. With this basic form, there are still many different types of cutters that can be used in horizontal milling, including those listed below.

Another operation known as a straddle milling is also possible with a horizontal milling machine. This form of milling refers to the use of multiple cutters attached to the arbor and used simultaneously. Straddle milling can be used to form a complex feature with a single cut. For vertical milling machines, the cutters take a very different form. The cutter teeth cover only a portion of the tool, while the remaining length is a smooth surface, called the shank. The shank is the section of the cutter that is secured inside the collet, for attachment to the spindle. Also, many vertical cutters are designed to cut using both the sides and the bottom of the cutter. Listed below are several common vertical cutters.

All cutters that are used in milling can be found in a variety of materials, which will determine the cutter's properties and the workpiece materials for which it is best suited. These properties include the cutter's hardness, toughness, and resistance to wear. The most common cutter materials that are used include the following:

The material of the cutter is chosen based upon a number of factors, including the material of the workpiece, cost, and tool life. Tool life is an important characteristic that is considered when selecting a cutter, as it greatly affects the manufacturing costs. A short tool life will not only require additional tools to be purchased, but will also require time to change the tool each time it becomes too worn. The cutters listed above often have the teeth coated with a different material to provide additional wear resistance, thus extending the life of the tool. Tool wear can also be reduced by spraying a lubricant and/or coolant on the cutter and workpiece during milling. This fluid is used to reduce the temperature of the cutter, which can get quite hot during milling, and reduce the friction at the interface between the cutter and the workpiece, thus increasing the tool life. Also, by spraying a fluid during milling, higher feed rates can be used, the surface finish can be improved, and the material chips can be pushed away. Typical cutting fluids include mineral, synthetic, and water soluble oils.

In milling, the raw form of the material is a piece of stock from which the workpieces are cut. This stock is available in a variety of shapes such as flat sheets, solid bars (rectangular, cylindrical, hexagonal, etc.), hollow tubes (rectangular, cylindrical, etc.), and shaped beams (I-beams, L-beams, T-beams, etc.). Custom extrusions or existing parts such as castings or forgings are also sometimes used.

When selecting a material, several factors must be considered, including the cost, strength, resistance to wear, and machinability. The machinability of a material is difficult to quantify, but can be said to posses the following characteristics:

The material cost is determined by the quantity of material stock that is required and the unit price of that stock. The amount of stock is determined by the workpiece size, stock size, method of cutting the stock, and the production quantity. The unit price of the material stock is affected by the material and the workpiece shape. Also, any cost attributed to cutting the workpieces from the stock also contributes to the total material cost.

The production cost is a result of the total production time and the hourly rate. The production time includes the setup time, load time, cut time, idle time, and tool replacement time. Decreasing any of these time components will reduce cost. The setup time and load time are dependent upon the skill of the operator. The cut time, however, is dependent upon many factors that affect the cut length and feed rate. The cut length can be shortened by optimizing the number of operations that are required and reducing the feature size if possible. The feed rate is affected by the operation type, workpiece material, tool material, tool size, and various cutting parameters such as the axial depth of cut. Lastly, the tool replacement time is a direct result of the number of tool replacements which is discussed regarding the tooling cost.

The tooling cost for machining is determined by the total number of cutting tools required and the unit price for each tool. The quantity of tools depends upon the number of unique tools required by the various operations to be performed and the amount of wear that each of those tools experience. If the tool wear exceeds the lifetime of a tool, then a replacement tool must be purchased. The lifetime of a tool is dependant upon the tool material, cutting parameters such as cutting speed, and the total cut time. The unit price of a tool is affected by the tool type, size, and material.

materials - shapeoko

materials - shapeoko

Primary consideration is how fast the flutes of the cutter move against the material. A secondary consideration is the direction of rotation of the cutting tool (typically clockwise) and the interplay between the movement of the spindle and material, Climb vs. Conventional Milling.

The values below may be used in configuring milling operations when using a CAM program to generate G-code to make a cut, but unless your machine is essentially identical to the machine which they were used on, can be considered as only very general guidelines. All values should be verified and tested on a scrap of material first, then one should adjust to match desired chip size and surface finish and time required for completion.

In addition, one needs to decide upon a cutting depth advancement, and the amount of stepover (how much each toolpath overlaps, see the Glossary). Using a smaller cutting depth advancement is one suggested strategy for coping w/ the design's lack of rigidity.[20] See also References, Feeds and Speeds below.

The S1 and S2 both give good finish passes at around 1 pound cutting force per FSWizard. Roughing passes, maybe up to 10 pounds depending on how aggressive you want to be. Edward (Ford, the machine's designer) has posted an aluminum milling video with the S3 with good finish and parameters that FSWizard spits out about 4 pounds for. [21]

The feed rate (speed at which the machine head moves in XYZ space) and the speed rate (number of revolutions per minute the cutting tool revolves around its axis) need to be proportional to each other, so as to have the machine cut out suitably sized chips. If a calculator suggests one be greater or lesser than allowed by your machine, reduce or increases the other proportionally (w/in the limits of your machines frame and linear motion setup) so as to bring the other into range.[29]

Chip load is a physical thing. It's the thickness of the thickest part of the chip that the cutter generates. If your cutting feeds are set up right (i.e. actually generating chips), you should be able to straighten out a chip (carefully! they can be sharp) and measure the thickness. That would be your chip load. I like to keep chip load constant, since the thickness of the chip has a huge amount to do with where heat goes, where cutting forces go, and ultimately the cleanliness of your cut and the life of the tool. I'll always start with the chip load to get a feed rate. Here's how that works:

You'll notice that cutter diameter doesn't come into play there. If you add it to your formula, you're going to come out with really weird numbers. Basically, I say I want each tooth of my cutter to take off a certain amount of material, say 0.004". Now let's say my cutter has two flutes, so every time it rotates I have two chips being removed. In order to remove 0.004" per flute, I have to move the cutter by 0.004*2, or 0.008" per revolution. Now I can multiply that out by my spindle RPM (12000, because why not) to get 0.008*12000 or 96 inches/min. You'll notice units cancel out to a sane unit of IPM for feed. "But Jeremy," you say, "If I'm trying to run my poor little 1/16 cutter through acrylic at 96 IPM it won't last two seconds! That's just too fast!" Well, I hear you. The thing is, it's not too fast. It's actually the appropriate speed to get a good cut. (I'm not vouching for 0.004" necessarily being an appropriate chip load for acrylic. I'd actually suggest something more along the lines of 0.002" to 0.003", but that's a discussion for another time.) The thing at this point in time that will break your cutter is excessive cutting forces, which come from the last variable in our cutting equation: depth of cut.

Many places will have fundamental rules of thumb for how deep you should cut with your CNC router. They'll say "cut at 1/2 your cutter diameter," or something along those lines. Ignore that for these models. I don't trust something that simple, as its bound to be overlooking something. In this case, proper chip and cutter loading. There are a lot of ways to use a lot of math to calculate how deep you should cut, but at the end of the day you're still using a shapeoko machine, which is quite flexible. What I'm saying is, every machine will be different and hard to predict. Start shallow (won't hurt anything) and work down deeper and deeper until it sounds like your cutter is really loading down, then back off a shade and remember that value. I usually suggest starting with 0.012" depth per pass for harder plastics (acrylics) and 0.024" for woods. Those will be very light cuts, and you can play with increasing them more and more until you're happy with how the cut goes. [37]

One thing to understand is that depth (axial depth, along the cutter) vs width (radial width, or stepover) is very different in traditional machining as opposed to cnc routing. In traditional machining, you tend to start out with a block of material slightly oversize of the actual part. You then whittle it away to reveal the part hidden inside, which usually involves very deep axial cuts with a very shallow radial cut. This is the opposite of routing, in which we're cutting parts out of sheets, so most of the time we have no choice but to have 100% radial engagement (full width of the cutter is cutting). This is less than optimal, and means that we have to cut shallower to compensate. Most "rules of thumb" for cut depth don't quite grasp the fact that you are more or less locked in to 100% width of cut. You can't choose an optimal depth and adjust the width to compensate as normal. You can implement various strategies to do that when cutting parts out of a sheet or panel, but it really doesn't make any sense in that context because it's much less efficient from a cycle time perspective.[38]

The whole thing needs to be really stiff to cut steel. If the deflection at the tip of the cutter (cutter plus whatever it is attached to) is more than the thickness of the chip, (feed per tooth) then it is guaranteed to chatter, and not cut well. This is why milling machines are HEAVY.[40]

Work hardening occurs when the chip of material being removed is thinner than that zone of material which the impact of the cutting forces affects. It is why steel and to a lesser degree certain non-ferrous alloys are so difficult to cut. Excellent discussion from: https://community.carbide3d.com/t/high-speed-chatter-video/26749/32

Many steels work-harden, especially austenitic stainless (e.g. AISI 304, 316 etc). Every cut involves large plastic shear deformation in a thin zone near the surface, and as a result, the freshly cut surface can be harder than the original material. Now, if you take a big-enough chip, the next cutting edge is biting into the material below the hardened zone, but with a very small feed/chip thickness, you will plough precisely through that thin sliver of the surface that the previous cut just hardened. Not optimal.

Increasing cutting speed will increase temperature in the shear zone. In one way, that is beneficial because the strength of the material usually drops with temperature. But: The hardness of the tool drops with temperature as well - edges will blunt quickly (effect: rake down, edge radius up), tool life goes down more than productivity increases. This is much less pronounced in aluminium alloys, because they loose much of their strength at 300C which isnt very challenging for Carbide. In alloyed steel, you can easily reach 700C at high cutting speeds. You may get away with that with very good heat management (high-pressure internal coolant, very small AE or AP), but without, the tool will be blunt after a few inches and start to throw white sparks (meaning > 1000C).

Most of us have experienced this exact problem: Run a HSS drill at too high RPM in steel, and it will blunt before you make more than a little dent. Happens quickly because the heat cant get away in this case, and the blunt tool only makes things worse (higher forces, more friction, more heat)

Note that different materials will respond to cutting in different ways, and will ultimately be cut with differing levels of accuracy. Discussion in: Re: Accuracy: Not sure if this is a MakerCAM issue.

Carbide Create has two notable sets of feeds and speeds for the Shapeoko --- build 433 uses a chipload-based calculation, while 440 and later use a set of pre-calculated feeds and speeds which are intended to be quite conservative, so as to minimize problems.

I made a test piece with 30, 6mm holes, using 2d pocket, bore and circular tool paths. All three strategies was tested with and without finish passes. With climb and conventional. And any combination. And I also tested boring conventional with 0.3mm stock to leave and then a contour/profile path at full depth to finish off the hole. I haven't gone through the numbers thoroughly yet. But so far a few things I've noticed.

It seems Gadgetman was on to something with single-cut operations vs choosing a roughing and finishing two part strategy. All my best holes (size, roundness and finish) were made by single operations that did the full diameter at once!

Secondly using conventional milling produced the best results. Some with climb milling was ok as well, but the general result was that anything concerning climb milling (be it complete single cut operations or used as finis passes) gave a little worse result.

The best two were simply 2D pockets (normal pockets) and bore cut as a single conventional milling operation. Those two produced the best looking holes and finish and was closest to spec. Of the two I think I prefer bore, since it's quicker to set up and quicker to cut.

...Use a simple 3 x 3 matrix method to judge DOC and speed. Make 9 small square (pocket)s in a piece of the wood, and vary the speed and feed across the 9 (also) varying the DOC and feed. When a DOC and feed looks good, check to make sure the chips are little C shapes instead of dust or burnt dust. [50]

It is always a good idea to test and prove out a G-code path, esp. the first time one uses it. One can of course do an air cut, one anxious user piled up flour and had the endmill drag through that, or one can use a less expensive material (poplar rather than walnut, aluminum rather than brass).

For aluminum: The most important thing is to make sure chipload is at least 0.001 (0.0008 for 1/16) minimum. If cutting under 50% diameter you need to use a chip thinning calculator to see actual chip size.[54]

Ideally when milling metals one would use an upcut bit, so as to clear chips --- however, given the narrower bits which a Shapeoko is likely to be using, plunge depth is typically limited to 0.25mm (0.01") which ameliorates the difficulty of clearing chips. Even so, some users have found it helpful to increase the width of cuts to aid in chip clearance as noted in Re: ORD Bot Hadron. Note that downcut bits are intended for woodworking and may present a combustion hazard in some metals, and will certainly be quickly dulled from re-cutting chips if used w/ metals.

The typical (ideal?) technique[63] would be to find the Surface Feet Per Minute (SFM) (available in references such as: http://niagaracutter.com/techinfo/millhandbook/speedfeed/sfm.gif ) for the metal in question, then calculate:

When milling aluminium, you have to know which alloy you're milling. Aluminium is like wood: milling oak, pine or balsa wood is not the same. For instance in aluminium you have series (1000 to 8000), each of which is alloyed with different elements (specified in parentheses below) to achieve differing mechanical properties.

Depending on the aluminium alloy you're milling, the material can melt and stick to your endmill. If this happens, try to change the cut parameters: fewer flutes, lower RPM, faster feedrate, also try coolant while milling (WD40, water or aluminium specific coolant fluid). This is less likely to happen with harder alloys such as 2017.[103]

If aluminum galls on an endmill, a bathroom drain clearing product (such as Draino) may be used to remove the material (please check the chemistry of this first against the composition of your end mill and its coating).

I cut a "grill" into the "protection plate" that covers the electronics of the shapeoko 3 to mount an 80mm fan, i did it no problem without lubricant. My settings: 2 flute 8mm carbide bit 1000mmpm Stepown 1 mm Overlap 3 mm Dewalt set on 5

0.015 DOC at 15 IPM, then start increasing it by 0.005 and another 5 IPM, until it starts to make too much chatter/noise. Every machine/set up is a little differentfind YOUR sweet spot.... 10k to 15k rpm [122]

Termed architectural aluminum, it may be identified by the profile having square edges (usually other grades have slightly rounded edges similar to steel angle).[130] Inexpensive and easily extruded.[131]

3 flute, 45deg flute, carbide, 4mm diameter ... 21k RPM, dry, climb cutting ... Spiral downcut along a 1mm radius, .4mm per revolution (leading to a 6mm hole) ... feedrate of 500mm/min with a forward step of 0.5mm (12% tool engagement)

cut on my SO2, with a feed rate of 300mm/min and a 0.1mm depth of cut... Dremel. I used a speed of around 15000 rpm and plenty of WD40 as lubricant. The thing that made the biggest difference to the finish was blasting all the chips out with air at regular intervals. ... On the down side, it blasts small chips of aluminium and WD40 all over the place, so there is plenty of cleanup required afterwards...[139]

1/8" single flute spiral end mill from Inventables. Step down was .2mm per pass, feed rate of 400mm/min. Makita's speed was set to about 3-1/3 on the dial, which goes up to 6. I used some silicone spray initially, but I ran out and cut most of the job dry, periodically vacuuming chips out of the cut.

Superglue. I use a thick (>4mm) piece of aluminium larger than what I need to cut, clamp that to the wasteboard and then dab a few drops of standard cyanoacrylate superglue on the thin sheet and slap it to the larger, thicker piece. Then I break out my 1.2mm 1-flute endmill (http://www.ebay.com/itm/1-20mm-0472-sin ... 58a7df7885) and run it at a feed rate of400mm/min, plunge 100mm/min and a pass depth of 0.2mm. The spindle... runs at full tilt. When I'm done all I have to do is give the thin sheet a good whack sideways and it pops right off the larger sheet. [142]

Speaking of pushing my machine hard, by pure accident I've actually been able to cut 22 gauge weld steel in a single pass at 7 IPM. It was smoking quite a bit but the machine was marching along without missing steps or jerking. I'll never do that again though, but it was cool to see the machine pushed to its limits.[147] The intention was to make a 0.005" pass.[148]

One user, danielfarley was successful using an 800W spindle w/ settings of: carbide tool - two flutes, 2mm wide, 100--140 mm / min, used some WD-40 as lubricant... although some tooling works better with no lubricant.[151] Unfortunately, this has a potentially high cost in tooling, w/ endmills only lasting for cutting of a single (small) part in this instance.[152]

More successful was forum user dottore in An afternoon with stainless, making a "turner's cube" on a much upgraded Shapeoko 2 (Makita RT-0701, aluminum bed, belt drive Z-axis w/ Acme screw, cooling system, &c.).

Brass is available in a wide variety of alloys each w/ markedly different characteristics, Engraving Brass (CZ120 / CW608N) which has 2% lead added to it, or Free Machining Brass (CW614N / CZ121) which has 3% lead content are lovely to machine.[157]

Discussion of machining brass tags: http://www.shapeoko.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=6477&p=50695 Finished results in Engravering Brass (CZ120) http://www.shapeoko.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=30&t=8371

For smaller details, I use a 20 degree tapered end mill, with a .004 tip. MeshCam thrives when I'm running these small details. Tool settings: .127mm DPP, .020mm Step, 200mm feed, 100mm plunge, .050 OAD.

Note that lead will bio-accumulate, and dust must be handled with that in consideration. Any cutting or fabrication involving fumes or the potential for fumes must use suitable exhaust hoods and filtration.

Whether or not the metal is annealed is an important consideration. Metal hardness varies WILDLY in the jewelry world, and some alloys just don't machine well, no way around it. You really need to know both the alloy and temper of what youre machining to have any success.

There is a heat issue with all plastics, the idea is to remove as much material in one rotation of the spindle as possible then move on. If you dwell in one place too long your bit will heat up and the material will heat up, leading to distortion, bad smells, and dull bits. Single flute bits will help.

Info: When milling plastics you want "chips" to come off the bit. If you find that you are instead getting "threads" of material you need to either increase your speed or increase your depth (preferably not both). You will notice a difference depending on the direction your mill is going. If you get a lot of "chatter" (bit seems to hop) while milling uphill (where bit is turning into the material) you'll want to slow your job down slightly.

Delrin is the DuPont brand name for Acetal (Polyoxymethylene (POM)). Moderately expensive plastic which machines extremely well. Suited for use in bearings and wear applications (it was originally developed as a replacement to the plectrums in harpsichords). Can be machined to tight tolerances, and will wear for long periods without lubrication. Suggestion is twice the DOC and feedrate as 6061 aluminum.[178] Other machinists note it works much like soft brass.

According to some machinists, Delrin must be allowed to rest for about 24 hours after initial machining, and then the last finish cut (0.001") to precise dimension can be taken. Very sharp tools, lots of coolant, and temperature limits are recommended.

Plastic that can easily be found in your local supermarket as a white cutting board (but also available in other colors). Only limitation is they are typically quite thin, usually not greater than 1/4"(6mm) thickness. Thicker material is available (9mm or so is sold as "half-inch" cutting boards), while larger boards in half-inch or even 3/4" thickness are available from specialty suppliers or online. Much larger and thicker panels are available from specialty plastics shops, sign shops and possibly local hardware stores.[183]

Note that boards which are molded (as opposed to cut) may be swollen or otherwise out of dimension along the edges, or somewhat shrunken towards the center, depending on how they are cooled coming from the mold.

.25" end mill 4 flute (I run 2 flute at 150 ipm (up to 180 ipm can be done but chatters along Y-axis) - .130" doc - .1 stepover - 160ipm - 16k rpm [https://www.facebook.com/groups/unofficialshapeoko/permalink/32 83/?comment_id=32 46&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R3%22%7D)

One datapoint, Improbable Construct notes "2 flute 1/8" endmill, 40% step over, 1/16" cut depth, 27000 RPM, at a feed speed of 1200 mm with good results. Of course that was with dual Y motors and the double X mod."

"... around 1 or 2 on the DWP611 speed and I feed about 750mm/min with a two-flute carbide end mill. I find I can do about a 4mm maximum depth cut before I start having rigidity issues, but for roughing a full plunge slot at this speed I get significant chatter in the Y direction, where my SO3 is least rigid." [193]

"The 34 mm/sec with a 1/4" flat cutter at 3.17 mm step was way too fast. Router speed makita at 3. Had a perfect cut at 12 mm/sec, 3.17 step and router at 4 makita with 1/4 " flat carbide3d cutter. 1/2" hdpe in 4 passes." [194]

But if it helps, I was using the .125" endmills that came with the nomad (so, 2 flute). 7500 rpm spindle speed 68.3 in/min cutting feed rate (feed per tooth .0046") 17.075 in/min plunge feedrate .03" stepdown All climbmilling

spindle speed constant at 10000rpm. For 0.1mm flat end mill, I plucked in the feed rate as 76.5mm/min and the plunge rate as 2mm/min and for 0.2mm flat end mill, I used the feed rate and plunge rate as 186mm/min and 7mm/min respectively. [200]

Note that what is sold as 0.25" thick acrylic is typically manufactured to metric 6mm (0.236"). Thickness tolerance for typical manufacture is 0.02", engineering plastics are available w/ tighter tolerances (0.005" from McMaster-Carr).

Trochoidal milling: 3mm endmill feed - 1750mm/min DOC - 10mm plunge - 650mm/min trocoidal stepover - 12.5% trochoidal width - 50% http://community.carbide3d.com/t/trochoidal-milling-is-amazing/6063/7

Extruded acrylic tends to "store" energy and may randomly crack if one presses in a part as a friction fit. This happened when I.C. tried pressing in the magnets on his DWP611 shoe and broke a couple.[204] A further issue is that it will have two separate optimal feed/speeds for cutting, one along the extrusion axis, the other at 90 degrees to it.[205]

Moderate tensile strength with good abrasion resistance, but low impact resistance (tends to split or crack under shearing forces). Handle carefully due to its brittle nature. Easily shaped with application of heat (150--250 degrees F).

Commonly Available Colors: Clear, Opaque (White, Grey, Black, Red, Yellow, Blue, Green), Solid Tints (White, Grey, Bronze, Red, Blue, Green, Yellow, Amber), Fluorescent/UV Tints (Amber, Red, Green, and Blue)

2. Go thick. I dont mean buy a foot thick slab and try to mill it down to what you need. I needed to cut a lens that will likely be sanded on both sides to increase the opacity. So I got some extruded acrylic from the big blue box store that was double what I needed and have accounted for that change in my overall design

3. O flute up cut and somewhere between 1 and 3 for dial setting on the Makita. It was doing an amazing job until the retract height thing got me and snapped it clean off. There was a bit of build up, but itd get to a thickness then fling off. After this broke, I switched to a straight cut but it didnt do nearly as nice a job and really failed to eject the chips.

1/8" cutter single flute, 1800 rpm, feed rate of 50"/minute (1200mm/min) and plunge rate 24"/minute (600mm/min) with depth of cut 1mm. Possible to increase the depth of cut if your endmill is suitable.[216] Notes from IC for cutting his dust shoe:

Note that there are safety implications for heating / burning PVC, esp. w/ a laser, due to its chlorine content and exposure to its dust (may cause asthma or other respiratory problems). See http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/chemicals.php?id=84

With these settings Nylon 6 cuts very well with no heat problems. Most of the swarf was small flakes and there was very little 'fluff' left on the work piece. With a plunge rate limited to 150mm/minute and at the lowest speed on the Kress spindle drilling is a disaster and melts the plastic. A faster plunge rate may help.

Carbon fiber can be cut, but requires dust collection (the dust is hazardous and electrically conductive) and is tough on bits, requiring more frequent replacement.[238] Carbon Fiber Plates and Aluminum Bearing Blocks

Nick Offerman has an excellent guideline --- if working with any sort of rare/expensive wood the project should be expected to last at least as long as it took the tree to grow --- it's reprehensible to my mind to make some trivial, ephemeral thing out of a tropical hardwood.

Forum user cchristianson posted the following numbers in Re: First real project! dimensional letter shop sign: 24 in (609.6mm)/min for feed with 5 in (127)/m plunge @ 1/16" passes (1/8" 4 flute end mill). The same values were used for a very hard mahogany as well.

Theoretical: 1/4 inch carbide bit try 12-18000 rpm and 762--2,286mm/min (30--90 ipm). 1/8 inch depth per pass. Leave about .01 inches for a full depth finish pass at the lower ipm range. Depending on the machine you may need faster or slower. You might also need a different step down.

MDF (medium-density fibreboard) is a relatively easy material to cut. It's soft and evenly composed, so the bit should have no trouble working through it at a consistent pace. The main concern when cutting MDF is that cutting will yield a lot of airborne sawdust (which, due to how MDF is made, can be harmful to to inhale). Wearing a dust mask is certainly not a bad idea, and is recommended.

Another concern is that the waste will expand somewhat when it is cut, filling a slot, which may become an issue if one needs to cut more than a pass or two. Rather than slotting, cut pockets which are at least half again the bit diameter.

You should also be aware of burning issues while cutting MDF. If your cuts are making the wood darker and/or producing a smell, try using a faster feed rate or a better bit (a 2-flute carbide endmill works very well, 2 flute end mills with TiAN coating are suggested[277]). Faster feed rates prevent the bit from staying in one place for too long, which is a factor in overheating.

Geometry Diameter: 1.000 in Flute Length: 0.125 in Included Angle: 2.0 Num Flutes: 3 2D Cutting Parameters Feed Rate: 80.0 in/min Cut Depth: 0.010 in RPM: 16000 3D Cutting Parameters Feed Rate: 80.0 in/min Stepover: 20.0% RPM: 16000 Finish Allowance: 1.000 in [280]

Compression bit from Toolstoday Router Bits and Saw Blades: "1/8 compression at 40ipm at full depth cutting 1/4 plywood all day, dewalt speed 3. you can go faster, but it wont be as smooth a cut."[283]

This is the protocol I use for walnut stool seats, about 18 x 16 ovals (I have to orient them 45 degrees to get an 18 wide oval). The wood is 12/4 walnut sawn from the log and then air dried for 4+ years. The CAM is from Fusion 360.

Janka Hardness is the standard technique for measuring the hardness of wood. See Guesstimating Feed Rates for a technique for using these numbers to derive a first approximation for cutting a softer or harder wood which one has numbers for.

I cut this as a test first cut before moving onto heavier materials. I used a conical shape cutter that came with my rotary tool. It's coated with some sort of rough particles. The edges of the cuts are rather messy, which would be tricky to clean up (e.g. with sandpaper), especially in areas where little "islands" have been cut (inside the "a" and "e") as there's not much left below to hold them in place.

High density polyurethane foams are often used in sign-making, as well as for props. Density ranges from 10--30 pounds per cubic foot. Creates a gritty dust which is hard to clean up. See Tooling Board below.

One brand name is Plastazote. Use dual-colour for tool drawers, top: 5mm (less than 1/4"), then for the color below, adjust to match drawer thickness (leave a reasonable amount of space above). mill fast speed with low rotation speed.

Polyurethane tooling board machines very well, and lacking grain, holds excellent surface detail. Density ranges from 20--50 pounds per cubic foot. Popular for pattern-making, product mockups and toolpath testing (hence the name).

A horizontal roughing cut was done at 80IPM with a 0.25in, 0.060 corner radius end mill from lakeshore carbide (where I buy all my tools). The DNP611 was set to 3.5 on the speed controller. Stepover was 50% with a 0.055" step down, and stock remaining set to 0.02". Finishing was done at 120IPM with a 0.125in ball nose mill, 15% stepover. A leading edge curve following cleanup path was run with the same 1/8" ball mill and an 8% stepover.

I have a small endmill 1/32 that I use. I lay down a layer of masking tape on the spoil board, then a layer of tape on the back side of the leather and use spray adhesive to stick the backs of the tape together. It does a pretty good job, but you will have to do some sanding and burnishing on the edges of the leather to smooth it out since the endmill leaves a rough edge on the leather

Discussion here: http://www.sawmillcreek.org/showthread.php?213915-CNC-router-for-Plaster-Moulds&p=2227973#post2227973 and here: http://www.camheads.org/showthread.php?t=3377 and discussion about various materials here: http://www.cnczone.com/forums/haas-mills/63483-anybody-ever-milled-hard-plaster.html

2 aluminum ball - king architectural metals

2 aluminum ball - king architectural metals

A post ball that is made from sand cast aluminum. The post ball fits over 4"" square pipe or tubing. Each post ball is 5-1/2"" high, 2-1/2"" ball diameter and weighs 1.636 lbs. Enjoy a quantity discount when you buy 40 and more. Items ship same day.

or tubing. Each post ball is 2-1/4"" high, 7/8"" ball diameter and weighs .42 lbs. Achieve a quantity discount when you order 100 or more. Items ship same day.A post ball that is made of cast iron. It fits over 1"" square pipe or tubing. Each post ball is 2-1/4"" high, 7/8"" ball diameter and weighs

This finial is made from cast aluminum. The finial is a fleur de lis with top ball design. Each finial is 2-7/8"" wide, 1-3/16"" base, 4-1/2"" high and weighs .22 lbs. Receive a quantity discount when you buy 100 or more. Items ship same day.

A post ball that is made of sand cast aluminum. The post ball fits over 2"" square pipe or tubing. Each post ball is 3-3/4"" high, 1-3/4"" ball diameter and weighs .578 lbs. Enjoy a quantity discount when you purchase 40 and more or 80 and more. Items ship same day.

This finial is made of cast aluminum which makes it lighter. The design is a quad spear with top safety ball. The finial fits over 1"" square material. Each finial is 2-1/4"" wide, 1-5/8"" base diameter, 7-1/2"" high and weighs .6 lbs. Earn a quantity discount when you order 100 or more. Items ship

This newel post ball is made from die cast aluminum. The finial fits over 2-1/2"" square newel posts. Each finial ball is 4-3/8"" high, 2"" ball diameter and weighs .838 lbs. Earn a quantity discount when you purchase 40 or more. Items ship same day.

2 inch aluminum extrusion-
aluminum/al foil,plate/sheet,aluminum alloy manufacturer

2 inch aluminum extrusion- aluminum/al foil,plate/sheet,aluminum alloy manufacturer

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2 aluminum ball valve-
aluminum/al foil,plate/sheet,aluminum alloy manufacturer

2 aluminum ball valve- aluminum/al foil,plate/sheet,aluminum alloy manufacturer

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2027 pure 2 3 4 5 6 inch hollow aluminum spheres- aluminum/al foil,plate/sheet,aluminum alloy manufacturer

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Hollow Spheres/Balls. These metal balls have a wide range of applications for the designer and fabricator. ... Hollow Sphere, Steel, 6" Diameter, .120" Thick, 3/ 16" Hole, Mill Fin ... Hollow Sphere, Aluminum, 2" Diameter, .125" Thick, 3/16" Hole, Satin ... Hollow Sphere, Brass, 5" Diameter, .125" Thick, 3/8-16 Tapped Hole, Mill.

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Products 45 - 120 ... 1-3/8" Diameter., Cast Iron Finial, Post Ball,Solid 1-3/4" Round. ... Hollow Steel Hemisphere. .118" Thickness, 1-1/2" Outside Diameter with a Single 1/8" Weep Hole, .144 lbs. .... Holes on Top and Bottom, Fits Over 5/8" Round, .45 lbs ... Hollow Aluminum Sphere. .118" Thickness, 6" Outside Diameter with a ...

Download Hemispheres and Spheres (Metal Hollow Balls) Catalog Pages (PDF) Hemispheres. Hemispheres are available in steel, stainless steel, and aluminum. ... Hemispheres are used for a variety of ornamental applications. ... Sizes range from 1-1/2" up to 12"; Steel Hemispheres; Aluminum Hemispheres ( 3003 Alloy) ...

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ball end mills (ball nose) carbide cobalt & hss

ball end mills (ball nose) carbide cobalt & hss

A ball end milling cutter is also known as a "ball nose mill". The end of this tool is ground with a full radius equal to half of the tool diameter, and the edges are center cutting. They can be single end or double end and they can be made from solid carbide or various compositions of high speed steel. They can be general purpose or high perfomance geometries. They can be used used for milling a large corner radius, grooving with a full radius, and contour or profile milling. The smaller diameters can be used for engraving. They are available in a wide variety of standard sizes and lengths.

ball nose milling strategy guide - in the loupe

ball nose milling strategy guide - in the loupe

Ball nose end mills are ideal for machining 3-dimensional contour shapes typically found in the mold and die industry, the manufacturing of turbine blades, and fulfilling general part radius requirements. To properly employ a ball nose end mill (with no tilt angle) and gain the optimal tool life and part finish, follow the 2-step process below (see Figure 1).

A ball nose end mills Effective Cutting Diameter (Deff) differs from its actual cutting diameter when utilizing an Axial Depth of Cut (ADOC) that is less than the full radius of the ball. Calculating the effective cutting diameter can be done using the chart below that represents some common tool diameters and ADOC combinations or by using the traditional calculation (see Figure 2).

Given the new effective cutting diameter a Compensated Speed will need to be calculated. If you are using less than the cutter diameter, then its likely your RPMs will need to be adjusted upward (see Figure 3).

If possible, it is highly recommended to use ball nose end mills on an incline () to avoid a 0 SFM condition at the center of the tool, thus increasing tool life and part finish (Figure 4). For ball nose optimization (and in addition to tilting the tool), it is highly recommended to feed the tool in the direction of the incline and utilize a climb milling technique.

Given the new effective cutting diameter a compensated speed will need to be calculated. If you are using less than the cutter diameter, then its likely your RPMs will need to be adjusted upward (see Figure 6).

Thank you for this milling strategy guide. I especially appreciate your insight on milling with a tilt angle. I was unaware that this could extend the life of the bit. I will keep this in mind while milling in the future.

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