free essays on kaash main shikshak hota

free essays on kaash main shikshak hota

Alexa Fuentes Was Feminism effective in changing society or was it ineffective? IB 12 HOTA- Internal Assessment South Side High School IB Candidate #: Fall 2014 Mr. J Word Count: 1,965 Plan of Investigation: 3 Summary of Evidence 4 Evaluation of Sources:...

promotes health but it also have to potential to exploit the poor, to sell their organ in to fulfill the money needs. Under Human Organs Transplant Act (HOTA), it allows the state to harvest organs from persons who are declared brain dead....

industry in the world. Cuisine Indian cuisine is characterized by a wide variety of regional styles and sophisticated use of herbs and spices. The main foods in the region are rice (especially in the south and the east) and wheat (predominantly in the north). Spices originally native to the Indian subcontinent...

a Radio Kishore Bharti by AKASHVANI (logo title Gurudev)/: Great people cloak alike too [!] > Ji haan yeh sahi hain ke main Sachin da ke bahut kareeb raha, aur main yeh bhi manta hoon, ke maine .. ke naate is sureeley rishtey ke baare mein kabhi kisi ko kuchh nehin batayamagar aaj aap sab...

a. The domestic distribution revenues of $3 million because the deal had not been finalized. Main Line's maximum and minimum lost profit amounts should not be revised downward due to domestic distribution revenues of $ 3M because this figure is an estimate of future cash flows. Even though the deal...

in Bangladesh A research on Main Causes of Religious Extremism in Bangladesh ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I have completed my English 105 research paper on the main causes of religious extremism in Bangladesh. I would like to take this opportunity to...

'Global and Chinese TV Main Board Industry, 2009-2019 Market Research Report' is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global TV Main Board industry with a focus on the Chinese market. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the TV Main Board manufacturers and...

Peer Review Checklist* What is the main point of this paper? | Different types of the wars we hae had in our past | What is the greatest strength of this paper? | The author shows a lot of interest in the wars | What material does not seem to fit the main point of the paper or does not seem to...

The Main Cosmo: The Audiences Underlying Assumption About the Human Relationships Between Characters Walt Disney, a famous American film producer, once said, There is great comfort and inspiration in the feeling of close human relationships and its bearing on our mutual fortunes - a powerful force...

which has good wear-resistance. And Have You Studied Main Bearing of Cement Miller? Main bearing of china cement mills under the quality of the rotary part and the impact of the grinding medium and grinding machine by hollow shaft support on the main bearing, bearing on bearing cover, observation hole...

Main functional areas within a business organisation Even in the smallest business a number of key tasks, or functions, must be done regularly. Stock must be bought, bills must be paid, customers must be served and customer enquiries must be answered. In a small firm all these jobs may be done by...

Main Steps of Peanut Oil Refining Machine In Working The Peanut Oil Refining Machine used convenient and its working only need a few steps, the peanut oil refining machine main specification is 301500T/D. and peanut oil refining machine's working process is also easy to operate.Main steps of refinery...

What do you consider to be the main challenges in providing mental health interventions in primary care? There needs to be an improvement in the interface of primary and secondary mental health care. Mental health services need to be fully integrated creating a seamless pathway to specialist mental...

Q1. What are the main barriers to memory and what would you do to tackle them? Introduction: Ebbinghauss early study in 1885 clearly suggested that we forget rapidly. He was a dedicated researcher and developed a forgetting curve which showed a sharp decline in retention during the first few hours...

emotionality TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction....2 What is Emotion........3 The Main Emotions.4 Emotion Recognition...5 The Importance of Emotions...

internet. The systems like reservations, banking and other things wear done using internet. The main advantage of this was person need not be present at the place and was done quickly which saved the time. The main draw back of this was, it compulsorily required the costly pc. Now the things had changed...

Soft drinks: main issues for producers as regard distribution We can cite three main issues for soft drinks producers as regard distribution Access to and success in distribution First, for many producers, the access to some distribution channels like super/hypermarkets or even restaurants...

scholarship to prove to my parents that their hard work and great efforts they exerted to help me to become the person who I am now are fruitful. The main reason for my desire to go to the college is that I have passion for education and I am eager to learn more to enhance my knowledge and experience and...

PALM OIL EXTRACTION MACHINE consist a lot of parts. How much do you know about palm oil extraction machine? The next is the palm oil extraction machine main parts introduction. (1). Solvent pumps: continuously spray solvent to the rotary-type extractor (2).Roary extractor: Spray and soak the pre-pressed...

Per.3 Short Answer In the chapter Winter Animals in Walden by Henry David Thoreau, What is the main purpose for this passage and how does Thoreau get this point across? Henry David Thoreaus main idea, that he is trying to present to the audience, is that humans are huge contributors to the adaptation...

of energy saving, reduction can also reduce business costs. So what is a measure of a lignite dryer stove's main argument is it? This let bangke technician for you in detail about it. The main parameters to judge the merits of lignite dryer stove performance are: the furnace section of heat intensity...

glass ceramic industry.Making more profits in the equal time is the main purpose of every mineral merchant. Then how to improve ball millefficiency is becoming more and more important in the nowadays. Generally speaking, there are four main factors affect the ball mills efficiency.Main factors affect ball...

is a professional manufacturer and trader specializing in the research, development and production of construction machinery for nearly 30 years. Our main products are as follows:MP Series Planetary Concrete Mixer,electric block making machine,block making machines,etc. We will provide you with the best...

Soybean Oil Refining Machine main section in the soybean oil refining process: from degumming acid to decolorization, deodorization and dewaxing. Soybean Oil Refining Main Section and soybean oil refining process introduction: Degumming This progress adopts hydration by adding into hot water to remove...

the using process. Regarding the structural composition and working principle of rock cone crusher, Henan Fote Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. proposes the main factors affecting the economic performance of cone crusher, which are mainly the following three aspects. 1. Cavity design of Symons cone crusher ...

The witches are the main evil in Macbeth The witches are the main evil in the play though they only appear four times. The play starts with the witches which gives us the impression that everything begins with the witches and that they cause every evil event in the play. Each time they appear they...

Outline the main features of experimental social psychology and consider the influences that led to its emergence. What do you think are its strengths and weaknesses? Social psychology has many different theoretical perspectives. The focus of this essay will be the cognitive social perspective and...

well as by whether the screens are horizontal or inclined. Recently, we invented circular vibrating screen. And toay we will say something about its main advantages. The mining and mineral processing industry uses screening for a variety of processing applications. For example, after mining the...

have ADHD which is approximately 2 million children nationwide. So in a normal classroom of 25-30 children, at least one will have ADHD. The main characteristics of ADHD are chronic levels of inattention , hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, however many normal children display these actions...

conflicts between their clashing characteristics; the problems which eventually occur and the reactions of the characters. As I mentioned it, one of the main two characters is Miss Narwin. She is an English teacher in Harrison High who has been teaching over twenty years. She has been her principals teacher...

Heidi Herring Dr. Mac English Lit 8 October 2012 Main Idea of Pied Beauty The poem opens with an offering: Glory be to God for dappled things. (l. 1). In the next five lines, Hopkins elaborates with examples of what things he means...

Assess the view that science has replaced religion as the main ideological influence in society today (33 marks). Ideology as a contested concept is defined in many different ways depending on perspective. The success of science has lead to a widespread belief in it, as it can deliver the goods...

Explain the main themes of theodicies in the Augustinian tradition. God made the world perfect as God can only make perfect things / evil does not exist, it is only a lack of perfection. Only God himself is perfect. Created things are open to change and therefore open to going wrong. God...

The Civil War lasted from 1861 to 1865 and led to over 618,000 people dead. Here are the 3 main causes I think lead to the civil war, Social differences, growth of the abolition movement, and the election of Abraham Lincoln. 1. Economic and social differences between the North and the South. With...

Deep Babla ICT Key Skills Homework 10R Describe the main features of Fronter you have used I had used the Fronter rooms to post new topics on the forum based website, as only people in Alperton can add their opinion; it allowed me to see other peoples views on similar issues. It also allows me to...

Repressed memories Main article: Repressed memory It is often claimed that traumatic events are repressed, yet it appears that the trauma more often strengthens memories due to heightened emotional or physical sensations.[1] (These sensations may also cause distortions, though human memory...

Essay question: Discuss the main costs and benefits of Monetary Union in the EU . Name: Joao Santos Ten years ago , on January 1, 1999 the euro started circulating as a common currency for 11 of the 15 European Union countries, with Greece joining in 2001 and Slovakia in January 2009. (1) Eleven...

The two main US parties are now more ideologically distinct and internally united than in the past. (30 marks) There is an all-round belief that the two main US political parties are more ideologically distinct and polarised, however the idea that they are internally united is potentially not a...

The main events in Hitler's political career from 1928 to 1922 was when Hitler was blinded by gas on the 14th October 1918 plenty of events that occurred which meant that Hitler became a key figure in extremist politics. This was an important time for Hitler as it was he first got involved in extremist...

Drummle, and Compeyson. With the exception of the last three, each of the novel's antagonists is redeemed before the end of the book. B. The main conflict in the story is an internal conflict between Pip and his judgments. Pip throughout the novel has to decide whether to make right or wrong decisions...

System ore processing plant is the main equipment of powder production line mechanism, circular vibrating screen feeder system horizontal impact crusher 100th is one of the most important equipment, its raw material is mainly composed of stone fragmentation and become, in the production process will...

vibrating screens perfect for all processing industries. A wide range of sizes and options means the machine can be tailored to suit your exact needs. Main parts of the vibrating screen: The screen box, eccentric shaft, spring, motor, frame etc. Screen box is consisted of side plate, screen frame, screen...

those mining investors who have a complicated working-site environment, mobile limestone crushers can be regarded as an ideal stone crusher. As for the main types of mobile limestone crushers, they can be divided into the mobile jaw crusher, mobile impact crusher, mobile cone crusher, mobile closed-circuit...

one of the main ingredients is the plot. An author must figure out where the story is going to take the reader. In the story, William Faulkner uses in medias res, flashback, and foreshadowing to tell the story of a heartbroken and disenchanted woman. We see how past events effect the main character...

is a professional manufacturer and trader specializing in the research, development and production of construction machinery for nearly 30 years. Our main products are as follows:cement batching plant,portable diesel concrete mixer,Belt Type Portable Concrete Batch Plant,etc. We will provide you with the...

Tom Joad the main character of the movie returns to his home in Oklahoma only to find that there is no work left due to the uprising of machine farming. The government placed no appropriate action of helping the Joad family in many different ways. First, when the Joad family was first getting kicked...

The Ball Mill is a mill, one of the main working parts. In addition withstand grinding ball body of work, the static load, but also by the impact of grinding media, and the ball is rotating, so the ball to generate the alternating stress. Therefore, it must have sufficient strength and stiffness. This...

the earth is not being left alone. People are taking actions that can change the earth and its climate in significant ways. Carbon dioxide is the main culprit. The single human activity that is most likely to have a large impact on the climate is the burning of "fossil fuels" such as coal, oil and...

Main functions of a heritage manager In order to understand range of responsibilities of Heritage Manager, firstly, its important to define terms heritage and management. Management is defined by George R. Terry as a distinct process consisting of planning, organising, actuating and controlling;...

Conserving energy is very important for the future of our planet. Most of the energy produced today is being used at very high rates and is the main contributor to most of our pollution problems. It is pertinent that energy consumption rates are slowed, at least until cleaner ways are found...

is a professional manufacturer and trader specializing in the research, development and production of construction machinery for nearly 30 years. Our main products are as follows:portable concrete mixer,portable concrete mixer,etc. We will provide you with the best product and service. When the ambient...

sectors, is named by the grinding loaded bars in cylinder body ,is also known as rog grinder and rod grinding mill. And today we will Share You One Main Superiority of Rod Grinder. Rod mill is line contact, ball mill as the point contact; grinding Rod mill product granularity uniform than ball mill...

List and describe the main forces in the macro-environment facing the fast-food industry. Political The government has more control over service industry than manufacturing industry. Fast food industry lie under the service industry so they have to ensure that food they produce meet the standard or...

Ethics Essay Outline the main features of virtue ethics Virtue ethics is a type of normative ethics and instead of looking at how you can work out the outcome of a situation, it looks at how you can become a better person. It is a teleological argument, meaning it focuses on the end result, which...

Political ambition and economic concerns not religious beliefs were the main motivations of the pilgrimage of grace' How far would you agree with this statement? The main motivation of the pilgrimage of grace was region, but political ambition and economic concerns were important in gaining wider...

higher, is a kind of high-grade crushing equipment, it is important to large crushing system preferred crushing equipment. Compound cone crusher main application: Compound cone crusher can be widely used in metal and non-metallic mineral, cement, construction, metallurgy, transportation, sand and...

Was King Charles I the main cause of the English civil war? The English Civil War has many causes however Charles I must be counted as one of the major reason for the English civil war. Few people could have predicted that the civil war that started in 1642 would have actually happened, as with many...

Yvette (6503334) Class: Russell Square Question2: Outline the major causes of deforestation and the effects this has on the environment. Main Body There are many factors cause deforestation which can be divided into two parts-climatic variations and human activities, while the factors...

[pic] [pic] [pic] Describe the main legal influences on employment relations today, and evaluate the use of rewards and training and development in effectively managing the employment relations function. Employment Relations [1]Employment relations is about the management f people in the...

Thanapatra H. (Nui) August 22nd, 2007 EngSLY1 Character Writing Ashley Ashley, one of the main characters in Sweet 16, a Mary-Kate and Ashley collection, is a sweet, good-natured, sister-lover, organized, and a very attractive girl as characterized by the author Emma Harrison. On page 3...

eighty years of maize breeding alters plant nitrogen acquisition but not rhizosphere bacterial community composition | springerlink

eighty years of maize breeding alters plant nitrogen acquisition but not rhizosphere bacterial community composition | springerlink

There is considerable interest in breeding for crop genotypes that harness rhizosphere microbial communities and processes in support of plant productivity. However, the extent to which past breeding efforts have altered plant rhizosphere traits and plant-microbe collaborations is unknown.

We evaluated twelve best-selling and widely adapted maize hybrids released between 1936 and 2011 for changes in rhizosphere bacterial community composition (BCC) and plant access to endogenous soil nitrogen. Plants were grown in replicated monocultures fertilized with 0, 85 or 170kgNha1 and measured for yield, nitrogen uptake and source. Rhizosphere BCC and function was assessed through potential extracellular enzyme assays and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing.

Grain yield and nitrogen uptake from soil pools increased with year of hybrid release at all fertilization levels. Rhizosphere BCC and enzyme activity also varied among hybrids. However, releases from the 1960s and 70s were most distinct, while early and late releases shared similar BCC and enzyme activity.

These results indicate that breeding has increased maize ability to acquire nitrogen from soil reserves, but has not resulted in a directional shift in rhizosphere bacterial community assembly. The variation observed among hybrids reveals the potential for future breeding efforts to influence rhizosphere traits.

Aira M, Gmez-Brandn M, Lazcano C et al (2010) Plant genotype strongly modifies the structure and growth of maize rhizosphere microbial communities. Soil Biol Biochem 42:22762281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.08.029

An G-H, Kobayashi S, Enoki H et al (2010) How does arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization vary with host plant genotype? An example based on maize (Zea mays) germplasms. Plant Soil 327:441453. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-0073-3

Berthrong ST, Buckley DH, Drinkwater LE (2013) Agricultural management and labile carbon additions affect soil microbial community structure and interact with carbon and nitrogen cycling. Microb Ecol 66:158170. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-013-0225-0

Bouffaud M-L, Kyselkov M, Gouesnard B et al (2012) Is diversification history of maize influencing selection of soil bacteria by roots? Mol Ecol 21:195206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05359.x

Caporaso JG, Lauber CL, Walters WA et al (2011) Global patterns of 16S rRNA diversity at a depth of millions of sequences per sample. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:45164522. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1000080107

Ciampitti IA, Vyn TJ (2012) Physiological perspectives of changes over time in maize yield dependency on nitrogen uptake and associated nitrogen efficiencies: a review. Field Crop Res 133:4867. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2012.03.008

Clarke RT, Rothery P, Raybould AF (2002) Confidence limits for regression relationships between distance matrices: estimating gene flow with distance. J Agric Biol Environ Stat 7:361372. https://doi.org/10.1198/108571102320

Dawson JC, Huggins DR, Jones SS (2008) Characterizing nitrogen use efficiency in natural and agricultural ecosystems to improve the performance of cereal crops in low-input and organic agricultural systems. Field Crop Res 107:89101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2008.01.001

Dawson W, Hr J, Egert M et al (2017) A small number of low-abundance bacteria dominate plant species-specific responses during rhizosphere colonization. Front Microbiol 8:975. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00975

DeBruin JL, Schussler JR, Mo H, Cooper M (2017) Grain yield and nitrogen accumulation in maize hybrids released during 1934 to 2013 in the US Midwest. Crop Sci 57:14311446. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2016.08.0704

Edwards J, Johnson C, Santos-Medelln C et al (2015) Structure, variation, and assembly of the root-associated microbiomes of rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci 112:E911E920. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1414592112

Emmett, B (2017) Intra- and interspecific variation in rhizosphere bacterial community composition and metabolism among maize and summer annuals in agricultural fields. Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

Emmett BD, Youngblut ND, Buckley DH, Drinkwater LE (2017) Plant phylogeny and life history shape rhizosphere bacterial microbiome of summer annuals in an agricultural field. Front Microbiol 8:2414. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02414

German DP, Weintraub MN, Grandy AS et al (2011) Optimization of hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme methods for ecosystem studies. Soil Biol Biochem 43:13871397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.03.017

Germida JJ, Siciliano SD (2001) Taxonomic diversity of bacteria associated with the roots of modern, recent and ancient wheat cultivars. Biol Fertil Soils 33:410415. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003740100343

Grayston SJ, Wang S, Campbell CD, Edwards AC (1998) Selective influence of plant species on microbial diversity in the rhizosphere. Soil Biol Biochem 30:369378. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(97)00124-7

Haegele JW, Cook KA, Nichols DM, Below FE (2013) Changes in nitrogen use traits associated with genetic improvement for grain yield of maize hybrids released in different decades. Crop Sci 53:1256. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2012.07.0429

Herman DJ, Johnson KK, Jaeger CH et al (2006) Root influence on nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in Avena barbata rhizosphere soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:15041511. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2005.0113

Hinsinger P, Gobran GR, Gregory PJ, Wenzel WW (2005) Rhizosphere geometry and heterogeneity arising from root-mediated physical and chemical processes. New Phytol 168:293303. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01512.x

Kozich JJ, Westcott SL, Baxter NT et al (2013) Development of a dual-index sequencing strategy and curation pipeline for analyzing amplicon sequence data on the MiSeq Illumina sequencing platform. Appl Environ Microbiol 79:51125120. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01043-13

Leff JW, Lynch RC, Kane NC, Fierer N (2017) Plant domestication and the assembly of bacterial and fungal communities associated with strains of the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus. New Phytol 214:412423. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.14323

Lehmann A, Barto EK, Powell JR, Rillig MC (2012) Mycorrhizal responsiveness trends in annual crop plants and their wild relativesa meta-analysis on studies from 1981 to 2010. Plant Soil 355:231250. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-1095-1

Liu X-JA, van Groenigen KJ, Dijkstra P, Hungate BA (2017) Increased plant uptake of native soil nitrogen following fertilizer addition - not a priming effect? Appl Soil Ecol 114:105110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.03.011

Mahoney AK, Yin C, Hulbert SH (2017) Community structure, species variation, and potential functions of rhizosphere-associated bacteria of different winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars. Front Plant Sci 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00132

Mazzola M, Gu Y-H (2002) Wheat genotype-specific induction of soil microbial communities suppressive to disease incited by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-5 and AG-8. Phytopathology 92:13001307. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2002.92.12.1300

Mazzola M, Funnell DL, Raaijmakers JM (2004) Wheat cultivar-specific selection of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas species from resident soil populations. Microb Ecol 48:338348. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-003-1067-y

Montaez A, Abreu C, Gill P et al (2009) Biological nitrogen fixation in maize (Zea mays L.) by 15N isotope-dilution and identification of associated culturable diazotrophs. Biol Fertil Soils 45:253263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-008-0322-2

Nuccio EE, Anderson-Furgeson J, Estera KY et al (2016) Climate and edaphic controllers influence rhizosphere community assembly for a wild annual grass. Ecology 97:13071318. https://doi.org/10.1890/15-0882.1

Peiffer JA, Spor A, Koren O et al (2013) Diversity and heritability of the maize rhizosphere microbiome under field conditions. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110:65486553. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1302837110

Pepe-Ranney C, Campbell AN, Koechli C et al (2016) Unearthing the ecology of soil microorganisms using a high resolution DNA-SIP approach to explore cellulose and xylose metabolism in soil. Front Microbiol 7:703. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00703

Prez-Jaramillo JE, Carrin VJ, Bosse M et al (2017) Linking rhizosphere microbiome composition of wild and domesticated Phaseolus vulgaris to genotypic and root phenotypic traits. ISME J 11:2244. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2017.85

Plnet D, Lemaire G (1999) Relationships between dynamics of nitrogen uptake and dry matter accumulation in maize crops. Determination of critical N concentration. Plant Soil 216:6582. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004783431055

Salinero KK, Keller K, Feil WS et al (2009) Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation. BMC Genomics 10:351351. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-10-351

Schmidt JE, Bowles TM, Gaudin ACM (2016) Using ancient traits to convert soil health into crop yield: impact of selection on maize root and rhizosphere function. Front Plant Sci 7:373. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00373

Smith JSC, Duvick DN, Smith OS et al (2004) Changes in pedigree backgrounds of Pioneer brand maize hybrids widely grown from 1930 to 1999. Crop Sci 44:19351946. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2004.1935

Szoboszlay M, Lambers J, Chappell J et al (2015) Comparison of root system architecture and rhizosphere microbial communities of balsas teosinte and domesticated corn cultivars. Soil Biol Biochem 80:3444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.09.001

Turner TR, Ramakrishnan K, Walshaw J et al (2013) Comparative metatranscriptomics reveals kingdom level changes in the rhizosphere microbiome of plants. ISME J 7:22482258. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2013.119

Vitousek PM, Aber JD, Howarth RW et al (1997) Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecol Appl 7:737750. https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(1997)007[0737:haotgn]2.0.co;2

Whitman T, Pepe-Ranney C, Enders A et al (2016) Dynamics of microbial community composition and soil organic carbon mineralization in soil following addition of pyrogenic and fresh organic matter. ISME J 10:29182930. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2016.68

York LM, Galindo-Castaeda T, Schussler JR, Lynch JP (2015) Evolution of US maize (Zea mays L.) root architectural and anatomical phenes over the past 100years corresponds to increased tolerance of nitrogen stress. J Exp Bot 66:23472358. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erv074

We thank Dr. Mark Cooper for advising on the selection of hybrids and Dupont-Pioneer for providing the germplasm used in this study. This work was supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Hatch project no. NYC-145446 and the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant no. 2015-67019-23588.

Emmett, B.D., Buckley, D.H., Smith, M.E. et al. Eighty years of maize breeding alters plant nitrogen acquisition but not rhizosphere bacterial community composition. Plant Soil 431, 5369 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-018-3744-0

soil greenhouse gas emissions from a sisal chronosequence in kenya - sciencedirect

soil greenhouse gas emissions from a sisal chronosequence in kenya - sciencedirect

Soil CO2 fluxes varied with stand age with older stands emitting more CO2 fluxes than the young stands.Soil moisture and vegetation status are important drivers of CO2 fluxes in the tropics.Contribution of soil N2O and CH4 to GHG emissions at site scale are negligible.Sisal plantations are a minor contributor of agricultural GHG emissions in Kenya.

Sisal (Agave sisalana) is a climate-resilient crop grown on large-scale farms in semi-arid areas. However, no studies have investigated soil greenhouse gas (GHGs: CO2, N2O and CH4) fluxes from these plantations and how they relate to other land cover types. We examined GHG fluxes (Fs) in a sisal chronosequence at Teita Sisal Estate in southern Kenya. The effects of stand age on Fs were examined using static GHG chambers and gas chromatography for a period of one year in seven stands: young stands aged 13 years, mature stands aged 78 years, and old stands aged 1314 years. Adjacent bushland served as a control site representing the surrounding land use type. Mean CO fluxes were highest in the oldest stand (56 3 mg C m-2 h-1) and lowest in the 8-year old stand (38 3 mg C m-2 h-1), which we attribute to difference in root respiration between the stand. All stands had 1328% higher CO fluxes than bushland (32 3 mg C m-2 h-1). CO2 fluxes in the wet season were about 70% higher than dry season across all sites. They were influenced by soil water content (WS) and vegetation phenology. Mean N2O fluxes were very low (<5 g N m-2 h-1) in all sites due to low soil nitrogen (N) content. About 89% of CH4 fluxes were below the detection limit (LOD 0.02 mg C m-2 h-1). Our results imply that sisal plantations have higher soil CO2 emissions than the surrounding land use type, and the seasonal emissions were largely driven by WS and the vegetation status. Methane and nitrous oxide are of minor importance. Thus, soil GHG fluxes from sisal plantations are a minor contributor to agricultural GHG emissions in Kenya.

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