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The process mainly includes(two-stage crushing), size classification and reduction, package, magnetic separation, transportation, lifting etc. In conjunction with several classifiers in parallel or series, several different products can be obtained at the same time.
Special design to ball mill which will be selected on the basis of hardness, grindability index of material to be ground, feed size, particle size and hourly capacity, customized to the liner. Selection of grinding ball and rod can improve grinding efficiency farthest and reduce the energy consumption.
Different models of Classifier could be selected depending on different fineness of products. FW series Classifier are suitable for classifying of D97320m products, FL series for classifying of D97: 845m products. Wide range of adjustment is available with each Classifier and the application is extensive in market.
The production line are designed and optimized to match with several classifier in series, the particle size can be controlled, and several products can be obtained at once, low energy consumption, free from over-crushing.
Feeding particle size and distribution; Scientific calculation of the length to diameter ratio of the mill; Speed of the ball mill and motor power of the mill motor; Shape and material of ball mill medium; Loading quantity of the mill medium.
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How hard a ball mill operator has to work depends partly on himself, and partly on the kind of muck the mine sends over to the mill. In some plants, the ore may change two or three times a shift, and a ball mill operator has to keep on his toes.
Thats why it would be just as well for you, as a ball mill operator, to study out a few ways of doing your job easier and better, because there will be times, even in the best of mills, when youll run into a lot of trouble. Collected here you will find some practical suggestions, contributed by a number of good mill men, that might give you an idea or two that would help get around some of that trouble.
To be sure we understand each other, lets begin with the equipment. In a simple grinding circuit there will be a ball mill and a classifier. Some circuits, especially in large mills, have more units or two or three stages of grinding, but whatever is said here will apply to the complicated circuits as well as the simple ones.
The two types of ball mill in general use are the grate mill and the open-end mill. Most manufacturers make both kinds; the difference between them is that the grate mill has a steel grid clear across the discharge end, but the open-end mill has only an open trunnion at the discharge end, through which pulp flows freely. If you dont already know all about the inside of your ball mill and what it is supposed to do, it would be a good idea to ask the shift boss, the metallurgist, or the superintendent to tell you about it.
Mechanical classifiers make use of rakes, spirals, or a simple drag belt. For our purposes it doesnt matter which type you are working with, because you would handle them all in pretty much the same way.
In operation, you add water to the ball mill along with the ore. Flowing out of the ball mill, the ground ore pulp pours into the classifier pool, where the finished material is separated from the coarse sand. You do that by adding a lot more water to the pool, so that the finer sand overflows the weir and goes on to the next step (flotation perhaps), and the coarse sand settles to the classifier bottom and is raked back into the mill to be ground finer. You, the operator, aresupposed to control these actions in order to send on to the machines below you the right amount of ore, ground just fine enough, and with just the right amount of water with it.
To help you do this, and to make a. record of how things are going, you will have to take samples of the pulp regularly. Different mills have different ideas on sampling, but all of them take at least hourly samples of the classifier overflow. What it amounts to is weighing a certain volume of the pulp to determine its density. Higher density means thicker pulp and usually coarser sand. Lower density means thinner pulp and finer sand. The shift boss will tell you what the density ought to be, and it will be up to you to hold it there.
You may also have to take density samples of the ball mill discharge, which runs a lot thicker than the classifier overflow, and some mills also expect you to take measured samples of the ball-mill feed and weigh them.
Another sample you may take is one for pH, which is a term that takes a little explaining. You can find out exactly what pH means from a chemistry book if you want to; but for all practical purposes, it is enough to know that pH is a number that tells you how much acid or alkali there is in the pulp. A pH of 7 is alkaline.
If you add acid, the pH goes down below 7; if you add an alkali like lime, the pH will go up, say to 9 or 10, depending on how much lime you add. In any case, you can bank on it that if the brass hats want you to watch the pH at all, they have good reasons for wanting you to hold it steady.
You may also have the job of adding balls to the mill each shift. The shift boss tells you how many or what weight, and you put them in. Drop them into the scoop if you have a grate mill, or put them in through the discharge trunnion if it is an open-end mill.
The controls you will have to work with are given in Table I, and are also indicated in the drawing. As to which one of these controls is most important, mill men dont all agree. Probably it depends on what kind of ore you are grinding. Most good operators, though, say that the classifier water valve should be the first one to adjust, because it controls directly the kind of finished material you send on down the line to the next man.
The most important point is this: You cannot adjust any one of these controls without paying some attention to the other two. For example, if you change the feed rate, you will probably have to reset the two water valves. They all work together. In fact, the whole grinding circuit acts like a team of horses, and as thetime at first.
In Table II you will find some suggestions on what to look for to help you decide how to use these controls. In the column headed if you find, there are set down the things youll run into if something is wrong with the circuit. That is, if the ball-mill feed gets finer than it usuallyis, the top line tells you what to expect and what to do. But dont think you have to do all these things all the time. Do only as much as you are sure you have to do.
The classifier overflow is really the most important spot in the circuit, because whatever comes over that weir is out of your hands, and your work will be judged by how good a product it is. Most operators believe that if there is any change in setting to be made, the density of the classifier overflow is where you make it first. Remember, more water to the classifier means thinner pulp and finer overflow; less water means thicker pulp and coarser overflow.
The matter of feed to the ball mill brings up a point that is important in keeping you out of trouble. You can find out by asking the old- timers how each kind of ore is going to act when it hits the mill, and if youfor each change as it comes along.
For example, suppose you are working in a lead-zinc flotation mill where there are two kinds of ore one that is coarse and low grade, and another that is finer and higher grade. Keep the feed to the ball mill lower when the coarse stuff comes along, because it takes longer to grind and you dont want to overload the mill. Then when the fine muck shows up, increase the feed and also run the classifier density higher. That will throw the high grade over into the flotation cells where it belongs.
You see, the high-grade mineral is heavier than the low grade, and it takes a little higher density in the classifier to lift it out. If you carry a low density, too much lead and zinc mineral keeps going back into the ball mill, and eventually may be ground into slime and lost altogether. Doing extralittle things like this is what marks a really good operator, and you can learn these things only by study and asking questions.
Keep ahead of trouble is good advice for flotation operators, and it is just as good for bail-mill men. A good operator can take care of even big changes in muck so smoothly and easily that if you were watching him, youd never know anything was running differently.
On the other hand, consider Joe Blow, the Wonder Boy. Thats him down there sitting on the rail near the ball mill, swinging his heels and probably wondering whatever happened to that little blonde hasher over at the Greasy Spoon. Suddenly Joe looks up. He has heard a splashing sound that doesnt belong there. The ball mill is strangely quiet. Joe looks at the feed box, and finds pulp pouring out on the floor.
Joe can tell right away what has happened. The mill has been overloaded and the grate has plugged. Quick as a flash, Joe races around and shuts the feed off, then whips open the valve pouring water into the mill. Hes fast; he wants action.
He gets it. The mill comes unstuck with a vengeance and belches sand into the classifier like a tidal wave. Joe, the dope, flushes water into the classifier, too, and you can almost hear it groan as the rakes get buried. The flotation man down below is tearing his hair and spinning valves. What he says about Joe blisters the paint on the concentrate launders, but Joe cant hear him. Joe is up under the mill shovellingcleaned up before the shifter comes.
Watching the mill discharge (2) will tell you what goes on inside the mill. Some operators note how high on the side of the discharge flange the wave of pulp is carried when the mill is running right. Then if the wave runs higher or lower than that, they know something is wrong.
If the mill is low on muck, (3) it rattles and bangs like a boiler factory, and a lot of good steel goes to waste. But if the mill is too full of muck, you can hardly hear it. Keep your ear peeled for the sound of the mill that you know is right.
Many operators feel the classifier overflow (6) by nibbling their fingers together with their hands in the stream, and with a little experience, you can tell pretty accurately whether or not the overflow is fine enough.
The amp-meter (4) is really as good a guide to the condition of the mill as the sound or the discharge. It tells you how much power the mill drive motor is drawing, but remember that if you overload the mill, or if you underload it, it draws less power.
You check on the circulating load (7) by watching the height of the sand on the rakes or spiral flights as they push it back to the mill feed launder. The shift boss will tell you about how high the sand ought to come.
What was wrong? He shouldnt have let the mill plug in the first place. But suppose it plugged anyway, he should have cut off the feed all right, but he should also have shut down the classifier, and increased the head water only a little. Then he should have cut down on the classifier water and then increased it, little by little, when the mill opened up. He should have done his best to keep things balanced instead of slamming everything out of adjustment at once. Well, hell learn. He will, or the boss will murder him some dark night.
Now, just because all these things to look for and to do have been put down in a table, dont think you ought to walk your shift carrying this operating manual in one hand and a density sample can in the other. It is no use trying to run a mill out of a cookbook. But what we did want to do was to set these things down here so you could think about them, and keep thinking about them, while you are working.
Just go at the problem the way things are arranged in the table. When something in the circuit begins to change, make sure you know exactly what is happening; then ask yourself what is causing it. Then, when you have answered that question, decide what to do about it. Think out each thing you do, and dont do things in a rush or without knowing why you are doing them. Dont be a Joe Blow, in other words.
One thing more, and a very important thing: When you do make a change, allow a little time, say 15 or 20 minutes, for the effect to show up before you make another change. Dont over-control. For instance, if the density in the classifier is up a little and you add more water, dont expect the density to change right away, and dont go back and open the valve even wider just because nothing seems to have happened. It will; just wait a while. A superoperator who cant let well enough alone gets on everybodys nerves.
In starting the grinding circuit after anything but a very short shut spitars enough to clear the samepacked on the tank bottom, start the classifier overflow pump, then start the classifier, and after that, the ball mill. But dont throw in all these switches at once. Youll get the electricians down on you if you do. Keep the water fed to the circuit down low until the load builds up a little; then set the valve hand wheels at about thepoint they should be for normal operation. You can check on this setting by marking one spot on the rim of the wheel and counting turns, or by counting exposed threads on the valve stem. Dont forget to lower the classifier rakes again as the load builds up.
In shutting down the mill, cut off the feed a few minutes before the shutdown is due. That will give time to grind out some of the circulating load and will make starting easier. Then when you are ready to stop, shut down the mill, then the classifier (raise the rakes), then the pump for the classifier overflow, if there is one.
If the power fails suddenly, shut off the water valves and raise the classifier rakes. And for goodness sake, dont forget to shut off any drip cans or siphon feeders of pine oil or other reagent you may have running somewhere in the circuit.
So far as mechanical trouble goes, there will probably be little of that if the equipment is reasonably good. Ball mills spring leaks from time to time because the bolts holding in the liner plates work loose. If a leak develops near the discharge end of the mill, shut down right away and fix it. This is especially true of an open-end mill. The point is that you dont want sand getting into theout in short order.
Now a word about safety, a subject that I am putting last because I want to leave it first in your minds. Whatever else you do, dont go poking aimlessly around the mill or the classifier, sticking your nose or your fingers in here and there to see how the machinery works. I wouldnt make that statement if I hadnt seen a man or two doing just that. Nor have I forgotten the time I was routed out of bed at two a.m. to help bandage a man whose right-hand fingers had just been taken off by the ball-mill scoop as effectively, though not as neatly, as a surgeon could have done it.He had been just poking around, too. Remember your company, and your country, need you on that ball-mill floor, and you wouldnt be happy holding down a hospital bed these days. So just be careful.
This Public DomainRobert Ramsey article is based in large part on experiences and opinions generously supplied by the following mill men: Clyde Simpson, Bagdad Copper Co., Hillside, Ariz.; E. J. Duggan and M. E. Kennedy, Climax Molybdenum Co., Climax, Colo.; John Palecek, Keystone Copper Corp., Copperopolis, Calif.; Frank M. McKinley, Bunker Hill & Sullivan M. & C. Co., Kellogg, Idaho; Malcolm Black, Wright-Hargreaves Mines, Ltd., Kirkland Lake, Ont.; and the concentrator staffs at Hudson Bay Mining & Smelting Co., Flin Flon, Manitoba, and Sherritt Gordon Mines, Ltd., Sherridon, Manitoba.https://archive.org/details/malozemoffmining00platrich
The processing of ground calcium carbonate is simply the process of using crushing and grinding equipment to process calcium carbonate minerals into various powders that can meet the requirements of industrial applications. Because different industrial applications have different requirements on the particle size, shape, whiteness and particle size distribution of ground calcium carbonate powder, the processing technology of ground calcium carbonate should also comprehensively consider the process route and equipment selection according to the product positioning. Generally speaking, the design of grinding equipment is based on different principles: impact, extrusion, friction, shear and combination of various forces, etc. Different designs will have different grinding effects and product fineness.
The common processing equipment of ground calcium carbonate produced by large-scale dry process includes Raymond mill, Vertical mill, Ring roller mill and Ball mill. Due to the different crushing principle and discharging method of the equipment, the processed powder has great differences in grain type, particle size distribution and unit energy consumption, so the positioning of the product also has obvious differences.
The ball mill can cooperate with the air classifier to form a closed-circuit circulation system, after the grading of the coarse powder can be returned to the ball mill for re-grinding, and the Raymond mill, vertical mill, vibration mill due to the capacity of the mill is very limited, return difficult, unable to form a closed-circuit circulation system, to return to the treatment of problems.
The ball mill is also a low speed operating equipment, impact and friction energy consumption to minimize. Therefore, it is not only an ideal choice for grinding high hardness, abrasive mineral raw materials, but also the most economical choice for grinding white filler minerals such as low hardness calcium carbonate.
It can be seen from the particle size distribution map that the particle size distribution of the grinding products of the ball mill is the widest. Through the air classifier, the products with different fineness requirements can be separated. At the same time, the output of the ball mill is large, with scale effect, so it has a strong market adaptability and competitiveness.
The production line adopts the international popular continuous production process: ball mill and air classifier system. The technological process mainly includes crushing (generally using two-stage crushing), grinding, classifying, packaging, magnetic separation, transportation, lifting, etc. After the ball mill can be parallel or series multiple classifier at the same time to produce more than one size of the product.
Working principle: The raw material is fed into the hollow cylinder through the hollow shaft neck for grinding. The cylinder is equipped with grinding media of various diameters (steel ball, steel bar or gravel, etc.). When the cylinder rotates around the horizontal axis at a certain speed, the medium and raw materials in the cylinder under the action of centrifugal force and friction force, as the cylinder reaches a certain height, when its own gravity is greater than the centrifugal force, it will escape from the cylinder body wall and drop or roll down, smashing the ore due to the impact force. At the same time, the sliding motion of the grinding medium also produces grinding effect on the raw material during the rotation of the mill. The ground material is discharged through a hollow journal.
Raymond mill is the earliest and most widely used grinding equipment in China, with low fineness, suitable for the production of 400 mesh of coarse ordinary powder. A small amount of 500 ~ 1250 mesh products can be obtained through secondary classification. Suitable for large scale production of coarse powder and small scale production of fine powder.
Working principle: Raymond mill rollers works under the action of centrifugal force tightly on the ring rolling, the shovel knife scooping up material to the grinding roller and grinding ring in the middle, the material under the action of ground pressure, broken into powder, and then under the action of fan blow into powder material up through analysis of machine, to fulfill the requirements of fineness of materials through the analysis of machine, cant meet the requirements of the return to continue to grinding, grinding chamber through the analysis of the material into the cyclone separation of machine to collect. Use industrial press cloth to separate the air exhaust into powder.
Vertical mill is a typical material layer extrusion crushing equipment, the most fine can reach 1250 mesh, through the second, third classification of the most fine can reach to 3000 mesh, generally suitable for mohs hardness of less than 7 materials.
Working principle: The motor through reducer driven in mill, material from the feed opening fell into a grinding disc, move to the edge of mill under the action of centrifugal force and grinding roller of roller compaction, shredded material from mill edge overflow, at the same time from the nozzle ring (ring) wind speed up stream to efficient separator, which is one with vertical mill meal after separator is returned to the mill wheel, grinding again; The fine powder is ground with the air flow and collected in the dust collecting device of the system, which is the product. Coarse granular materials not taken up by the hot gas flow and accidental entry of metal parts sink from the wind ring, after scraping out by the scraper, through the external circulation of the bucket machine feeding into the grinding again grinding.
As the roller is small and many, the fit clearance with the grinding ring is also small, the most fine grinding can be up to 2500 mesh. Low energy consumption and low fine powder content. Generally suitable for mohs hardness below 5, narrow particle size (low oil absorption value), moderate fineness of materials. But forhard materials, if they are light color (white), the degree of dialogue has a great influence.
Working principle: It adopts the principle of impact, extrusion and grinding to crush the material. There is a large active gap between the grinding ring and pin shaft installed on the grinding ring bracket. When the grinding ring bracket rotates with the spindle, the grinding ring is swung to the grinding ring by centrifugal force, and the inner wall of the grinding ring is pressed and rotates around the pin axis. When the material passes through the gap between the grinding ring and the grinding ring, it is impacted, squeezed and ground by the grinding ring. Under the action of gravity, the crushed material falls into the swing plate and is then thrown into the air flow into the grading chamber for classification. The qualified fine powder is collected through the grading wheel into the rear passage collection system, and the coarse material is thrown into the shunt ring for internal avoidance, and then falls back into the crushing chamber for crushing. The grinding ring is single layer or upper and lower double layer distribution. When the double-layer grinding ring crusher works, the material is crushed again when passing through the gap between the second grinding ring and the grinding ring.
Air classifier is an industrial machine to separate materials by a combination of size, shape and density. And of course air classifier can be used to separate different materials. Usually, an air classifier can work alone, or work with grinding mills. Air classifier for calcium carbonate is a micron separator to separate calcium carbonate powder ground from calcium carbonate ball mills or other mills. In the calcium carbonate plant with ball mill and classifier, one or more calcium carbonate classifiers work with the ball mill to get the fine and ultra fine ground calcium carbonate powder. Daswell machinery offers quality classifiers for calcium carbonate with great durability, reliability and optimum performance. Working with calcium carbonate ball mills, Daswell calcium carbonate classifier can produce ground calcium carbonate powder with particle size range 2.0-25m.
Henan Daswell machinery company is a leader manufacturer of mineral processing equipment. In fact, Daswell offers end-to-end turnkey solutions for mineral processing plants, such as calcium carbonate plant, quicklime plant, hydrated lime process plant and silica plant. We offer designing and planning services for your mineral production lines in line with your needs. And we also provide complete set of equipment for the mineral processing plants. Air classifier is core equipment for calcium carbonate plant with ball mill. Daswell calcium carbonate air classifiers for sale come with several designs according to their internal designs, cut points and production output. Each of these Daswell air classifier for calcium carbonate is of robust design to be durable, and reliable. And according to the required sizes of ground calcium carbonate powder, there can be one or more air classifiers work together in series or parallel connection. Besides, each kind of air classifier has its own optimum production range for ground calcium carbonate powder, and the range can be adjusted through adjusting the inlet air flow, the speed and amount of reverse flow.
In calcium carbonate production line with high capacity, ball mill usually works with air classifier to obtain fine and ultra fine ground calcium carbonate powder. Firstly, the required sizes of raw materials will be feed into the ball mill for grinding. And to get fine and ultra fine ground calcium carbonate powder with great consistent sizes, one or more air classifiers are needed to separate the calcium carbonate powder from the ball mill. In the classifiers, the calcium carbonate powder is further cut into fine and super fine sizes due to the high speed working of classifier wheels. With the influence of air flow, the fine and ultra fine calcium carbonate powder will be transported to product silo, while the coarser powder will be rejected and be returned to ball mill with feed materials. Ball mill and air classifier system is perfect for fine ground calcium carbonate powder processing plant. Classifier for Ground Calcium Carbonate Plant Ultra Fine Air Classifier Get Solutions Name:* Email:* Phone Message:* How does Air Classifier for Calcium Carbonate Work In calcium carbonate production line, after grinding the calcium carbonate in ball mill, the grounded calcium carbonate powder will be transported to the air classifier pneumatically through the inlet scroll. In the air classifier, the air flow becomes a rising air under the function of classifier wheel. The ascending vortex carries the fine and ultra fine calcium carbonate powder out of the classifier, and then be transferred to product silo. If more than one air classifiers work together to get superfine ground calcium carbonate powder, these fine calcium carbonate powder will be transferred to another classifier for another round of separation and classification. For the coarse material, under the influence of gravity, they will fall down the air classifier and be returned to ball mill with feed material for further grinding. How to Choose Classifier for Calcium Carbonate As stated above, Daswell provides several kinds of calcium carbonate micron separator. They are different in cut points, designs, and other factors. Despite these air classifier for calcium carbonate can be different in detailed designs, they are all durable and reliable micron separator with high quality. There is no one for all solution for choosing air classifier. But you can choose the suitable ones according to your needs. There are several factors to consider, such as the desired particle size, the grinding mill, the capacity and your budget, etc. Daswell can offer you the most suitable calcium carbonate air classifier for you in line with your specific needs. Please fill the form below to get free quotes. We will reply in 24 hours. Product Model: Your Name(required): Your Email(required): Your Tel: Your country: Your Company: Your Message(required): Other Products You May be Interested in:Calcium Carbonate PlantGround Calcium Carbonate ProcessCalcium Carbonate Grinding MillCalcium Carbonate Coating MachineWet Grinding Mill for Calcium CarbonateCalcium Carbonate Processing PlantBall Mill for Grinding Calcium CarbonateCalcium Carbonate Production Line Equipment
In calcium carbonate production line, after grinding the calcium carbonate in ball mill, the grounded calcium carbonate powder will be transported to the air classifier pneumatically through the inlet scroll. In the air classifier, the air flow becomes a rising air under the function of classifier wheel. The ascending vortex carries the fine and ultra fine calcium carbonate powder out of the classifier, and then be transferred to product silo. If more than one air classifiers work together to get superfine ground calcium carbonate powder, these fine calcium carbonate powder will be transferred to another classifier for another round of separation and classification. For the coarse material, under the influence of gravity, they will fall down the air classifier and be returned to ball mill with feed material for further grinding.
As stated above, Daswell provides several kinds of calcium carbonate micron separator. They are different in cut points, designs, and other factors. Despite these air classifier for calcium carbonate can be different in detailed designs, they are all durable and reliable micron separator with high quality. There is no one for all solution for choosing air classifier. But you can choose the suitable ones according to your needs. There are several factors to consider, such as the desired particle size, the grinding mill, the capacity and your budget, etc. Daswell can offer you the most suitable calcium carbonate air classifier for you in line with your specific needs. Please fill the form below to get free quotes. We will reply in 24 hours. Product Model: Your Name(required): Your Email(required): Your Tel: Your country: Your Company: Your Message(required):
The control of a milling operation is a problem in imponderables: from the moment that the ore drops into the mill scoop the process becomes continuous, and continuity ceases only when the products finally come to rest at the concentrate bins and on the tailing dams. Material in process often cannot be weighed without a disturbance of continuity; consequently, mill control must depend upon the sampling of material in flux. From these samples the essential information is derived by means of analyses for metal content, particle size distribution, and content of water or other ingredient in the ore pulp.
The following formulas were developed during a long association not only with design and construction, but also with the operation of ore dressing plants. These formulas are herein the hope that they would prove of value to others in the ore dressing industry.
Pulp densities indicate by means of a tabulation the percentages of solids (or liquid-to-solid ratio) in a sample of pulp. This figure is valuable in two waysdirectly, because for each unit process and operation in milling the optimum pulp density must be established and maintained, and indirectly, because certain important tonnage calculations are based on pulp density.
As used in these formulas the specific gravity of the ore is obtained simply by weighing a liter of mill pulp, then drying and weighing the ore. With these two weights formula (2) may be used to obtain K, and then formula (1) to convert to S, the specific gravity. A volumetric flask of one liter capacity provides the necessary accuracy. In laboratory work the ore should be ground wet to make a suitable pulp. This method does not give the true specific gravity of the ore, but an apparent specific gravity which is more suitable for the intended purposes.
A mechanical classifier often receives its feed from a ball mill and produces (1) finished material which overflows to the next operation and (2) sand which returns to the mill for further size-reduction. The term circulating load is defined as the tonnage of sand that returns to the ball mill, and the circulating load ratio is the ratio of circulating load to the tonnage of original feed to the ball mill. Since the feedto the classifier, the overflow of the classifier, and the sand usually are associated with different proportions of water to solid, the calculation of circulating load ratio can be based on a pulp density formula.
Example: A mill in closed circuit with a classifier receives 300 dry tons of crude ore per day, and the percentages of solid are respectively 25, 50, and 84% in the classifier overflow, feed to classifier, and sand, equivalent to L: S ratios of 3.0, 1.0, and 0.190. Then the circulating load ratio equals
A more accurate basis for calculation of tonnage in a grinding circuit is the screen analysis. Samples of the mill discharge, return sand, and the classifier overflow are screen sized, and the cumulative percentages are calculated on several meshes. Let:
The efficiency of a classifier, also determined by means of screen analyses, has been defined as the ratio, expressed as percentage, of the weight of classified material in the overflow to the weight of classifiable material in the feed. Overflow having the same sizing test as the feed is not considered classified material. Let:
When no other method is available an approximation of the tonnage in a pulp stream or in a batch of pulp can be quickly obtained by one of these methods. In the dilution method water is added to astream of pulp at a known rate, or to a batch of pulp in known quantity, and the specific gravity of the pulp ascertained before and after dilution.
In both cases Dx and D2 are dilutions (tons of water per ton of ore) before and after addition of water. These are found from the specific gravities of the pulp, by formulas (4) and (6) or directly by the use of the tabulation on these of Pulp Density Tables.
The Pulp Density Tables were compiled to eliminate the many complicated calculations which were required when using other pulp density tables. The total tank volume required for each twenty-four hour period of treatment is obtained in one computation. The table gives a figure, in cubic feet, which includes the volume of a ton of solids plus the necessary volume of water to make a pulp of the particular specific gravity desired. Multiply this figure by the number of dry tons of feed per twenty-four hours. Then simply adjust this figure to the required treatment time, such as 16, 30, 36, 72 hours.
In the chemical method a strong solution of known concentration of common salt, zinc sulphate, or other easily measured chemical is added to the flowing pulp at a known rate, or to a batch of pulp in known quantity. The degree of dilution of this standard solution by pulp water is ascertained by chemical analysis of solution from a filtered sample, and the tonnage of ore is then calculated from the percentage solid. This method is impractical for most purposes, but occasionally an exceptional circumstance makes its employment advantageous. It has also been suggested as a rapid and accurate method of determining concentrate moistures, but in this application the expense is prohibitive, since ordinary chemicals of reasonable cost are found to react quickly with the concentrate itself.
With the above chart the per cent solids or specific gravity of a pulp can be determined for ores where gravities do not coincide with those in the Pulp Density Tables.This chart can also be used for determining the specific gravity of solids, specific gravity of pulps, orthe per cent solids in pulp if any two of the three are known.
These are used to compute the production of concentrate in a mill or in a particular circuit. The formulas are based on assays of samples, and the results of the calculations are generally accurate as accurate as the sampling, assaying, and crude ore (or other) tonnage on which they depend.
The simplest case is that in which two products only, viz., concentrate and tailing, are made from a given feed. If F, C, and T are tonnages of feed r on-centrate, and tailing respectively; f, c, and t are the assays of the important metal; K, the ratio of concentration (tons of feed to make one ton of concentrate); and R, the recovery of the assayed metal; then
When a feed containing, say, metal 1 and metal z, is divided into three products, e.g., a concentrate rich in metal 1, another concentrate rich in metal z, and a tailing reasonably low in both l and z, several formulas in terms of assays of these two metals and tonnage of feed can be used to obtain the ratio of concentration, the weights of the three products, and the recoveries of 1 and z in their concentrates. For simplification in the following notation, we shall consider a lead-zinc ore from whicha lead concentrate and a zinc concentrate are produced:
The advantages of using the three-product formulas (20-25) instead of the two-product formulas (14-19), are four-fold(a) simplicity, (b) fewer samples involved, (c) intermediate tailing does not have to be kept free of circulating material, (d) greater accuracy if application is fully understood.
In further regard to (d) the three-product formulas have certain limitations. Of the three products involved, two must be concentrates of different metals. Consider the following examples (same as foregoing, with silver assays added):
In this example the formula will give reliable results when lead and zinc assays or silver and zinc assays, but not if silver and lead assays, are used, the reason being that there is no concentration of lead or silver in the second concentrate. Nor is the formula dependable in a milling operation, for example, which yields only a table lead concentratecontaining silver, lead, and zinc, and a flotation concentrate only slightly different in grade, for in this case there is no metal which has been rejected in one product and concentrated in a second. This is not to suggest that the formulas will not give reliable results in such cases, but that the results are not dependablein certain cases one or more tonnages may come out with negative sign, or a recovery may exceed 100%.
To estimate the number of cells required for a flotation operation in which: WTons of solids per 24 hours. RRatio by weight: solution/solids. LSpecific gravity, solution. SSpecific gravity, solids. NNumber of cells required. TContact time in minutes. CVolume of each cell in cu. ft.
Original feed may be applied at the ball mill or the classifier. TTons of original feed. XCirculation factor. A% of minus designated size in feed. B% of minus designated size in overflow. C% of minus designated size in sands. Circulating load = XT. Where X = B-A/A-C Classifier efficiency: 100 x B (A-C)/A (B-C)
Original feed may be applied at theball mill or the primary classifier. TTons of original feed. XPrimary circulation factor. YSecondary circulation factor. A% of minus designated size in feed. B% of minus designated size in primary overflow. C% of minus designated size in primary sands. D% of minus designated size in secondary overflow. E% of minus designated size in secondary sands. Primary Circulating Load = XT. Where X = (B-A) (D-E)/(A-C) (B-E) Primary Classifier Efficiency: 100 xB (A C)/A (B C) Secondary Circulating Load = YT. Where Y = (D-B)/(B-E) Secondary Classifier Efficiency: 100 xD (B-E)/B (D E) Total Circulating Load (X + Y) T.
Lbs. per ton = ml per min x sp gr liquid x % strength/31.7 x tons per 24 hrs.(26) Solid reagents: Lbs. per ton = g per min/31.7 x tons per 24 hrs.(27) Example: 400 ton daily rate, 200 ml per min of 5% xanthate solution Lbs. per ton = 200 x 1 x 5/31.7 x 400 = .079
Generally speaking, the purpose of ore concentration is to increase the value of an ore by recovering most of its valuable contents in one or more concentrated products. The simplest case may be represented by a low grade copper ore which in its natural state could not be economically shipped or smelted. The treatment of such an ore by flotation or some other process of concentration has this purpose: to concentrate the copper into as small a bulk as possible without losing too much of the copper in doing so. Thus there are two important factors. (1) the degree of concentration and (2) the recovery ofcopper.
The question arises: Which of these results is the most desirable, disregarding for the moment the difference in cost of obtaining them? With only the information given above the problem is indeterminate. A number of factors must first be taken into consideration, a few of them being the facilities and cost of transportation and smelting, the price of copper, the grade of the crude ore, and the nature of the contract between seller and buyer of the concentrate.
The problem of comparing test data is further complicated when the ore in question contains more than one valuable metal, and further still when a separation is also made (production of two or more concentrates entirely different in nature). An example of the last is a lead-copper-zinc ore containing also gold and silver, from which are to be produced. (1) a lead concentrate, (2) a copper concentrate, and (3) a zinc concentrate. It can be readily appreciated that an accurate comparison of several tests on an ore of this nature would involve a large number of factors, and thatmathematical formulas to solve such problems would be unwieldy and useless if they included all of these factors.
The value of the products actually made in the laboratory test or in the mill is calculated simply by liquidating the concentrates according to the smelter schedules which apply, using current metal prices, deduction, freight expense, etc., and reducing these figures to value per ton of crude ore by means of the ratios of concentration.
The value of the ore by perfect concentration iscalculated by setting up perfect concentrates, liquidating these according to the same smelter schedulesand with the same metal prices, and reducing theresults to the value per ton of crude ore. A simple example follows:
The value per ton of crude ore is then $10 for lead concentrate and $8.50 for zinc, or a total of $18.50 per ton of crude ore. By perfect concentration, assuming the lead to be as galena and the zinc as sphalerite:
The perfect grade of concentrate is one which contains 100% desired mineral. By referring to the tables Minerals and Their Characteristics (pages 332-339) it is seen that the perfect grade of a copper concentrate will be 63.3% when the copper is in the form of bornite, 79.8% when in the mineral chalcocite, and 34.6% when in the mineral chalcopyrite.
A common association is that of chalcopyrite and galena. In concentrating an ore containing these minerals it is usually desirable to recover the lead and the copper in one concentrate, the perfect grade of which would be 100% galena plus chalcopyrite. If L is the lead assay of the crude ore, and C the copper assay, it is easily shown that the ratio of concentration of perfect concentration is:
% Pb in perfect concentrate = K perfect x L.(30) % Cu in perfect concentrate = K perfect x C..(31) or, directly by the following formula: % Pb in perfect concentrate = 86.58R/R + 2.5.(32) where R represents the ratio:% Pb in crude ore/% Cu in crude ore Formula (32) is very convenient for milling calculations on ores of this type.
by (29) K perfect = 100/5.775+2.887 = 11.545 and % Pb in perfect concentrate = 11.545 x 5 = 57.7% and % Cu in perfect concentrate = 11.545 x 1 = 11.54% or, directly by (32), % Pb = 86.58 x 5/5 + 2.5 = 57.7%
Occasionally the calculation of the grade of perfect concentrate is unnecessary because the smelter may prefer a certain maximum grade. For example, a perfect copper concentrate for an ore containing copper only as chalcocite would run 79.8% copper, but if the smelter is best equipped to handle a 36% copper concentrate, then for milling purposes 36% copper may be considered the perfect grade.
Similarly, in a zinc ore containing marmatite, in which it is known that the maximum possible grade of zinc concentrate is 54% zinc, there would be no point in calculating economic recovery on the basis of a 67% zinc concentrate (pure sphalerite). For example, the following assays of two zinc concentrates show the first to be predominantly sphalerite, the second marmatite:
The sulphur assays show that in the first case all of the iron is present as pyrite, and consequently the zinc mineral is an exceptionally pure sphalerite. This concentrate is therefore very low grade, from the milling point of view, running only 77.6% of perfect grade.On the other hand, the low sulphur assay of concentrate B shows this to be a marmatite, for 10% iron occurs in the form of FeS and only 2.5% iron as pyrite. The zinc mineral in this case contains 55.8% zinc, 10.7% iron, and 33.5% sulphur, and clearly is an intermediate marmatite. From the milling point of view cencentrate B is high grade, running 93% of perfect grade, equivalent to a 62% zinc concentrate on a pure sphalerite.
Ore beneficiation plant could be used for processing cooper ore, gold ore, iron ore, zinc lead etc. Each mineral has its special features. Gernerally, thewhole ore dressing plant is devided into 3steps.
Due to the raw ore size is large, it is necessary to be crushed into suitable particles. The loader sends raw ore into vibrating feeder, which feed material evenly to jaw crusher for primary crushing process. In ore benefication plant,one important rule is tocrush more and grind less.Ifnessary,cone crusher or hammer crushercould added as second crushing process to get suitable particles.
After crushing, the material goes into ball mill via feeder for fine size, such as 325mesh.Ball mill and spiral classifier is a closed-loop circle. The material after ball mill grinding comes into classifier for classification. Qualified fine ore into next process and unqualified coarse ore return back to ball mill for grinding again.In this grindingprocess, we must first make clear the requirements for each ore particle standards.
In the production process,not all the ore powder are in line with the standard.The usful ore powderneeds to beselected viaprofessional equipment, such as mixing tank,flotation machine, shaking table, spiral chute etc.Thenthe qualified concentrate powder from ore is stocked insettling pond.
TipsDue to various constraints, there are always some residual moisture in the ore powder,concentrate dehydration process could be added. This step could meet the requirements of transportation and smelting etc. The machines, such as box pressure filter, rotary dryer etc is optional.
Henan Baichy Machinery Equipment Co,.Ltd is a mining factory manufacturer mainly engaged in manufacturing crushing machinery, grinding equipment, mobile crushing plant and mineral processing machines, integrates research and development,design, manufacturing, sales and after-sales service.
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Our company sticks into the basic principle of "Quality is definitely the life of the business, and status may be the soul of it" for Mineral Powder Grinding Mill, Fushion Machine , Air Classifier Machine , Powder Coating Machine ,Powder Processing Equipment . Customer pleasure is our main purpose. We welcome you to definitely build business relation with us. For further more information, you should never wait to contact with us. The product will supply to all over the world, such as Europe, America, Australia,Brunei , Brunei ,Portugal , Eindhoven .Profession, Devoting are always fundamental to our mission. We have always been in line with serving customers, creating value management objectives and adhering to the sincerity, dedication, persistent management idea.
The magnetic mineral processing line with other names of magnetic separator production line, magnetic separation process or magnetic plant is mainly made up of vibrating feeder, chute feeder, jaw crusher, vibrating screen, ball mill, classifier, magnetic separator, concentrator, and dryer with the feeder, lifter and conveyor as the auxiliary equipment. The magnetic separation plant enjoys the features of high efficiency, low energy consumption, strong processing capability and economical effect.
In the magnetic separation process, little water is needed, which saves much cost and reduces pollution. The dust produced during the process will be collected by the dust collector, causing no air pollution. The magnetic separator production line is a creative technology which realizes high efficiency, good product quality and zero pollution. It can handle materials including quartzite, iron oxide, manganese ore, non-ferrous and rare metal ores.
The magnetic separation process is as follows: the storage bin feeder jaw crusher hammer crusher ball mill spiral classifier magnetic separator (concentrator). Belt conveyors play the connecting role. In general, By using the magnetic separation plant, you can enjoy the 63% higher of concentrate grade and 95% higher of recovery rate.
Founded in 1987, ZJH is mainly focus on producing and supply crushers,ore grinding equipment, mineral beneficiation equipment, laboratory and pilot scale ore dressing equipment for Mines and Mineral Beneficiation Plants.Our aim is to work together with the Mining and Mineral Processing Industry for helping to carry on the production technical innovation, to reduce the operating cost ,to improve the operating efficiency.
Mining thickener is mainly used for dewatering the wet concentrate during the ore dressing process. Our thickener is mostly located between cleaning beneficiation process and filtration equipment. Thickener is applied to both the concentrate and tailings to recover water. The thickener could be used to recover immediately reusable water back to mineral processing plant, as 
Complete set of Graphite Beneficiation Equipment usually includes jaw crusher, ball mill, classifier, rod mills, agitation tanks, flotation machine, rotary dryers etc. ZJH minerals as more than 30 years of professional mineral beneficiation equipment manufacturers, according to customers requirementsand actual situation, can provide ore testing, ore dressing experiments, process design, a complete set of equipment 
Asphalt from old road surface is elastic and include hard stone. sizing crusher is best choice for crushing Asphalt from old road surface. 1. The crushing work conditions: Raw material: asphalt from old road surface The feeding size: 400*400*100mm The discharged size: less than 16mm Capacity: 400t/h 2. Solutions with 2 stage crushing Primary sizing: 
Why the mineral beneficiation plant shall build a mineral processing laboratory? The ore characteristics is always changed as the mining stage different, so the present meniral beneficiation method or process do not recover the aimed mineral well. At this time, the mineral beneficiation plant shall observe the structure of the ore and analyze the nature 
Our semi-industrial flotation plant with capacity 1-3 t/d is mainly designed for semi-industrial scale test of continuous flotation. The features of mobile flotation pilot plant 1.beneficiation reagent dosing machine+ agitation tanks + flotation cells are formed a pilot flotation plant, which installed in a container for easy moving and transportation by truck. 2. easy operation. 
we recommend you adopt ourour lab jaw crushersZJEP-10060withzirconia ceramic jaw plates. itisapplicable for crushing high purity materials, avoid mixing other elements, no metal ion pollution, ensure the high purity and cleanliness of materials crushing 1, Technical data : 2, Application: our lab jaw crushers with zirconia jaw plates is applicable for crushing high purity materials, 
Quartz sand is a kind of non-metallic mineral.Its main mineral composition is silica (SiO2). Quartz sand is made by quartz ore crushing, screening, washing and other processes. its hard, wear-resisting, chemical properties of stability is widely used in glass, casting, ceramics and refractory materials, smelting ferrosilicate, metallurgical flux, metallurgy, construction, chemical, plastic, rubber, abrasive and 
Polymetallic sulfide ore dressing by flotation The copper, lead, zinc polymetallic sulfide ore has a wide variety of minerals, copper, lead, zinc sulfide. The minerals are closely symbiosis. The dissemination particle size is very uneven. It is easy to float and difficult to separate ore. According to the characteristics of the metal ore, the grinding 
The main component of bauxite is alumina. Bauxite beneficiation by flotation process can be roughly divided into washing primary beneficiation crushing grinding classification separation concentrate concentrationfiltration,several processes. Bauxite beneficiation crushing commonly used three-stage one-closed circuit crushing process;Grinding and Classification: Grinding often adopts grid type ball mill with closed circuit 
Magnetite Beneficiation or ore dressing production line combined by vibrating feeder, jaw crusher, vibrating screen, ball mill, classifier, magnetic separator, thickener and dryer and other main equipment. With the feeder, hoist, conveyor can form a complete ore dressing production line.The Magnetite Beneficiation production line has the advantages of high efficiency, low energy, high handling capacity 
The Lead and Zinc ore dressing, according to the different types of ore, then choose different ore dressing methods, also need different lead-zinc ore beneficiation equipment. Sulfide ores are usually flotation method.Oxidized ore is beneficiated by flotation or gravity separation combined with flotation, or flotation after curing roasting, or flotation after gravity separation with sulfuric 
Froth Flotation Beneficiation process is one of the important processes in the application of ore dressing, and it is widely used. Froth Flotation Beneficiation is widely used in copper, nickel ore, iron ore, gold ore, lead and zinc ore, potassium feldspar, graphite and other metal and non-metal ore concentrate selection, with high efficiency, low energy, 
Complete set of potassium feldspar beneficiation equipment usually includes jaw crusher, ball mill, classifier, magnetic separator, agitation tanks, flotation machine, high gradient magnetic separation machine etc. ZJH minerals as more than 30 years of professional mineral beneficiation equipment manufacturers, according to customers requirements and actual situation, can provide ore testing, ore dressing experiments, process design, 
Froth flotation of gold is a widely used beneficiation method for treating rock gold ore in gold concentrating plant, which is often used to treat gold ore containing sulfide minerals with high floatability. The froth flotation process can concentrate the gold in sulfide minerals to the maximum extent, and the tailings can be directly discarded. 
The production line for beneficiation of fluorite is up to the aim of fluorite concentration by the work of a series of equipment with a clear division of job. The main machine for beneficiation of fluorite includes jaw crusher, grate ball mill, overflow ball mill, spiral classifier,agitation tank, flotation cells, thickner, filter,etc. The froth flotation 
we supply Potash feldspar grinding mill. The Potash feldspar grinding mill includes the bin, belt feeder, ball mill, air classifier and bag filter. The Potash feldspar grinding mill has the follow features: high working efficiency environmental friendly The flow chart of Potash feldspar grinding mill The technical specifications of Potash feldspar grinding mill capacity: 4500kg/h 
Slag is a common raw materials for cement industry. The hardness of slag is around 6-7 in Mohs scale (harder than cement clinker). For the aim to grind slag (15-20 mm) to a final fineness of 30 microns. After the slag dry, the slag less than 50mm fed into the rolling mill, the slag will 
Clay is sticky. sizing crusher is best choice for crushing the sticky material. 1. The crushing work conditions: Raw material: clay with 10% of stones The feeding size: 200 The discharged size: less than 100mm Capacity: 300-400t/h Solutions Model: FP 63AS Power: 200KW Weight: 22 ton Dimension: refer to the attached CAD drawing the 
The basic data on the grinding system Raw material1.Calcined Alumina2.Alumina Trihydrate Feeding size200 mesh, Output sizeAlumina Trihydrate:D50=9m-1m;D97=36m-4m Calcined Alumina:D100=325mesh-800mesh Capacity0.5-0.7 T/h(on the basis of Calcined AluminaD100=800mesh),this system could produce other size product. The capacity is different according to different size. This system is also for iron avoidance superfine grinding for other hard materials, for example: 
PE 4080 Mini pollution free Jaw Crusher is mainly for crushing the geological and geochemical rock samples. It can strictly control the contamination of other elements except silicon and aluminum. It worked with our anti-pollution disc grinding mill, by which the whole process of sample preparation can be realized to prevent pollution.
ZJH mainly focus on producing and supply crushers, ore grinding equipment, mineral Beneficiation equipment, laboratory and pilot scale ore dressing equipment for Mining and Mineral Processing Industry. Our aim is to work together with Mines, Mineral Beneficiation Plantsfor helping to reduce the operating cost ,to improve the operating efficiency.
ALPA enjoys a high reputation in more than 100 countries and regions around the world. With its high-quality products and services, it has won the trust of many well-known brand companies around the world.
According to different materials and application industries, the production capacity and particle size range will be different. Please contact our engineers to customize the equipment for you. Our experts will contact you within 6 hours to discuss your needs for machine and processes.
The material is uniformly sent into the grinding chamber by the feeding system, and is strongly impacted by the high-speed rotating grinding disc. At the same time, it is subjected to the centrifugal force to collide with the crushing ring gear, and is subjected to various comprehensive forces such as shearing, friction, and collision. The material is ground, and the crushed material moves to the classification area with the airflow. The coarse and fine materials are separated through the classification wheel adjusted by the frequency conversion. The products that meet the fineness requirements enter the cyclone collector and the dust collector with the airflow for collection, and the coarse particles return to the grinding area to continue shattered.
Note: The production capacity is closely related to the particle size, specific gravity, hardness, moisture and other indicators of the raw materials. The above parameters are for reference only, please consult our engineers for details.
The micro powder roller mill is a new type of high-fine grinding equipment. Its product fineness can be adjusted from 325 mesh to 2500 mesh according to the requirements of the customers, and the fineness can be up to D975m at one time. This micro powder grinding mill has comprehensive mechanical crushing properties such as rolling, grinding, etc. It is widely used in high-fine grinding of various non-metallic minerals such as talc, calcite, calcium carbonate, dolomite and kaolin, whose Mohs hardness is less than 5 and humidity is less than 5%. Due to its excellent performance, micro powder mill becomes more and more popular on the market.
Before you buy a micro powder roller mill, you need to know the difference between different models in order to choose the most suitable machine. Of course, the quickest way you can do that is by looking at the technical parameter. From the parameter table of fine powder mill grinder, you can learn more details about this machine. DR series grinder for fine powderis the hot sale.
Lets take DR-198 as an example. The roller number of DR-198 is 28pc. Its Max. Input size is 10mm. If the customer wants the particle size between 5m to 50m, the production capacity of this model of roller mill can reach 800kg to 7000kg.
Taking the processing of calcite as an example, the output of different materials is different. If you require the product fineness is 325 mesh, the output of DR-198 is 6000kg to 6500kg. If want the product fineness up to 1500 mesh, its output is 1500kg to 1800kg. In addition, if you want to know more details, welcome to consult us now.
In general, the micro powder roller mill is a complete of grinding production line. It includes many components, such as the host, feeder, air classifier, the blower, discharge screw conveyor, electrical control system, etc. You can learn its structure in the flow chart below.
Jaw crusher machine breaks the material into less than 10mm of material, and then by the bucket elevator to the storage hopper. Then, the material in the storage hopper is fed into the main machine cavity of the micro powder roller grinding mill for grinding by the feeder. The material passes through the gap between the grinding roller and the grinding ring. The crushing and grinding function is achieved by the rolling of the grinding roller. Whats more, the roller is arranged in four layers so that the material can be fully ground to obtain the desired fineness of the product.
Our Daswell Machinery is a trustworthy mineral processing plant supplier. We can not only provide you with the single machine, but also design the complete of mineral processing solution for your projects. Up to now, we have exported many sets of ultra fine powder grinderto abroad, such as Egypt, Romania, Mexico, Turkey, etc. Our engineers also design the excellent mineral processing solution for our customers.Get in Touch with Mechanic